Gentamycin Distribution Volume in a Mechanically Ventilated Patient
H. Seligmann, S. Nicola, S.H. Krimerman
Clinical Pharmacology and Intensive Care Units, Bnai-Zion Medical Center and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa
Mechanical ventilation (MV) of more than 32 hours may alter the gentamycin pharmacokinetic profile by increasing its volume of distribution (VD). As a result, the standard garamycin dosage regime has to be adjusted in order to obtain an adequate peak serum concentration, which is well correlated with the efficacy of garamycin therapy. Garamycin is a water- soluble drug with negligible binding to plasma albumin, so its VD approximates the volume of extra-cellular fluid, which may be expanded by MV. MV-related fluid retention is mediated via various homeostatic compensatory systems. They are activated to combat the decrease in cardiac output and central blood volume caused by MV, due to the increase in airway and intrathoracic pressure. These phenomena are more prominent during prolonged ventilation, PEEP or C-PAP ventilation, and in previously hypovolemic patients. Patients requiring MV for more than 32 hours had an average garamycin VD of 0.36 L/Kg compared with the mean VD of 0.25 L/Kg in normal adults. In the patient presented, a similar change in garamycin VD was seen, while conventional doses given during MV failed to reach suitable clinical peak levels.