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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

Search results


October 2020
Naama Garmi MD, Suheil Nasrallah MD, Yacov Baram MD, Adina Katz BSc, Avishai Koren, Maya First MSc and Arnon Blum MD

Background: An association was shown between thrombocytosis and future development of several cancers.

Objectives: To investigate whether pre-treatment platelet counts correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with breast cancer.

Methods: This retrospective study included 22 patients who had been diagnosed with stage I breast cancer and were 66.8 ± 13.2 years of age. Of these, 22 with stage II were 61.6 ± 12.3 years old and 9 with stage III and IV were 64.4 ± 15.3 years old. Clinical and hematological data from the first visit to the oncology clinic were collected. The follow-up period was 12 months to 5 years.

Results: A significant difference in platelet counts was found between patients who died (187,000 ± 4000 µ/L) and those who were disease free for 5 years (248,000 ± 83,000 µ/L, P = 0.0001). A significant difference in platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio was found between patients who died and those with recurrence (192 ± 81 vs. 124 ± 71, P = 0.01). A negative correlation was found between age and lymph nodes (Ps = -0.305, P = 0.02) and staging and white blood cells count (Ps = -0.280, P = 0.04). A positive correlation was found between clinical staging and lymph nodes (Ps = 0.443, P = 0.001) and clinical staging and metastases (P = 0.308, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: Platelet counts may be a prognostic marker for breast cancer. Patients who died within 1 year had lower pre-treatment platelet count, which could represent an insidious disseminated intravascular coagulopathy cancer related consumption process.

September 2020
Michal Laufer-Perl MD, Liat Mor MS, Assi Milwidsky MD, Matthew Derakhshesh MS, Nadav Amrami MD, Yonatan Moshkovits MS, Joshua Arnold MS, Yan Topilsky MD, Yaron Arbel MD and Zach Rozenbaum MD

Background: Progress in the treatment of breast cancer has led to substantial improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased side effects, with cardiotoxicity being the most significant one. The commonly used definition is cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD), defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction reduction of > 10%, to a value below 53%. Recent studies have implied that the incidence of CTRCD among patients with breast cancer is decreasing due to lower doses of anthracyclines and low association to trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of CTRCD among patients with active breast cancer and to identify significant associates for its development.

Methods: Data were collected as part of the Israel Cardio-Oncology Registry, which enrolls all patients who are evaluated at the cardio-oncology clinic at our institution. Patients were divided to two groups: CTRCD and no-CTRCD.

Results: Among 103 consecutive patients, five (5%) developed CTRCD. There were no significant differences in the baseline cardiac risk factors between the groups. Significant correlations of CTRCD included treatment with trastuzumab (P = 0.001) or pertuzumab (P < 0.001), lower baseline global longitudinal strain (GLS) (P = 0.016), increased left ventricular end systolic diameter (P < 0.001), and lower e’ septal (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: CTRCD is an important concern among patients with active breast cancer, regardless of baseline risk factors, and is associated with trastuzumab and pertuzumab treatment. Early GLS evaluation may contribute to risk stratification and allow deployment of cardioprotective treatment

May 2020
Yael Peled MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, and Zohar Dotan MD

Background: Heart transplantation (HT) success rate is limited by a high incidence of cancer post-HT. Data on kidney cancer following solid organ transplantation, especially HT, are limited, and only a few cases have been reported.

Objectives: To report a unique case series of detected kidney cancer following HT.

Methods: Between 1997 and 2018, 265 patients who underwent HT were enrolled and prospectively followed in the HT registry of the Sheba Medical Center.

