• כרטיס רופא
  • אתרי הר"י
  • צרו קשר
  • פעולות מהירות
  • עברית (HE)
  • מה תרצו למצוא?

        תוצאת חיפוש

        יולי 2002
        מנחם בן-חיים

        מנחם בן-חיים

         

        הפער בין מספר הילדים הנזקקים להשתלת כבד לבין היצע שתלי כבד בגודל מתאים גדל והולך, וגורם להארכת זמן ההמתנה, ובעקבות זאת לעלייה בשיעורי התחלואה והתמותה בזמן ההמתנה. בעשור האחרון פותחו שיטות להשתלת שתלים חלקיים (segmental), שמקורם בהקטנת כבד מלא (reduced size), בפיצול כבד מלא בין שני מקבלים, בדרך-כלל מבוגר וילד (split liver transplantation) או בחלקי כבד שמקורם בתורם חי (living donor liver transplantation). אולם יישום שיטות אלו עדיין מוגבל ומתבצע במספר מרכזים רפואיים מובילים בעולם. מובאות במאמר זה תוצאות המרכז הרפואי "הר-סיני" בהשתלות מסוג זה.

        מתוך 195 השתלות כבד בילדים (גיל<18), 48 (25%) היו מתורם חי, וב-47 (24%) מהם הושתל חלק שמקורו בהקטנה (27=n) או בפיצול (20=n) של כבד מתורם מת (מוות מוחי). בוצעה השוואה רטרוספקטיבית בין שתי קבוצות אלו מבחינת מאפייני המושתלים, שיעורי הסיבוכים מהניתוח, והישרדות השתל והחולה. להשתלות מפיצול נבחרו כבדים מתורמים מיטביים, והפיצול או ההקטנה בוצעו בדרך-כלל לאחר ניתוח תקציר (ex-vivo), תוך שימור הווריד החלול התחתון עם אונת הכבד הימנית והגבעול הוואסקולרי (vascular pedicle) עם החלק הימני. ההשתלה בוצעה תוך השקת וריד הכבד לגדם וריד הכבד התואם (piggy-back). במרבית ההשתלות מתורם חי בוצעה השקת עורק הכבד השמאלי בסיוע מיקרוסקופ. במרבית ההשתלות בוצע חיבור צינור (או צינורות) המרה ללולאת מעי (hepatico-jejunostomy).

        הגיל והמשקל הממוצעים בקרב המושתלים מתורם חי היו 1.8+-3 שנים ו- 8.1+-9 ק"ג לעומת 3.5+-4 שנים ו- 15.2+-14.5 ק"ג בקבוצה המקבילה. התפלגות האטיולוגיות לאי-ספיקת כבד בחולים במצב סופני היתה דומה, וכך גם חומרת מחלת הכבד לפני ההשתלה. יותר כבדים (6 לעומת 1) שמקורם מתורם מת נוצלו להשתלה נשנית דחופה. זמן האיסכמיה החמה היה דומה (43 דקות לעומת 45 דקות), וזמן האיסכמיה הקרה היה ארוך משמעותית בהשתלות מתורם מת (340 דקות לעומת 60 דקות). שיעור הסיבוכים הוואסקולריים ובמרה היה דומה בשתי הקבוצות. שיעור תיפקוד מוקדם ירוד של השתל (poor early graft function ) היה גבוה משמעותית לאחר השתלות מתורם מת (18% לעומת 2%, בהתאמה, p<0.005). הישרדות השתלים והמושתלים היתה טובה יותר בין מקבלי שתל מתורם חי: הישרדות שתל בשיור של 89% לאחר שנה ו-77% לאחר 5 שנים לעומת 59% ו-52%, בהתאמה. שיעור הישרדות החולים היה 91% כעבור שנה ו-89% שנה לאחר 5 שנים לעומת 70% ו-62%, בהתאמה, p<0.001.

        לסיכום, למרות הדמיון במורכבות הניתוח, השתלות כבד מתורם חי המבוצעות בילדים מניבות תוצאות טובות יותר על-פני אלה המושגות בהשתלת חלקי כבד דומים שמקורם בתורם מת.

