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עמוד בית
Mon, 27.05.24

Search results


August 2018
Haim Shmuely MD, Baruch Brenner MD, David Groshar MD, Nir Hadari MD, Ofer Purim MD, Meital Nidam MD, Merab Eligalashvili MD, Jacob Yahav MD and Hanna Bernstine MD

Background: Evidence has been emerging that Helicobacter pylori may also impact colorectal cancer (CRC). Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging can predict overall survival in CRC patients.

Objectives: To determine a possible association between H. pylori seropositivity and all-cause mortality among CRC patients evaluated by PET/CT scans.

Methods: This prospective cohort study was comprised of 110 consecutive CRC patients who had undergone a PET/CT evaluation in a tertiary academic medical center. Data included demographics, body mass index (BMI), tumor node metastasis stage at diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis to PET/CT, and PET/CT findings. All patients were tested for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and followed for 36 months from the day of the PET/CT scan. Mortality was documented. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of H. pylori serological status.

Results: During the follow-up period, of the 110 CRC patients 41 (37.3%) died and 69 (62.7%) survived. Of the 41 patients, 26 (63.4%) were H. pylori seropositive and 15 (36.6%) were seronegative. Multivariate analysis showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with increased mortality (HR 3.46, 95% confidence interval 1.63–7.32), stage IV at diagnosis, metastatic disease found on PET/CT, longer time from diagnosis to PET/CT, lower BMI, and older age.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that H. pylori infection may be a risk factor for all-cause mortality among CRC patients who are evaluated by PET/CT. Multicenter studies with larger patient groups are needed to confirm our findings.

July 2018
Tima Davidson, Michal M. Ravid, Ella Nissan, Mirriam Sklair-Levy, Johnatan Nissan and Bar Chikman

Background: When a breast lesion is suspected based on a physical exam, mammography, or ultrasound, a stereotactic core needle biopsy (CNB) is usually performed to help establish a definitive diagnosis. CNBs are far less invasive than excisional biopsies, with no need for general anesthetics or hospitalization, and no recovery period. However, since only samples of the mass are removed in a CNB and not the whole mass, sampling errors can occur.

Objectives: To compare the degree of agreement between the pathological data from CNBs and excisional biopsies from a single tertiary referral hospital.

Methods: The concordance of pathological data was compared in patients who underwent CNBs and had their surgical procedures at the same medical center.

Results: From the 894 patients who underwent CNBs, 254 (28.4%) underwent subsequent excisional biopsies at our medical center. From the total of 894 patients, 227 (25.3%) who underwent a CNB were diagnosed with a malignancy, with the rest of the CNBs being diagnosed as benign pathologies. The pathological findings in the CNBs and in the excisional biopsies concurred in 232/254 (91.3%) of the cases.

Conclusions: A CNB to confirm mammographic or clinical findings of breast lesions is an accurate method to establish a pathological diagnosis of breast lesions. The accuracy is higher for invasive carcinomas than for non-invasive cancers. Excisional biopsies are necessary for lesions with anticipated sampling errors or when the core needle biopsy findings are discordant with clinical or mammographic findings.

May 2018
Yehonatan Nevo MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Liran Barda MD, Roy Nadler MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: Recent studies have analyzed risk factors associated with complications after gastric cancer surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification (CD). However, they have been based on Asian population cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, Korean).

Objectives: To prospectively analyze all post-gastrectomy complications according to severity using CD classification and identify postoperative risk factors and complications.

Methods: We analyzed all gastrectomies for gastric cancer performed 2009–2014. Recorded parameters included demographic data, existing co-morbidities, neo-adjuvant treatment, intra-operative findings, postoperative course, and histologic findings. Postoperative complications were graded using CD classification.

Results: The study comprised 112 patients who underwent gastrectomy. Mean age was 64.8 ± 12.8 years; 53 patients (47%) underwent gastrectomy, 37 (34%) total gastrectomy, and 22 (19%) total extended gastrectomy. All patients had D2 lymphadenectomy. The average number of retrieved lymph nodes was 35 ± 17. Severe complication rate (≥ IIIa) was 14% and mortality rate was 1.8%. In a univariate analysis, age > 65 years; ASA 3 or higher; chronic renal failure; multi-organ resection; and tumor, node, and metastases (TNM) stage ≥ IIIc were found to be significantly associated with CD complication grade > III (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, and P = 0.01, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed advanced stage (≥ IIIc) and age > 65 years to be significant independent risk factors (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Age > 65 and advanced stage (≥ IIIc) were the primary risk factors for complications of grade > III according to the CD classification following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

March 2018
Avi Ben-Haroush MD, Irit Ben-Aharon MD PhD, Yechezkel Lande MD and Benjamin Fisch MD PhD

Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) followed by oocyte retrieval is a leading option for fertility preservation before chemotherapy, yet this procedure causes excessive serum levels of estradiol (E2), which are often detrimental for cancer patients. Aromatase inhibitors are often used in breast cancer patients during COH to prevent elevated levels of E2.

