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עמוד בית
Mon, 27.05.24

Search results

November 2022
Katya Meridor MD, Pnina Rotman-Pikielny MD, Or Carmi MD, Myriam Werner MD, Yair Levy MD

Background: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are at increased risk for autoimmune thyroid diseases, but information regarding thyroid nodules and cancer in SSc is scarce.

Objectives: To evaluate the thyroid gland in patients with SSc at a single Israeli center.

Methods: Thyroid workup was conducted in consecutive SSc patients: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, as well as thyroid ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) when appropriate.

Results: Fifty patients, mean age 51.3 ± 13.5 years (44 women) were evaluated. Ten were previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. Median TSH level was 2.0 (normal range 0.23–4 mIU/l) and median fT4 level was 1.0 (normal range 0.8–2.0 ng/dL). Among the 40 thyroid disorder-naive patients, 3 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 5 had positive anti-thyroid antibodies; 22 (44%) had 1–6 thyroid nodules, which were ≥ 1 cm in 12 (24%). Accordingly, six patients underwent FNA, and five were diagnosed as colloid nodules and one as papillary carcinoma.

Conclusions: New cases of clinically significant autoimmune thyroid disease were not detected in our cohort of patients with SSc. Nevertheless, almost half had thyroid nodules. The clinical significance of these findings and their relation to thyroid cancer remains to be determined.

Hanan Massalha MD, Milena Tocut MD, Miguel Stein MD, Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD

Hypereosinophilia is defined as the absolute eosinophilic count of above 1500 cells/µL in the peripheral blood on two separate tests taken during one month and/or the pathological confirmation of hypereosinophilia. There are many conditions that are associated with increased eosinophil counts including: parasitic infections, drug reactions, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, allergic reactions, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), primary immunodeficiencies (PID), eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGID), familial hypereosinophilia, and neoplasms [1]. Molecular classification may be an adjuvant in the classification of hypereosinophilia [2]. Our patient presented with hypereosinophilia as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome.

July 2022
April 2022
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA

Extermination via starvation was described in detail as an alternative or precursor to the final solution during the Holocaust in World War II. The main causes of death in the ghettos were exhaustion, environmental conditions (inadequate protection in extreme climates), infectious diseases, or starvation. In previous studies on the Lodz Ghetto, the causes of death via typhus exantematicus, tuberculosis, and heart failure were investigated [1,2]. In this article, we introduce the topic of diabetes in the presence of starvation and assess the incidence of malignancies in the years 1941–1944. The findings from the Lodz Ghetto would retroactively support the Warburg theory

Noa Gal MD, Elena Didkovsky MD, Emmilia Hodak MD, and Batya B Davidovici MD

Background: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are at increased risk for both skin and internal malignancies (IM). The risk of IM after the occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has been studied in the general population but very little is known about this association in SOTRs.

Objectives: To evaluate the risk of IM following a prior diagnosis of post transplantation NMSC in SOTRs.

Methods: This single center retrospective cohort study included a study population of 329 SOTRs from Rabin Medical Center who had a post-transplant diagnosis of skin malignancy, internal malignancy, or both from 2012 to 2018.

Results: In total, 135 (41.03%) SOTRs were diagnosed with IM without a preceding diagnosis of NMSC while only 42 (12.76%) patients diagnosed with IM had a preceding diagnosis of NMSC. SOTRs with a diagnosis of NMSC showed a significantly decreased risk of developing subsequent IM (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.44–0.94, P = 0.02) compared to those without a prior NMSC diagnosis. Liver and lung transplant patients showed a significantly decreased risk of developing subsequent IM after a diagnosis of NMSC (HR 0.09 and 0.43, respectively). When stratified by type of IM, only patients who were diagnosed with a hematological malignancy had a significantly lower risk of developing this malignancy if they had a prior NMSC (HR 0.26).

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest a protective effect of NMSC on subsequent IM in the organ transplant population.