        ספטמבר 2001
        יוני וינר, אורנה דלי גוטפריד, אנטוני לודר ופנחס השקס

        יוני וינר (1), אורנה דלי גוטפריד (1,2), אנטוני לודר (1,2), פנחס השקס (1,3)

         

        המח' לרפואת ילדים, בית-החולים זיו, צפת (1), שירות לריטולוגיית ילדים, בית-החולים פוריה(2), והפקולטה לרפואה, הטכניון, חיפה

         

        בהמשך למאמרנו, שבו נדונה סוגיית הטיפול בפאראצטמול בילדים, ובו דנו ביתרונות ובחסרונות שטומן בחובו טיפול זה, ברצוננו להצביע בסקירתנו זו על חלופה אפשרית שבימים אלה נכנסה כטיפול בילדים. מדובר באיבופרופן שהיא בבחינת תרופה ותיקה, שבימים אלה נמכרת בישראל בצורת תרחיף המיועד לטיפול בילדים. זמין לכל, ללא צורך במירשם רופא. משנת 1989 הצטבר ניסיון קליני רב בטיפול באיבופרופן. בשנים האחרונות החלו להתפרסם דיווחים על טיפול מוצלח באיבופרופן בהורדת חום בילדים, והתוצאות בולטות, בעיקר נוכח מיעוט השפעות-לוואי.

        יולי 2001
        מ' נוסינוביץ', ג' קמפינו, ר' שפירא, ב' וולוביץ וי' אמיר

        Liver Failure with Coagulopathy in an Infant with Tyrosinemia

         

        Moshe Nussinovitch, Gadi Campino, Rivka Shapira, Benjamin Voluvitz, Jacob Amir

         

        Department of Pediatrics, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

         

        Tyrosinemia is an inherited autsomal recessive condition. We present a 5 week-old boy with this disorder. He was admitted because of a fever, vomiting and lethargy. The laboratory tests confirmed a coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and a decreased serum fibrinogen. The a-fetoprotein level was markedly elevated. To confirm the diagnosis of tyrosinemia, quantitative urinary succinylacetone was measured. Although overt liver failure with coagulopathy may be part of the representation of tyrosinemia, a significant coagulopathy in the absence of overt signs of liver disease has not been emphasized as a clue to the diagnosis of this condition.

        נובמבר 2000
        צבי ויצמן, אחמד אלשיך, לורה הרצוג, אשר טל ורפאל גורודישר

        Advantages of Standardized Protocol for Oral Rehydration in Acute Pediatric Gastroenteritis

         

        Avi Weizman, Ahmed Alsheikh, Laura Herzog, Asher Tal, Rafael Gorodischer

         

        Pediatric Depts. A and B, Soroka Medical Center; and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

         

        Oral rehydration (OR) for acute gastroenteritis in infants and children has been shown to be as effective as IV therapy, with less discomfort and lower costs. In this retrospective study we compared 2 pediatric wards, in 1 of which only a standardized, simplified, bedside protocol, based on American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, was used.

        There were no significant clinical characteristics in the 208 patients. In the ward which used the above protocol, OR utilization was significantly more frequent than in the other ward (48% versus 15%), thus saving equipment costs of nearly $1,000/3 months. There were no significant differences in outcome between the wards.

        We conclude that introducing a standardized management protocol may increase OR utilization in hospitalized children with acute diarrhea.
         

        דצמבר 1999
        ברוך קלין, אידה בולדור, יהודית זנדבנק, צבי שפירר ויצחק וינוגרד

        Atypical Mycobacterial Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children

         

        B. Klin, I. Boldur, J. Sandbank, Z. Schpirer, I. Vinograd

         

        Depts. of Pediatric Surgery, Microbiology and Pathology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Scrofula (mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis) has been well-known for thousands of years. Atypical mycobacteria were first categorized by Timpe and Runyon in 1954. Treatment has varied over the centuries, from exclusion therapy in ancient Greece, through digitalis, iodide, chemotherapy, and surgical excision. The varied differential diagnosis and consequent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges make reassessment of this almost forgotten disease necessary.

