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        מרס 2000

        1 במרס

        ראובן צימליכמן

        Cilazapril for Essential Hypertension Treated in the Community 

        Reuven Zimlichman


        Dept. of Medicine and Hypertension Institute, Wolfson Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


        In a multicenter study in community clinics, 413 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were treated with cilazapril (Vasocase), 2.5 mg daily. Patients had either been untreated or had developed side-effects from previous antihypertensive treatment. When response was inadequate the dose was either increased to 5 mg or another antihypertensive medication was added, or both.

        Treatment significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Pulse rate decreased significantly from the second month of treatment onwards. At the end of the 3rd month of treatment blood pressure was normalized or had decreased by more than 10 mmHg in 91.9% of patients. Physicians' evaluations revealed improvement in 62%; patients' self-evaluations suggested improvement in 61%. Efficacy was equal in all age groups and in both obese and nonobese patients. Antihypertensive response was superior in those with normal renal function. Side-effects were rare and similar to those reported in the literature.

        ששון נקר, שלמה וינקר, טל ברו-אלוני ואלי קיטאי

        Family Physicians' Attitudes to Clinical Guidelines for Treatment of Diabetes 

        Sasson Nakar, Shlomo Vinker, Tal Baro-Aloni, Eliezer Kitai


        Dept. of Family Medicine, Rabin Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


        Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to help practitioners and patients make decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical states. Attitudes of family physicians to clinical guidelines for treating diabetes and guidelines in general were evaluated from anonymous questionnaires answered by physicians participating in continuous medical education throughout the country (May-June 1998). The questionnaire dealt with attitudes to the recently published specific guidelines for treating the diabetic patient and overall perception of the efficacy of clinical guidelines.

        293 family physicians, aged 40.2‏7.0 responded (83%). 93.5% appreciated the guidelines and thought them applicable. Most (83.7%) reported the guidelines to be of help in their daily work; 31.4% said they were oversimplified; a quarter said they aimed main at containing costs. Most respondents preferred written guidelines of up to 5 pages.

        In view of our results, attention can now be turned to developing ways to implement the guidelines. To improve adherence, they need to be short and the rate of publication of new clinical guidelines should be slowed.

        זאב פידלמן וזאב קורשון

        Unconventional Treatment of Severe Heart Failure in the Elderly


        Z. Fidelman, Z. Korshun


        Geriatric Medical Center, Natanya


        In the elderly, congestive heart failure is common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

        Comprehensive management of heart failure improves functional status and decreases mortality. Diuretics remain the mainstay in treating congestive heart failure. However, some patients are resistant to diuretics. This is a serious problem as it seems to represent a final manifestation of congestive heart failure.

        In an 85-year-old woman diuretic resistance was recognized as the cause of failure of conventional diuretic therapy. When the dose of furosemide was rapidly increased from 120 mg per os to 1000 mg IV within 4 days, diuresis began and there was dramatic improvement in her condition. The dose was then gradually decreased until a conventional maintenance dose of 200 mg/day per os was reached. This dose was sufficient to keep her heart failure under control.

        מיכאל מיכיילביץ, אהוד לבל ומנחם יצחקי

        SYME Amputation for Foot Infections in Diabetics 

        Michael Michailevich, Ehud Lebel, Menachem Itzchaki


        Dept. of Orthopedics, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem


        Syme ankle disarticulation for foot infections in diabetics with concomitant peripheral vascular disease is often unsuccessful. The need for re-amputation usually results from recurrent infection or ischemia of the posterior heel flap. We present 5 such cases of deep foot infections in diabetics who underwent Syme amputation after failure of local debridement. All patients needed reamputation in 4-18 days for ischemia of the flap.

        א' רקייר, י' אורלובסקי ומ' פיינסוד

        Favorable Outcome of Hyperacute Epidural Hematoma in an Octogenarian


        A. Rakier, I. Orlovsky, M. Feinsod


        Center for Applied Research in Head Injuries, Neurosurgery Dept. Rambam Medical Center, and B. Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa


        Acute epidural hematoma is very rare in the elderly after head injury. It is usually associated with extremely high mortality or severe disability. In an 87-year-old woman a large, hyperacute, epidural hematoma was diagnosed. She was treated promptly and enjoyed an uneventful, complete recovery. This exceptional case should encourage an intensive approach even in seemingly minor head trauma in the elderly.