Objectives: To describe our experience with COH for oocyte cryopreservation in non-breast cancer patients using aromatase inhibitors.

Methods: Of the five patients treated, two had an aggressive abdominal desmoid tumor, one had endometrial carcinoma, one had uterine sarcoma, and one patient had a brain oligodendroglioma. In all cases the treating oncologist suggested an association between estrogen and possible tumor progression. All patients were treated with a standard in vitro fertilization antagonist protocol combined with aromatase inhibitors, similar to the protocol used for breast cancer patients.

Results: The average duration of treatment was 10.5 days, mean peak E2 was 2348 pmol/L, mean number of oocytes aspirated was 17.3, and a mean of 14.6 embryos/oocytes were cryopreserved.

Conclusions: COH with aromatase inhibitors is apparently effective in non-breast cancer patients and spares exposure to high E2 levels.

January 2018
Rana Afifi MD, Benjamin Person MD and Riad Haddad MD

Background: Lymph node (LN) retrieval and assessment is essential for accurate staging and treatment planning in colorectal cancer (CRC). According to U.S. National Cancer Institute recommendations, the minimal number of LNs needed for accurately staging of node-negative CRC is 12. Awareness and implementation of the guidelines has been shown to improve after assigning an opinion leader who has a special interest in CRC.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of dialogue between surgeons and pathologists in LN evaluation.

Methods: Consecutively treated CRC patients at the Department of Surgery B at Rambam Medical Center from January 1, 2000 through July 30, 2005 were identified from hospital discharge files. Demographic, surgical, and pathological data were extracted. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I patients underwent surgery before the initiation of a structured surgical oncology service (January 1, 2000 to October 30, 2004). Group II patients underwent surgery after the initiation of the service (November 1, 2004 to July 30, 2005).

Results: The study comprised 212 patients (Group I: n=170; Group II: n=42). The median number of LNs examined was 9 in Group I and 14 in Group II (P = 0.003). Only 35% of patients in Group I received adequate LN evaluation compared to 79% in Group II (P = 0.0001). Patients with left-sided or rectal cancer were less likely to receive adequate LN evaluation than patients with right-sided cancers.

Conclusions: A durable improvement in LN evaluation was realized through a multi-pronged change initiative aimed at both surgeons and pathologists.

December 2017
Udit Gibor MD, Zvi Perry MD, Dan Tirosh MD, Uri Netz MD, Alex Rosental MD, Alex Fich MD, Sofie Man MD, Samuel Ariad MD and Boris Kirshtein MD

Background: Self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) insertion is an alternative to emergency surgery in malignant colonic obstruction. However, the long-term oncological outcome of stents as a bridge to surgery is limited and controversial.

Objectives: To determine the long-term oncological outcome of stents as a bridge to surgery.

Methods: Data of patients who underwent emergency surgery and endoscopic stent insertion as a bridge to surgery due to obstructing colon cancer at Soroka Medical Center during a 14 year period were collected retrospectively. Preoperative data, tumor staging, and oncological outcomes in terms of local recurrence, metastatic spread, and overall survival of the patients were compared.

Results: Sixty-four patients (56% female, mean age 72 years) were included in the study: 43 (67%) following emergency surgery, 21 stent inserted prior to surgery. A stent was inserted within 24–48 hours of hospital admission. The mean time between SEMS insertion and surgery was 15 days (range 0–30). Most of the patients had stage II (41%) and stage III (34%) colonic cancer. There was no difference in tumor staging and localization between groups. There was no significant difference in disease recurrence between SEMS and surgery groups, 24% and 32%, respectively. Disease-free survival rates were similar between the SEMS group (23.8%) and surgery group (22%). Four year and overall survival rates were 52.4% vs. 47.6%, 33.3% vs. 39.5%, respectively.

Conclusions: SEMS as a bridge to surgery in patients with obstructing colon cancer provide an equivalent long-term oncological outcome to surgery alone.

 

November 2017
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Ayyad Muhamad MD, Judith Sandbank MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: In colon cancer, data regarding proximal and distal metastasis to lymph nodes remains scarce.