        21 patients with typical mycobacterial cervical lymphaden„itis seen in over the past 5 years were reviewed. Age distribution ranged from 1-14 years, with peak incidence at 4 years; 9 were boys and 12 girls. Most presented with nontender, palpable neck masses and minimal constitutional complaints. Adenopathy was unilateral in all cases but 2. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and M. fortuitum were the main causative organisms. All underwent excision of the affected nodes. Long-term follow-up has been uneventful, except for 1 case of local recurrence requiring re-excision.

         

        This study emphasizes the marked variability in the clinical presentation of scrofula in children, stressing the importance of the differential diagnosis between tuberculous and atypical mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis. The treatment of choice for the latter is complete excision of the affected nodes. Other treatment is followed by recurrence and unnecessary complications and should be avoided.

        מתיתיהו ליפשיץ, ולדימיר גברילוב ורפאל גורודישר

        Use of Unlicensed and Off-Label Drugs in Hospitalized Children

         

        M. Lifshitz, V. Gavrilov, R. Gorodischer

         

        Toxicology Unit, Pediatrics Dept. A, Soroka Medical Center, and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

         

        Many drugs used in children are based on pharmacological data obtained in adults. Therefore, many drugs are either unlicensed for use in children or are prescribed outside the terms of the product license (off-label). This pilot study assessed use of unlicensed or off-label drugs in hospitalized children.

        Drug orders of patients admitted to a general pediatric ward were reviewed retrospectively in a random sample. Assessment was based on the data of the Physicians' Desk Reference and the Israel Drug Compendium. 80 different drugs and 278 drug orders were written for 92 patients (0.5 months - 11 years old, mean 26.9 months) in 97 admissions. Of these 52.9% were either off-label or unlicensed. Patients received 1 or more unlicensed or off-label drugs in 64.9% of admissions. They were more often off-label than unlicensed. The main reasons for use of off-label drugs were unusual doses and inappropriate age. The main reason for unlicensed drugs was modification of a particular formulation of a licensed drug.

        This pilot study indicates that use of drugs in an off-label or unlicensed manner in children is probably quite frequent in Israel. Our data emphasize the need for licensing a large number of drugs for use in children, based on the same scientific principles as in adults. Further collaborative studies in different pediatric centers in Israel, involving different types of pediatric settings (ambulatory and in-hospital), is required to evaluate comprehensively the magnitude of this preliminary finding.

        יגאל אפרתי, שלמה צרפתי, סנדרה קרומהולץ, גדעון אשל, מרק ויינברג ויצחק וינוגרד

        Laser Treatment of Airway Obstruction in Infants and Children

         

        Y. Efrati, S.M. Sarfaty, S. Kromholz, G. Eshel, M. Weinberg, I. Vinograd

         

        Depts. of Pediatric Surgery, Otolaryngology, Anesthesia and Pediatric Intensive Care, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin (Affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University)

         

        Airway obstruction during infancy and childhood requiring surgical ablation is rare, and surgical intervention poses a significant challenge. During recent decades, appropriate endoscopic instrumentation, together with advanced laser beam technology have provided new operative modalities for such patients.

        From 1993 to 1995 we treated 40 infants and children, 26 males and 14 females, 13 days to 11 years old (mean 3.3 years) with Nd-YAG or CO² laser. Obstructing lesions included granulation tissue or polyps (16 cases), septa or webs (27), or benign tumors (4). 7 had more than a single lesion.

        All were treated endoscopically under general anesthesia without any operative or postoperative deaths. Surgical intervention removed the obstruction and related symptoms in 34. In 6, laser treatment failed, necessitating additional surgical procedures. 3 had circumferential subglottic web. Operative complications included bleeding during removal of a hemangioma in 1 and recrudescence in another. Postoperative complications were transient respiratory failure and pneumonia in 6, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment.

        This series proves that laser technology is feasible in the treatment of airway obstruction during infancy and childhood, and is safe and effective.

        נובמבר 1999
        בן-עמי סלע, תמר משוש, דב פוגל ויוסף זלוטניק

        Alpha-Amino Adipic Aciduria: a Rare Psycho-Motor Syndrome

         

        Ben-Ami Sela, Tamar Massos, Dov Fogel, Joseph Zlotnik

         

        Pathological Chemistry and Child Development Institutes, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        A 3.5-year-old boy with developmental motor retardation, hypotonicity, and severe speech disturbance had alpha-amino adipic acid in his blood and very high levels in his urine. In only 20 cases has this catabolite of lysine and hydroxylysine been found in high concentrations in urine, due to enzymatic block.