        פז יצחקי

        Tubulo-Interstitial Nephritis and Uveitis - TINU Syndrome


        Paz Yitzhaki


        Dept. of Medicine A, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa


        Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU syndrome) in a 53-year-old woman is reported. This rare syndrome was described 27 years ago by Dobrin et al. Since then about 50 cases have been described. The syndrome can appear at any age but most patients are under 20 years; about 75% are females. Clinical characteristics include fatigue, general malaise, weight loss, fever, night sweats, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, pallor, nocturia, polyuria, arthralgia and skin rash. Ocular involvement usually includes anterior uveitis but is sometimes posterior; in most cases the uveitis is bilateral.

        The characteristic laboratory findings are anemia, rapid sedimentation rate, decreased glomerular filtration rate with increased serum creatinine and urea. Total protein is increased because of polyclonal gammopathy and elevated b2-microglobulin. Urinalysis characteristically reveals proteinuria and b2-microglobulinuria. The histopathologic features on renal biopsy are characteristic of tubulo-interstitial nephritis. Uveitis can precede, accompany or follow onset of the nephropathy.

        The pathogenesis and etiology of the syndrome are as yet unknown. Treatment consists of large doses of corticosteroids, but the necessity for treatment is unclear, since there is evidence of spontaneous improvement. Although the prognosis of the nephropathy is favorable and most cases are reversible, the uveitis tends to recur.

        אפרת ברון-הרלב, בנימין זאבי ובן-ציון גרטי

        Pulmonary Involvement in Osler- Weber-Rendu Syndrome 

        Efrat Bron-Harlev, Benjamin Zeevi, Ben-Zion Garty


        Dept. of Medicine B and Cardiac Catheterization Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petah Tikva


        Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Ren-du syndrome) is a group of autosomal dominant diseases with variable penetration, characterized by vascular malformations. Recently hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia has been found to be a phenotypic expression of mutations in genes located on chromosomes 9 and 12, and possibly of other genes located on other chromosomes.

        We describe 2 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary involvement who presented with repeated complaints of dyspnea and cyanosis and were diagnosed as having long-standing asthma. Both were treated with therapeutic catheterization and embolization with good clinical outcomes.

        אמי נחמיה שופמן ואליעזר ויצטום

        Cannabis Has Dangerous Implications for Mental Health 

        Emi Shufman, Eliezer Witztum


        Jerusalem Institute for Treatment of Substance Abuse, Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem and Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


        Accepting and forgiving attitudes to the use of cannabis in its various forms, such as marijuana or hashish, are not justified, as they may result in dangerous mental health consequences.

        A theoretical framework for this opinion is provided, including information on the various forms of cannabis available. Case studies presented exemplify possible complications resulting from use of cannabis or its derivatives.

        15 במרס

        דרור רובינסון, חנה אש, דויד אביעזר, גבריאל אגר, נחום הלפרין וצבי נבו

        Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation - from Science Fiction to Routine Clinical Practice


        Dror Robinson, Hana Ash, David Aviezer, Gabriel Agar, Nahum Halperin, Zvi Nevo


        Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry, Sackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv; Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zerifin; and CTI Ltd., Science Park, Kiriat Weizmann, Nes Ziona


        Adult articular cartilage lacks the capacity for self-repair. The limiting factor appears to be the inability of chondrocytes to proliferate while embedded in the extracellular matrix typical of hyaline cartilage. Cartilage defects larger than 1 cm2 change articular biomechanics and lead to eventual osteoarth-ritis and joint destruction.

        During the past decade, several competing techniques have evolved to stimulate articular cartilage repair. Small lesions can be successfully treated by either micro-fracture or osteochondral cylinder grafting. The latter technique allows immediate weight bearing but leads to damage of previously uninvolved areas of articular cartilage, which limits its application to lesions of less than 2 cm2.

        When the damaged area is more extensive, grafting of autologous chondrocytes should be considered. First a diagnostic arthroscopy is performed to assess the damaged area and a small cartilage biopsy is taken. 6 weeks later, arthrotomy and chondrocyte transplantation are performed. In the interval, the antologous chondrocytes have expanded by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. Our experience to date includes 10 cases with follow-up of 6 months to 5 years. Preoperative complaints of crepitation and locking disappear. There is functional improvement and pain reduction of approximately 50%. This procedure, currently limited to patients under 55 years of age with limited damage to an articular surface, for the first time allows reconstruction of damaged articular areas without resorting to allografts.