Objectives: To evaluate lymph node distribution along the longitudinal axis of the colon as related to a tumor to re-examine the common practice of 5 cm proximal and 2 cm distal resection margins.

Methods: We studied 106 patients (53 males and 53 females, mean age 67.9 ± 10 years) who had undergone left hemicolectomy or sigmoidectomy. Colonic cancer specimens were divided into five zones proximally and distally to the tumor. For each zone, overall lymph node evaluation and ratio was performed.

Results: The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes per patient was 24.3 ± 12, with 54.9% of the nodes concentrated in zone I, 22.1% in zone II, 9.5% in zone III, 10.3% in zone IV, and 3% in zone V. While most positive nodes were found in zone I, significant numbers were also detected in both directions proximally and distally to the tumor.

Conclusions: It seems that longer colonic segments proximally, and especially distally, should be considered for resection to significantly reduce the chances of finding involved lymph node.

October 2017
Sarit Appel MD, Jeffry Goldstein MD, Marina Perelman MD, Tatiana Rabin MD, Damien Urban MBBS MD, Amir Onn MD, Tiberiu R. Shulimzon MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Sivan Lieberman MD, Edith M. Marom MD, Nir Golan MD, David Simansky MD, Alon Ben-Nun MD PhD, Yaacov Richard Lawrence MBBS MRCP, Jair Bar MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD PhD

Background: Neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy (CRT) dosages in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were traditionally limited to 45 Gray (Gy).

Objectives: To retrospectively analyze outcomes of patients treated with 60 Gy CRT followed by surgery.

Methods: A retrospective chart review identified patients selected for CRT to 60 Gy followed by surgery between August 2012 and April 2016. Selection for surgery was based on the extent of disease, cardiopulmonary function, and response to treatment. Pathological response after neoadjuvant CRT was scored using the modified tumor regression grading. Local control (LC), disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method.

Results: Our cohort included 52 patients: 75% (39/52) were stage IIIA. A radiation dose of 60 Gy (range 50–62Gy) was delivered in 82.7%. Surgeries performed included: lobectomy, chest-wall resection, and pneumonectomy in 67.3%, 13.4%, and 19.2%, respectively. At median follow-up of 22.4 months, the 3 year OS was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 52–87%), LC was 84% (95%CI 65–93), and DFS 35% (95%CI 14–59). Grade 4–5 postoperative complications were observed in 17.3% of cases and included chest wall necrosis (5.7%), bronco-pleural fistula (7.7%), and death (3.8%). A major pathologic regression with < 10% residual tumor occurred in 68.7% of patients (36/52) and showed a trend to improved OS (P = 0.1). Pneumonectomy cases had statistically worse OS (P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Major pathologic regression was observed 68.7% with 60 Gy neoadjuvant CRT with a trend to improved survival. Pneumonectomy correlated with worse survival.

Arnon Blum MD, Hila Yehuda MSc, Nissim Geron MD and Ari Meerson PhD

Background: Weight loss surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, and it reduces cardiovascular and cancer risk through poorly understood mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that regulate the stability and translation of many mRNAs. We hypothesized that levels of specific circulating miRNAs are altered following surgery and may contribute to lower cancer risk.

Objectives: To investigate the change of miRNA following surgery.

Methods: All patients underwent gastric “sleeve operation”. RNA was isolated from sera of 21 patients (14 men, 7 women) before and 3 months after surgery. Sera were combined into two pools, which served for cDNA library construction followed by miSeq sequencing. The levels of candidate miRNAs were validated in the individual samples by QRT-PCR.

Results: Serum miR-122 was significantly up-regulated 3 months post-bariatric surgery in sera of patients, whose endothelial function had greatly improved. In addition, serum miR-122 levels correlated positively with endothelial function as measured by FMD. The changes in miR-122 levels from pre-surgery to 3 months post-surgery also tended to correlate with the respective changes in FMD.

Conclusions: The serum miR-122/miR-451 ratio may serve as a marker for endothelial function in obese patients. miR-122 is the dominant miRNA in the liver and a known tumor suppressor. Our findings suggest a role for circulating miR-122 in the maintenance of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and in the prevention of cancer. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of its secretion into circulation and its absorption by VECs, as well as its relevant cellular targets.

Yossi Mizrachi MD, Samer Tannus MD, Jacob Bar MD, Ron Sagiv MD, Tally Levy MD, Alexander Condrea MD and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: Several studies have addressed the issue of undetected uterine pathology in women undergoing hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). However, these studies differ largely with respect to the incidence of malignancy found, study population, and preoperative evaluation.

