Selective Embolization of Hepatic Arteries in the Management of Severe Liver Trauma
Avraham Yitzhak1, Gadi Shaked2, Liliana Lupu3, Soli Mizrahi, Yoram Kluger4
1Department of Surgery A, 2Trauma Service, 3Interventional Radiology, Soroka Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, and Trauma Service4, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Two cases of severe hepatic injury in which selective hepatic artery embolization was used to control hemorrhage are presented. The first case is that of a 35 year old patient who sustained a severe liver injury after a car accident. A CAT scan of the abdomen revealed an AAST grade 5 liver injury, pooling of contrast material within the liver parenchyma, and blood within the peritoneal cavity. The patient was given fluid resuscitation and taken to angiography where bleeding from branches of the right hepatic artery was demonstrated. While angiography was being undertaken the hemodynamic status of the patient deteriorated, blood transfusion was started, and a selective embolization of the right hepatic artery was performed. The bleeding stopped promptly and hemodynamic stability was regained.
The second case is that of a 40 year old pedestrian run over by a car. Abdominal ultrasound revealed free fluid in the peritoneal cavity and the patient was rushed to the O.R. Crushed right lobe of the liver, and inferior vena cava and bowel tears were found. After perihepatic packing and resection of the right and sigmoid colons retrohepatic vena cava tear was repaired and perihepatic packing restored. The abdominal cavity was closed and the patient was taken to the ICU for the correction of hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, and coagulopathy that had developed during the surgery. After 8 hours in the ICU the patient was transferred for angiography and a selective embolization of branches of the right hepatic artery was performed.
The clinical course of the patients after angiographic embolization of the hepatic arteries is described and the literature that discusses the use of angiography and embolization of hepatic arteries after traumatic hepatic bleeding is reviewed.