        אלכס ירמולובסקי, אלן כץ, אייל פניג, גרשון פינק, דניאל בן דיין, אהרון סולקס ומרדכי ר' קרמר

        High Dose Endobronchial Brachy - Therapy for Malignant Airway Obstruction


        Alex Yarmolovsky, Alan Katz, Eyal Fenig, G. Fink, Daniel Bendayan, Aaron Sulkes, Mordechai R. Kramer


        Institutes of Pulmonology and Oncology, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


        Brachytherapy is especially suitable for palliative treatment of endobronchial tumors adjacent to internal organs that might be damaged by intensive external beam radiation, but are easily accessed with a flexible bronchoscope. This treatment is mostly palliative.

        30 patients underwent such palliative high-dose endobronchial brachytherapy to alleviate malignant airway obstruction. With the aid of a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope an endobronchial catheter was inserted adjacent to the tumor and treatment delivered using a 192Ir remote afterloader for 5-10 min, in 2 or 3 sessions.

        There was symptomatic improvement in 26 (86%) and objective improvement in 27 (90%). 1 patient died of hemoptysis.

        ענת לבר-סגל, מיגאל יוכטמן ופלטיאל וינר

        Carbon Dioxide Gas Embolism during Laparascopic Cholecystectomy


        Anat Laver-Segal, Miguel Iuchtman, Paltiel Weiner


        Depts. of Anesthesiology, Surgery A and Medicine A, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera and Rappaport Medical School, The Technion, Haifa


        A case of carbon dioxide gas embolism during laparascopic cholecystetomy is presented. Prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment resulted in positive outcome. Laparascopic cholecystectomy is nowadays one of the most common operations for cholecystectomy and certainly the most frequent endoscopic surgical procedure. It is usually safe and effective. However, a number of serious complications have been reported during the procedure.

        Gas embolism is one of the complications that may occur during the initial gas insufflation or during dissection of the gall bladder. Symptoms are mainly related to the speed and the amount of gas that reaches the venous system. Early recognition and prompt treatment are required to prevent severe morbidity or even fatal outcome.

        Transesophageal echocardiography has detected many unsuspected cases of gas embolism. However, capnograph monitoring of end-tidal CO2, routinely used in everyday anesthesia, is highly reliable in alerting to the possibility of gas embolism and also in confirming its occurrence.

        In cases of suspected gas embolism close collaboration between anesthetist and surgeon is required.

        דניאלה זלמן, מאג'ד עודה ואריה אוליבן

        Physicians' Assessment of Computerized Prescribing


        Daniela Zalman, Majed Odeh, Arie Oliven


        Dept. of Internal Medicine B, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Haifa


        Prescription errors are a major source of preventable adverse drug events. Computerized prescribing (CP) which screens physicians' order for mistakes, drug-allergy, drug-disease, drug-laboratory and drug-drug interactions can prevent many of these errors and improve quality of care. However, computerized systems are often time-consuming, difficult to handle, and may create their own mistakes.

        Following the introduction of CP on an internal medicine ward, we administered a questionnaire to evaluate physicians' opinions about the new system. The survey assessed computer literacy, ease of using CP, effects on time management, opinion of users regarding error prevention, and usefulness of the information provided. Opinions were generally favorable; most users felt that CP makes their work more accurate, reduces errors, is easy to learn and to use, and provides important and useful information. Physicians were most critical of equipment failure and drugs and dosages not included in the CP program, a result of rapid development of the system.

        Errors resulting from the use of CP were considered minimal. Comparison of physicians, with and without previous experience with computer work, as well as local and foreign graduates, revealed minor differences. But once physicians learn to work with a well-organized CP system and computerized work stations, they appreciate the order, safety and knowledge they provide.

        פאני אנדלמן, מירי נויפלד, עירית א' רידר-גרוסוסר, אורי קרמר, יורם שגב ויצחק פריד

        Presurgical Neuropsychological assessment in Epilepsy: The Wada Test


        Fani Andelman, Miri Neufeld, Irith Reider-Groswasser, Uri Kremer, Yoram Segev, Itzhak Fried


        Functional Neurosurgery and EEG and Epilepsy Units, Section of Neuroradiology; and Pediatric Neurology Unit; Tel Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv


        37 candidates for epilepsy surgery underwent the intra-carotid amytal procedure (IAP; also known as the Wada test) to determine hemispheric speech dominance and memory capacity. 31 demonstrated left hemisphere speech dominance, 2 showed evidence for bilateral language and 4 demonstrated right hemispheric language dominance.

        Our study supports a correlational relationship between handedness, lesion laterality and age of onset of seizures, as reported in earlier studies. Left-handed patients with a left hemisphere lesion whose seizures began to an early age had a strong tendency for reversed language dominance.