Objectives: To assess the risk of unexpected pre-malignant and malignant uterine pathological findings after vaginal hysterectomy for POP repair, in a single medical center in Israel.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed of all patients who underwent vaginal hysterectomy due to symptomatic POP between January 1990 and April 2015 in a single tertiary medical center. Selected clinical and pathological data were retrieved from the computerized medical records. All specimens were routinely sent for histopathological assessment. All women were managed according to a uniform protocol that required the presence of a preoperative normal Pap smear, and included preoperative transvaginal sonography and endometrial biopsy when indicated. Patients in whom premalignant or malignant lesions were found preoperatively were not included in the study.

Results: The study comprised 667 patients. The overall rate of malignant or significant premalignant pathologies (6 cases) was 0.89%, including one (0.14%) case of endometrial carcinoma. All premalignant and malignant pathologies were found only in post-menopausal patients. The rate of significant endometrial pathological lesions found in asymptomatic post-menopausal women was only 0.35%.

Conclusions: The rate of preoperatively undetected abnormal histopathological findings in patients who undergo vaginal hysterectomy due to POP is very low, and therefore more extensive preoperative evaluation is not warranted in them.

 

August 2017
Karen Belkić MD PhD and Dževad Belkić PhD

Ovarian cancer is a major cause of cancer death among women worldwide, and particularly in Israel. Although the disease at stage IA has 5 year survival rates of over 90%, early detection methods are not sufficiently accurate. Consequently, ovarian cancer is typically diagnosed late, which results in high fatality rates. An excellent candidate for early ovarian cancer detection would be in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) because it is non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. In addition, it potentially identifies metabolic features of cancer. Detecting these metabolic features depends on adequate processing of encoded MRS time signals for reconstructing interpretable information. The conventional Fourier-based method currently used in all clinical scanners is inadequate for this task. Thus, cancerous and benign ovarian lesions are not well distinguished. Advanced signal processing, such as the fast Padé transform (FPT) with high-resolution and clinically reliable quantification, is needed. The effectiveness of the FPT was demonstrated in proof-of-concept studies on noise-controlled MRS data associated with benign and cancerous ovaries. The FPT has now been successfully applied to MRS time signals encoded in vivo from a borderline serous cystic ovarian tumor. Noise was effectively separated out to identify and quantify genuine spectral constituents that are densely packed and often overlapping. Among these spectral constituents are recognized and possible cancer biomarkers including phosphocholine, choline, isoleucine, valine, lactate, threonine, alanine, and myoinositol. Most of these resonances remain undetected with Fourier-based in vivo MRS of the ovary. With Padé optimization, in vivo MRS could become a key method for assessing ovarian lesions, more effectively detecting ovarian cancer early, thereby improving survival for women afflicted with this malignancy.

June 2017
Hagit Schayek PhD, Yael Laitman MSc, Lior H Katz MD, Elon Pras MD, Liat Ries-Levavi PhD, Frida Barak MD and Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Background: Biallelic BLM gene mutation carriers are at an increased risk for cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether heterozygous BLM gene mutations confer an increased cancer risk remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate CRC and endometrial cancer risk in BLM heterozygous mutation carriers.

Methods:
Jewish Ashkenazim at high risk for colon or endometrial cancer and endometrial cancer cases unselected for family history were genotyped for the BLMAsh predominant mutation.

Results: Overall, 243 high-risk individuals were included: 97 men CRC patients (55.12 ± 12.3 years at diagnosis), 109 women with CRC (56.5 ± 13.7 years), 32 women with endometrial cancer (58.25 ± 13.4 years) and 5 women with both CRC and endometrial cancer. In addition, 120 unselected Ashkenazi women with endometrial cancer (64.2 ± 11.58 years) were genotyped. The BLMAsh mutation was present in 4/243 (1.65%) high-risk patients; 2 CRC (0.97%) 2 endometrial cancer (5.4%), and 1/120 unselected endometrial cancer patients (0.84%). Notably, in high-risk cases, BLMAsh mutation carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (for CRC 47.5 ± 7.8 years; P = 0.32 ; endometrial cancer 49.5 ± 7.7 years; P = 0.36) compared with non-carriers.

Conclusions: Ashkenazi high risk CRC/endometrial cancer, and women with endometrial cancer have a higher rate of BLMAsh heterozygous mutation compared with the general population. BLMAsh heterozygous mutation carriers are diagnosed with CRC and endometrial cancer at a younger age compared with non-carriers. These observations should be validated and the possible clinical implications assessed.

May 2017
Abdel-Rauf Zeina MD, Saif Abu-Mouch MD and Amir Mari MD
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