Results: The series included 5 patients, 4 men and a woman (age range 35–50 years at HT). The patients were diagnosed with kidney tumors 6–11 years after HT (age range at diagnosis 40–72 years). Two of the men were identical twin brothers. At HT four patients received induction therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin and all received an initial immunosuppressive regimen based on cyclosporine. All male HT recipients had a history of heavy smoking. Two male patients developed allograft vasculopathy, but all had preserved heart function. The 72-year-old woman developed a kidney tumor of the native kidney 5 years after re-HT and kidney transplantation. Two patients had features of multifocal papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and eventually underwent bilateral nephrectomy, while another patient underwent left partial nephrectomy with preserved renal function.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series study describing kidney tumors following HT. With the improving outcomes and life expectancy of HT patients, a better understanding of the factors that determine cancer risk is of the utmost importance and may have a major impact on the non-cardiac surveillance.

March 2020
Aviad Hoffman MD, Ofir Ben Ishay MD, Nir Horesh MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Eyal Forschmidt MD, Danny Rosin MD, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS and Edward Ram MD

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that is poorly understood. Treatment protocols are widely extrapolated from breast cancer in women.

Objectives: To review the experience with MBC of a single center in Israel over a period of 22 years.

Methods: This single center retrospective study evaluated all patients diagnosed with MBC over a period of 22 years (1993–2015). Data were extracted from patient medical charts and included demographics, clinical, surgical, and oncological outcomes.

Results: The study comprised 49 patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 64.1 ± 13.5 years. The majority were diagnosed at early stages (1A–2A) (54.4%), 30.6% were stage 3B mostly due to direct skin and nipple involvement, and 59.2% of the patients had node negative disease. All of the patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma and 30.6% had concomitant ductal carcinoma in situ. Estrogen receptor (ER) status was predominantly positive and luminal B (HER2-) was the most common subtype. Of the patients, 18.4% were BRCA carriers. The majority of patients underwent mastectomy. Radiotherapy was delivered to 46.9% and hormonal therapy to 89.8%. Chemotherapy was administered to 42.9%. Overall survival was 79.6% with a median survival of 60.1 (2–178) months; 5- and 10-year survival was 93.9% and 79.6%, respectively. Progesterone receptor (PR)-negative patients had a significantly improved overall survival.

Conclusions: MBC has increasing incidence. PR-negative status was associated with better overall survival and disease-free interval. Indications to radiotherapy and hormonal therapy need standardization and will benefit from prospective randomized control trials.

January 2020
Elizabeth Dudnik MD, Aaron M. Allen MD, Natalia Michaeli MD, Aleksandra Benouaich-Amiel MD, Tzippy Shochat, Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP, Inbar Finkel MD, Alona Zer MD, Ofer Rotem MD and Shlomit Yust-Katz MD

Background: Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) exclusion in favor of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) staging and surveillance in the management of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is controversial yet accepted by some centers. The use of MRI suggests performing stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment for limited brain metastases. Data regarding SRS efficacy in this setting is limited.

Objectives: To assess intracranial objective response rate (iORR), progression-free survival (iPFS), intracranial failure patterns, overall survival (OS) and time-to-whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT)/death, whichever occurred first (TTWD) with SRS in SCLC.

Methods: The study comprised 10 consecutive SCLC patients with brain metastases treated with SRS and followed-up at Davidoff Cancer center between Aug 2012 and March 2019. Brain MRI images were reviewed by a neuro-radiology specialist.

Results: iORR was 57% as assessed by response assessment in neuro-oncology brain metastases. Intracranial progression developed in 8 patients. Median iPFS was 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.7–7.2). In-site, off-site and combined pattern of intracranial failure was seen in 0, 5, and 3 patients, respectively; median number of new brain lesions following SRS was 4 (range, 1–12). SRS was performed 10 additional times in 6 patients (median number of lesions irradiated per round was 1, range 1–5). WBRT was administered in 3 patients. Median TTWD was 20.9 months (95% CI, 1.9–26.8). Median OS since SRS administration was 23.2 months (95% CI, 4.2–not reached).

Conclusions: MRI surveillance with multiple rounds of SRS may serve a reasonable alternative to PCI or therapeutic WBRT in SCLC. 