        The clinical features associated with alpha-amino adipic aciduria may include mental retardation, developmental and motor delay, learning difficulties, convulsions, speech problems and ataxia. 3 siblings had milder symptoms of psychomotor delay and intermediate degrees of alpha amino-adipic aciduria, suggesting that the described developmental deficits could be related to this metabolite or its derivatives.

        חיים ביבי, אלנה שויחט, דוידי שוסיוב, מיכאל ארמוני, אמיל חי ודורית אטר

        Evaluation of Asthmatic Children Presenting at Emergency Rooms

         

        Haim Bibi, Elena Shoychet, David Shoseyov, Michael Armoni, Emil Chai, Dorit Ater

         

        Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic and Pediatric Dept., Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon; Pediatric Pulmonary Clinic, Bikur Cholim Hospital, Jerusalem; Emergency Room, Barzilai Medical Center, Ashkelon; and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

         

        Bronchial asthma in the pediatric age group has become prevalent recently. Many children who suffer from asthma arrive at the emergency room (ER) with exacerbations which did not respond to medical treatment at home.

         

        Between July and December 1997, 136 children 8 months to 14 years of age (61% below 3 years), were studied in our pediatric ER. Investigation included physical examination and pulse oximetry, which were used as guidelines for scoring the children on arrival and post-treatment. Spirometry was done in those who could cooperate. For each patient a detailed questionnaire about medical and sociodemographic factors was filled.

         

        Primary pediatricians used mainly beta-agonist and corticosteroid inhalators, while pediatric pulmonologists used mainly inhaled steroids. There was no relationship between severity of attack on arrival at the ER, mode of treatment and speed of recovery in the ER. More children treated by a general pediatrician more were admitted to hospital. Low parental education and paternal smoking were risk factors for recurrent hospital admissions.

         

        Our results indicate that parents must be educated to stop smoking, especially those with asthmatic children, and primary pediatricians should be updated with regard to proper treatment and follow-up of asthma.

        אוקטובר 1999
        מרק ויינברג, ברוך קלין ויצחק וינוגרד

        One-Stage Surgery for Hirschsprung's Disease in Children

         

        Mark Weinberg, Baruch Klin, Itzhak Vinograd

         

        Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin, and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Traditionally Hirschsprung's disease has been treated by 2-or 3-stage procedures. During the past 6 years a 1-stage Duhamel procedure without stoma has become our treatment of choice for Hirschsprung's disease in neonates and young infants. Over a 6-year period, 15 infants and children with colonic Hirschsprung's disease were treated with the 1-stage Duhamel retro-rectal pull-through procedure without a stoma, with the Lester-Martin modification. All patients had the usual short segment aganglionosis, but 1 had a long segment which included the splenic flexure.

        Early complications included wound infection in 1 and minor rectal bleeding in 3. Late complications included constipation in 1 and enterocolitis in 4. Long-term functional results were very good in all those operated except for 1 with rectal achalasia.

         

        We conclude that Hirschsprung's disease can be successfully treated with a 1-stage pull-through operation, the child usually benefitting from the shorter hospital stay and the avoidance of a colostomy.

        ספטמבר 1999
        רפאלי, דוד סימנסקי, מיכאל פלאי ואלון ילין

        Plication of Diaphragm for Postoperative, Phrenic Nerve Injury in Infants and Young Children

         

        Yael Refaely, David A. Simansky, Michael Paley, Alon Yellin

         

        Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Paralysis of the diaphragm may cause life-threatening respiratory distress in infants and young children because of paradoxical motion of the affected diaphragm and contralateral shift of the mediastinum during expiration. Phrenic nerve injury (PNI) may follow chest operations.

        10 children with diaphragmatic paralysis and severe respiratory distress underwent plication of the diaphragm. Ages ranged from 14 days to 5 years. 9 had PNI after operations for congenital heart disease and 1 after resection of an intraspinal cervical lipoma. The right side was affected in 7, the left in 3.

        Indication for surgery was inability to wean from mechanical ventilation, which had ranged from 11 to 152 days (median 35). 8 underwent plication via a thoracic approach and 2 via an abdominal approach. There were no complications directly related to the operation.

