In Vitro Interferon-Gamma Release in Diagnosis of Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions
S. Halevy, A. D. Cohen, N. Grossman
Dermatology Dept, Skin Bank and Investigative Dermatology Laboratory, Soroka University Medical Center and Faculty of Health Sciences; Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba
Diagnosis of cutaneous adverse drug reactions is an accepted terminology. Is a challenge. Drug-specific T-cell clones (CD4+ or CD8+), with a Th1- or a Th2-type cytokine-release pattern, may be generated from the peripheral blood in CADRs. In vitro drug-induced cytokine-release suggests a drug-specific immune response, and may implicate the drug as a possible inducer of the skin reaction.
We evaluated the diagnostic role of in vitro drug-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release from peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with CADRs. We studied 22 patients with CADRs following intake of 45 drugs (1-4 drugs per patient). Drugs were classified into 3 categories of suspicion. 17 patients who took 39 drugs of the same type (1-4 drugs per patient) without developing adverse reactions, served as controls. In vitro drug-induced release of IFN-γ from peripheral blood lymphocytes, following in vitro challenge with the unmodified drugs, was evaluated.
The mean IFN-γ increase following 45 drug tests (60.8±85.2%) was higher (p<0.05) than in controls after 39 drug tests (30.1±27.7%). Significance was greater (p<0.005) when the mean IFN-γ increase for the 24 highly suspected drugs (75.1±93.4%) and that for the controls were compared.
This study suggests that the in vitro drug-induced IFN-γ release test may serve as a diagnostic tool in CADRs.