        Asymmetry of at least 20% in performing the memory test was taken as the cutoff score for demonstrating laterality of lesions. The asymmetry score correctly predicted laterality of lesions in all 28 patients; 6 did not have asymmetry scores and 3 were examined for language only. None of the patients who successfully passed the Wada memory test had any significant postsurgical memory deficits; 1 had transient reduction in verbal memory and 4 who did not pass the test were not operated on for this reason.

        Our results demonstrate the importance of the Wada test in determining cerebral speech dominance, in predicting post-surgical amnesia, and support its usefulness in predicting laterality of seizure focus in candidates for temporal lobectomy.

        שלומית גזית-ניסים, אייל שיינר, משה מזור ואילנה שהם-ורדי

        Relationship Between Preterm Birth and Exertion During Pregnancy


        S. Gazit-Nissim, E. Sheiner, M. Mazor, I. Shoham-Vardi


        Depts. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Epidemiology and of Health Services Evaluation, Soroka-University Medical Center, and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba


        The relationship between physical activity at home and at work during pregnancy and preterm birth was studied. Using a case-control design, 99 women who delivered preterm were compared with 189 women who had term deliveries. The risk of preterm birth was tested in relation to characteristics of work in and outside the home. All women were interviewed post-partum before discharge.

        There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in relation to sociodemographic and obstetrical factors, but level of education was significantly lower in the study group versus the control group (p=0.001).

        Women who delivered preterm had devoted less time 3 months prior to delivery to household chores (mean of 3.7 hours vs. 4.8 hours in the control group, p=0.002). They also had spent less time walking around the home than the controls (1.2 vs. 1.5 hours, p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in relation to physical activity outside the home, not during working hours, nor in duration of work. Significantly fewer women who delivered preterm were active in sports (odds ratio 0.22; 95% confidence interval 0.50-0.65; p=0.002).

        A low level of education was significantly related to the risk of preterm birth, which may have resulted from lesser compliance with their physician's recommendations. It appears that in women not used to significant physical activity but who had access to adequate prenatal care, physical effort during pregnancy was not related to a higher risk of preterm birth.

        ליאור לבנשטיין ועאמר חוסיין

        Transient Ischemic ECG Changes in Acute Cholecystitis without History of Ischemic Heart Disease


        Lior Lowenstein, Amer Hussein


        Dept. of Emergency Medicine, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Bruce Rapport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa


        That abdominal distention, nausea, and chest pain may be accompanied by ischemic ECG changes is well known and has been described in the literature. However, very few cases have been reported with acute cholecystitis and ECG changes not due to cardiac ischemia.

        We present a previously healthy 20-year-old woman admitted with acute cholecystitis. Prior to surgery routine ECG showed ST-depression and T-wave inversion. The day following cholecystectomy the ECG returned to normal. 1 month later, ergometry and echocardiography were both negative.

        Based on the literature and our personal experience, although ECG changes may occur in acute cholecystitis, the possibility of cardiac ischemia must be excluded. However, when no cardiac basis is found, ultrasound of the biliary system might reveal the cause of these ECG changes. Thus, in acute cholecystitis with ischemic ECG changes but no other laboratory or clinical evidence of cardiac ischemia, ECG changes alone are not a contraindication to cholecystectomy. Furthermore, delay in treatment could be harmful.

        ר' דבי, ד' רובינסון, ג' אגר ונ' הלפרין

        Glucosamine Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfates for Degenerative Joint Disease 

        R. Debi, D. Robinson, G. Agar, N. Halperin


        Orthopedic Dept., Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, Zrifin


        Osteoarthritis results from progressive catabolic loss of cartilage proteoglycans due to imbalance between synthesis and degradation. The availability of glucosamine, an intermediate in mucopolysaccharide synthesis, can be rate-limiting for proteoglycan production in cartilage tissue culture.

        57 patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized into a group treated for 4 weeks with daily IV glucosamine sulfate (GS) together with 800 mg chondroitin sulfate, and a placebo group. Knee pain at rest, on movement and on palpation, as well as range of knee motion were then recorded.

        In the GS group, there was significant reduction of clinical symptoms (p<0.01), but no significant reduction in the placebo group. Physicians' assessment of tenderness and range of motion were significantly in favor of the GS group (p<0.01). In those treated with glycosamine there were no adverse reactions and no changes in laboratory blood tests.

        הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
        כתובתנו: ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303