Oncogenetic Counseling and Genetic Testing of Those at High Risk for Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Livia Theodor, Ronit Shiri-Sverdlov, Galit Hirsch Yechezkel, Revital Bruchim Bar-Sade, Eva Gak, Irit Friedman, Anna Kruglikova, Gilad Ben-Baruch, Shulamit Risel, Moshe Z. Papa, Boleslav Goldman, Eitan Friedman
Oncogenetics Unit, Dept. of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Genetics, and Gynecology, Oncology, and Surgical Depts., Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer
There is inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer in 5-10% of all women with these diseases. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 presumably account for most of the genetically susceptible individuals. We summarize 2 years of experience in counseling and testing for inherited predisposition to these cancers.
597 women (from 320 families) have been evaluated since August 1995. 242 were evaluated for inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. One-third had clear-cut evidence of familial background. 74 families were of Ashkenazi origin; the age range of breast cancer was 30-35, of ovarian cancer 40-45. In 80% of families other cancers were also noted in first degree family members, including lung, colon, and prostate cancer and leukemia.
Genetic testing revealed that 45% of affected and 25% of unaffected women were carriers of a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2: 67/90 185delAG (BRCA1), 12/90 6174delT (BRCA2), and 4/90 of 5382insC (BRCA1). In addition, a novel mutation in exon 11 of BRCA1 was detected, carried by 7/90 women. The experience gained in oncogenetic counseling and genetic testing for inherited cancer predisposition will eventually enable determining an optimal, rational therapeutic regimen in carriers of mutations.