Following 90 Patients with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Manifestations of the Disease, Follow-Up of Antibodies Titers and Correlations with Clinical Manifestations in the Israeli Population - Patients in the Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer
Ibrahim Marai, Yair Levi, Gezal Godard, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Department of Medicine B and Research Unit of Autoimmune Diseases, Chaim Sheba Medical Center (affiliated to Tel-Aviv University), Israel.
The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) with venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss or thrombocytopenia. The syndrome can be either primary or secondary to an underlying condition, most commonly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
The purpose of the study was to review the manifestations of the APS in Israeli patients and to investigate the difference between patients with primary or secondary syndrome. Analysis of the correlation between the manifestations of the disease and the antibody titers [LA (lupus anticoagulant), IgG aCL (anticardiolipin), IgM aCL] was also performed.
In the study there were 90 patients with APS in the Sheba Medical Center. The clinical findings for all patients were recorded according to established protocol.
Results: Arterial thrombotic events were present in 51.1% of the patients; cereberal ischemic attacks were the most frequent arterial events. Venous thrombotic events were present in 45.6% patients; deep venous thrombosis was the most frequent venous event. Obstetric complications were found in 37.3% of patients; the most frequent complication was abortions. The clinical findings of patients with primary or secondary syndrome were similar. Patients with APS associated with lupus had a high prevalence of hemolytic anemia (28.6% v 3.3%; P=0.001), and ANA (antinuclear antibody) (75% v 12.9%; P=0.0001). There was no correlation between the antibody titers (LA, IgG aCL, IgM aCL) and clinical manifestations. The patients received anticoagulant treatment and antiaggregant drugs to prevent recurrence of symptoms. Clinical manifestations in Israeli patients did not differ from those in non-Israeli patients.
Conclusions: Venous or arterial thrombosis and obstetric complications are the most frequent clinical findings in APS. There was no different in clinical manifestations between primary and secondary syndrome. The findings of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and ANA were more frequent in patients with secondary APS. There was no correlation between antiphospholipid antibody titers and manifestations of disease. Overall, the patients require therapy with anticoagulant treatment and antiaggregant drugs. The clinical manifestations were similar in Israeli and non-Israeli patients.