Ariel Greenberg MD, Revital Kariv MD, Irit Solar PhD and Dov Hershkovitz MD PhD

Background: Evaluation of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency is conducted via immunohistochemistry or by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Heterogeneous immunohistochemistry staining for MMR proteins may show different patterns; however, according to current guidelines, all of those patterns should be interpreted as MMR proficient. This conclusion might lead to false negative results because although most cases of heterogeneity stem from technical factors and biological variability, other types of heterogeneity represent true MMR deficiency.

Objectives: To identify a unique heterogeneity pattern that is associated with true MMR loss.

Methods: We analyzed 145 cases of colorectal carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry staining for MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, and MSH6 were performed. We defined geographic heterogeneity as areas of tumor nuclear staining adjacent to areas of loss of tumor nuclear staining with intact staining in the surrounding stroma. All cases were evaluated for the presence of geographic heterogeneity. In addition, 24 cases were also evaluated by MSI testing.

Results: Of the 145 cases, 24 (16.5%) were MMR deficient. Of the 24 cases for which MSI analysis was also available, 10 cases (41.7%) demonstrated biological heterogeneity, 5 (20.8%) demonstrated technical heterogeneity, and 2 (8.3%) demonstrated geographic heterogeneity. Only the two cases with geographic heterogeneity were MSI-high via MSI analysis. In addition, a germline mutation in MSH-6 was identified in one of these cases.

Conclusions: Geographic heterogeneity may raise a suspicion for a MMR-deficient case, which should be further analyzed using additional methodologies such as MSI analysis.

November 2019
Omar Hakrush MD, Yochai Adir MD, Sonia Schneer MD, and Amir Abramovic MD

Background: Transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration using a bronchoscope (EUS-B-FNA) allows clinicians to determine mediastinal staging and lung mass evaluation of lesions not accessible by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or where endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration might not be safe.

Objectives: To evaluate the safety, diagnostic accuracy, and feasibility of EUS-B-FNA.

Methods: The study comprised patients who underwent a pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes and parenchymal lung lesions between June 2015 and September 2017 at the Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Results: EUS-B-FNA was performed in 81 patients. The transesophageal procedure was performed for easier accessibility (49.4%) and in high-risk patients (43.3%). The most frequently sampled mediastinal stations were left paratracheal and sub-carinal lymph nodes or masses (38.3% and 56.7%, respectively). There were no complications (e.g., acute respiratory distress, esophageal perforation, or bleeding). An accurate diagnosis was determined in 91.3% of cases.

Conclusions: Pulmonologist-performed EUS-B-FNA is safe and accurate for evaluating mediastinal and parenchymal lung lesions and lymphadenopathy. Diagnostic accuracy is high. EUS-B-FNA may allow access to sites not amenable to other forms of bronchoscopic sampling, or may increase diagnostic accuracy in patients where anatomic position predicts a low diagnostic yield.

October 2019
Philip Lawson MD, Noam Nissan MD PhD, Renata Faermann MD, Osnat Halshtok MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Michael Gotleib MD, Merav Akiva Ben David MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD

Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease representing less than 1% of breast cancers. In the absence of a screening program, such as for females, the diagnostic workup is critical for early detection of MBC.

Objectives: To summarize our institutional experience in the workup of male patients referred for breast imaging, emphasizing the clinical, imaging, and histopathological characteristics of the MBC cohort.

Methods: All male patients who underwent breast imaging between 2011 and 2016 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological data were collected and statistically evaluated. All images were reviewed using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System.

Results: 178 male patients (average age 61 years, median age 64), underwent breast imaging in our institution. The most common indication for referral was palpable mass (49%) followed by gynecomastia (16%). Imaging included mostly mammography or ultrasound. Biopsies were performed on 56 patients, 38 (68%) were benign and 18 (32%) were malignant. In all, 13 patients had primary breast cancer and 5 had metastatic disease to the breast. Palpable mass at presentation was strongly associated with malignancy (P = 0.007).