        The interval from plication to weaning from mechanical ventilation ranged from 2 to 140 days (median 4). 1 patient died 2 hours after plication due to severe heart failure and 2 after prolonged hospitalization due to sepsis and multi-organ failure. 6 were extubated 2-8 days (median 4) after plication and 1 only after 40 days.

        Early diaphragmatic plication is simple and avoids more serious surgery. While effective in ventilator-dependent infants and young children, it should not be used in those with multi-organ failure. Early plication may prevent the complications of prolonged mechanical ventilation.

        אריה אלדד

        Burns in Children in Israel: Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment

         

        Arieh Eldad

         

        Medical Corps, Israel Defense Forces and Burns Unit, Hadassah University Hospital, Ein Kerem, Jerusalem

         

        45% of all hospitalized burn casualties in Israel are children younger than 16 years old. In various hospitals they make up 30-60% of all burn casualties, depending on the proportion of children in the area of hospital intake, social and economic factors and the type of hospital. Length of hospitalization of children is shorter than that of the general population (7.3 vs 9.0 days). Scalding is the main cause of thermal injuries among babies and infants (70%), while fire burns are the most common causes among adolescents (56.5%); 90% of babies are injured at home; only 40% of adolescents are burned in home accidents.

        In Israel, burned children are treated in 25 different hospitals and in departments of pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, general surgery, pediatrics or burn departments. There is no pediatric burn unit in Israel.

        אוגוסט 1999
        דב הלדנברג

        Severe Transient Neutropenia due to Parvovirus B19

         

        D. Heldenberg

         

        Dept. of Pediatrics, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera

         

        A 10-year-old girl was admitted with a 3-day history of fever, cough, abdominal pain and vomiting. Severe neutropenia (total neutrophil count 186/mm³), a mild increase in ALT and AST, and a positive titer of IgM antibodies against parvovirus B19 were found. The neutropenia resolved and liver enzymes became normal as she recovered. We conclude that parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the evaluation of an acute illness accompanied by severe neutropenia.

        אמיר לבנה ואלי להט

        Familial Hemiplegic Migraine of Childhood

         

        A. Livne, E. Lahat

         

        Pediatric Division and Pediatric Neurology Unit, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University

         

        Familial hemiplegic migraine is a rare autosomal, dominant, migraine subtype. It is characterized by acute episodes of hemiplegia and hemisensory deficits, and other neurological abnormalities occurring either before or together with severe headache, nausea and vomiting; episodes last several hours and then spontaneously subside. Intervals between episodes are relatively prolonged. Unless there is a relevant family history suggesting this syndrome, the diagnosis is usually delayed. Recently the gene for the syndrome was identified on chromosome 19. We report 3 boys and 1 girl, 11-15 years old with hemiplegic migraine.

        יולי 1999
        רוברט פינאלי, זהבי כהן, ודים קפולר, אגנטה גולן, עדנה קורצברט ואברהם מרש

        Limited Percutaneous Surgical Drainage in Severe Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Low Birth Weight Prematures

         

        Robert Finaly, Zahavi Cohen, Vadim Kapuller, Agneta Golan, Edna Kurtzbart, Abraham Mares

         

        Depts. of Pediatric Surgery and Neonatology, Soroka Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba

         

        The usual treatment of complicated neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is resection of the necrotic bowel, lavage of the peritoneal cavity and diversion enterostomy. Low-birth-weight premature neonates with this condition are in special danger if general anesthesia and full exploratory surgery is contemplated.

         

        A relatively simple alternate procedure is percutaneous insertion under local anesthesia of a soft abdominal drain, most often in the right lower quadrant. The procedure is done in the neonatal intensive care unit without moving the whole set-up to the operating room.

         

        4 such cases have been treated within the past year. 3 were discharged home as they did not require additional surgical treatment, not having developed intestinal stenosis or obstruction. 1 recovered from the acute episode, but succumbed to a severe intraventricular hemorrhage and respiratory failure 7 days after the procedure.

         

        Our limited but most gratifying experience, in addition to similar experience of others, encourages us to recommend this simple surgical approach in the very sick low-birth-weight premature with fulminant NEC.

        הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
        כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303