Conclusion: Mammography and ultrasound remain the leading modalities in breast imaging among males for diagnostic workup of palpable mass, with gynecomastia being the predominant diagnosis. However, presentation with palpable mass was also associated with malignancy. Despite a notable MBC rate in our cohort, the likelihood of cancer is low in young patients and in cases of gynecomastia.

September 2019
Oleg Kaminsky MD, Nasser Abdul Halim MD, Veacheslav Zilbermints MD, Eran Sharon MD and David Aranovich MD

Background: Young women concerned about a breast cancer diagnosis will visit breast care centers and request breast cancer screening, including imaging studies, on their initial visit.

Objectives: To explore the role of breast examination and breast ultrasound in self-referred asymptomatic women under the age of 40 years.

Methods: We identified 3524 women under the age of 40 at our medical clinic from 1 January 2010 until 1 June 2014. Of this group, 164 women with above average breast cancer risk were excluded and 233 were excluded because of breast complaints. Of 3127 women, 220 underwent breast ultrasound following the initial visit to the clinic and formed the study group.

Results: Of 220 women evaluated with ultrasound, 68 had prior positive clinical findings. Of this group 8 women had no sonographic findings, and in the remaining 60, a total of 30 simple cysts, 15 fibroadenomas, and 15 suspicious solid masses were identified. One infiltrating ductal carcinoma and one ductal carcinoma in situ were found in a biopsy. The remaining 152 of the 220 total women who underwent breast ultrasound without showing prior physical findings did not require follow-up.

Conclusions: In the absence of clinical findings during physical breast examination, the addition of breast ultrasonography does not provide additional information to supplement the physical examination in self-referred women under age 40 who do not have any major risk factors for developing breast cancer.

August 2019
Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Yoav Barnea MD, Mark W. Clemens MD and Eran Bar-Meir MD

Background: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is found around breast implants. ALCL was discovered only two decades ago. In Israel we currently have four diagnosed cases (as of 2018). Until recently, the estimated incidence was 1:300,000 women with breast implants, while recent reports range from 1:3817 to 1:30,000. 

Objectives: To determine the occurrence of breast implant-ALCL in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the four patients diagnosed with ALCL in Israel. Cytology was confirmed and the clinical data was collected. Based on the estimated number of women with breast implants in Israel, a calculation of the true incidence was completed.

Results: The incidence in Israel is significantly higher than the older incidence reports indicate. We estimated that the lifetime prevalence of the disease is 4:60,000 women with a textured breast implant, or 1:15,000 women with a textured breast implant in Israel.

Conclusions: ALCL is not common. We support the claim that the prevalence is significantly higher than what was initially described. This finding has clinical and medicolegal implications that should be addressed accordingly.

July 2019
Jakub Moll MD, Natasa Isailovic MsC, Maria De Santis MD PhD and Carlo Selmi MD PhD

Serum rheumatoid factors are autoantibodies of different isotypes directed against the Fc fraction of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and represent paradigmatic autoantibodies that have been largely used in clinical practice for decades. Traditionally IgG has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and more recently included also in the classification criteria for Sjӧgren’s syndrome. Researchers have established that rheumatoid factors are positive in a variety of infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic disorders, thus requiring a comprehensive evaluation of seropositive patients. Of note, hepatitis B and C viruses represent a crossroad that includes the high rheumatoid factor seroprevalence and chronic inflammatory disease, as well as progression to non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Chronic antigen stimulation is the likely common ground of these processes and rheumatoid factors may represent mere bystanders or drivers of pathology. Mixed cryoglobulinemia and lymphoproliferative disease are prime examples of the deleterious effects of rheumatoid factor-B cell activity, possibly associated with hepatitis B and C. More importantly, they show a clear association in a physiological host response to infection, chronic inflammation, and the slide toward autoimmunity and malignancy. The association between hepatitis B and C infections and the appearance of serum rheumatoid factors is further supported by prevalence data, which support a coexistence of these markers in a significant proportion of cases, with viral infections being frequent causes of rheumatoid factors in patients without a rheumatic condition. We provide a comprehensive overview of the known connections between hepatitis B and C infections and rheumatoid factors.

Bar Davidov MD, Riva Shmulevich MSc, Ayelet Shabtay PhD, Tami Rubinek PhD and Ido Wolf MD

Background: Klotho is a transmembrane protein that can be shed and can act as a circulating hormone in three forms: soluble klotho (KL1 + KL2), KL1, and KL2. Klotho was discovered as a gene implicated in aging through inhibition of the IGF-I pathway. Our laboratory discovered the role of klotho as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and other malignancies. Furthermore, we showed that the KL1 domain mediates this activity. Altered cancer cell metabolism is a hallmark of cancer and our lab demonstrated various effects of klotho on breast cancer cell metabolism. Thus, klotho inhibited glycolysis and activated adenosine monophosphate activating kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor pathway. Moreover, inhibition of AMPK reduced the tumor suppressor activity of klotho.

Objectives: To assess the effect of KL1 on breast tumor cells metabolism, as KL1 possesses the tumor suppressor activity of klotho.

Methods: We used MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with soluble or over-expressed KL1 and klotho. Glycolysis was assessed by measuring mRNA levels of key glycolytic enzymes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and by measuring lactate and glucose levels in media. The AMPK pathway was studied by monitoring AMPK phosphorylation as well as its down-stream target, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, using western blotting. Wound healing assay was used to assess cell migration.

Results: KL1 treatment reduced glycolytic enzymes mRNA levels and the activity of hexokinase, similar to klotho treatment. Furthermore, KL1 reduced glucose uptake and decreased lactate production. KL1 elevated phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase and phosphorylatedAMPK levels. Inhibition AMPK (using a mutant AMPK activator) stopped KL1 from inhibiting cell migration, suggesting AMPK underlies klotho’s tumor suppressor activity.

Conclusions: Our data indicate KL1 as a regulator of metabolic activity in breast cancer and suggest that metabolic alterations underlie KL1 tumor suppressor activities. Furthermore, as KL1 and klotho share a similar effect on cell metabolism, our results further support the central role KL1 domain plays in klotho’s tumor suppressor activity.

June 2019
Ofer M. Kobo MD, Elit Vainer Evgrafov MD, Yuval Cohen MD, Yael Lerner MD, Alaa Khatib MD, Ron Hoffman MD, Ariel Roguin MD PhD and Inna Tzoran MD

Background: Malignancy is a known risk factor for venous thromboembolism; however, the association with arterial thromboembolic events remains unclear.

Objectives: To examine the association between non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and non-significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and the presence of new or occult malignancy.

Methods: An observational cohort, single-center study was performed 2010–2015. Adult patients with NSTEMI, who underwent coronary angiography and had no significant coronary lesion, were included. Using propensity score matching, we created a 2:1 matched control group of adults with NSTEMI, and significant coronary artery disease. Risk factors for new or occult malignancy were assessed using multivariate backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. The primary outcome was new or occult malignancy, defined as any malignancy diagnosed in the 3 months prior and 6 months following the myocardial infarction (MI).

Results: During the study period, 174 patients who presented with MI with non-obstructive coronary arteries were identified. The matched control group included 348 patients. There was no significant difference in the group demographics, past medical history, or clinical presentation. The incidence of new or occult malignancy in the study group was significantly higher (7/174, 4% vs. 3/348, 0.9%, P = 0.019). NSTEMI with non-significant CAD was an independent risk factor for occult malignancy (odds ratio [OR] 4.6, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.1–18.7). Other risk factors included active smoking (OR 11.2, 95%CI 2.5–49.1) and age (OR 1.1, 95%CI 1.03–1.17).

Conclusions: NSTEMI with non-significant CAD may be a presenting or early marker of malignancy and warrants further investigation.

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