Amos Gelbard

Zinc is a trace element, which is abundant in nature. It is also an essential and important micronutrient found in many foods. It has a role in multiple bodily processes including wound healing and boosting of the immune system. This review shows evidence of zinc deficiency in cancer patients of all types, a deficiency that correlates with disease severity and negatively correlates with survival rates. Lower zinc levels led to more severe and advanced disease symptoms and to lower survival rates. Zinc is a nanoparticle and acts as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy in various combinations with other substances. It also shows incredible cytotxicity and tumor suppressive ability in studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo as well as in studies conducted in humans. This result is shown in all types of cancer tested. Zinc shows incredible toxicity toward cancer cells without showing any side effects toward healthy cells. It is recommended that zinc be added to cancer treatment regimens to alleviate zinc deficiency in cancer patients and perhaps to treat cancer as a whole

March 2022
Inbar Nardi-Agmon MD MPH, Alona Zer MD, Yuri Peysakhovich MD, Ili Margalit MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Nir Peled MD PhD, and Zaza Iakobishvili MD PhD

Background: No specific clinical or histological factors are recognized to be associated with the development of pericardial effusion in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) other than a metastatic disease.

Objectives: To assess whether specific clinical and histological features are associated with development of pericardial effusion in patients with NSCLC.

Methods: A consecutive cohort of patients with NSCLC who presented with symptomatic pericardial effusion 2014–2017 was compared to a control group of patients with advanced NSCLC without pericardial effusion.

Results: The 27 patients in the effusion group were generally younger, more often female, and with a higher percentage of never-smokers, compared to the 54 patients of the control group. Epidermal growth factor receptor/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EGFR/ALK) mutation tumors were found in 48% of patients in the effusion group vs. 25% in the control group. In the multivariate analysis, the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for the development of pericardial effusion in patients with somatic mutations was significantly higher compared to wild type tumors (OR 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.00–7.00). However, a suspected association between pericardial effusion and mutation status was found to be confounded by age. While a high rate of recurrence was observed when pericardiocentesis was initially performed (9/17, 53%), no recurrence was documented when pericardial window procedure was performed (total of 17 patients).

Conclusions: Patients with EGFR/ALK mutations may be at higher risk for the development of pericardial effusion; therefore, attending physicians need to be aware and have a high index of clinical suspicion

Zahi Abu Ghosh MD, Mony Shuvy MD, Ronen Beeri MD, Israel Gotsman MD, Batla Falah MD, Mahsati Ibrahimli MD, and Dan Gilon MD

Background: Cancer patients with heart failure (HF) and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) are often considered to be at risk for surgical mitral valve repair/replacement. Severe MR inducing symptomatic HF may prevent delivery of potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy and complicate fluid management with other cancer treatments.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) in oncology patients with HF and significant MR.

Methods: Our study comprised 145 patients who underwent PMVR, MitraClip, at Hadassah Medical Center between August 2015 and September 2019, including 28 patients who had active or history of cancer. Data from 28 cancer patients were compared to 117 no-cancer patients from the cohort.

Results: There was no significant difference in the mean age of cancer patients and no-cancer patients (76 vs. 80 years, P = 0.16); 67% of the patients had secondary (functional) MR. Among cancer patients, 21 had solid tumor and 7 had hematologic malignancies. Nine patients (32%) had active malignancy at the time of PMVR. The mean short-term risk score of the patients was similar in the two groups, as were both 30-day and 1-year mortality rates (7% vs. 4%, P = 0.52) and (29% vs. 16%, P = 0.13), respectively.

Conclusion: PMVR in cancer patients is associated with similar 30-day and 1-year survival rate compared with patients without cancer. PMVR should be considered for cancer patients presenting with HF and severe MR and despite their malignancy. This approach may allow cancer patients to safely receive planned oncological treatment

Avital Angel-Korman MD, Vladimir Rapoport MD, and Adi Leiba MD

Hypertension and cancer are both common due to the aging of the population and the advances in medical treatment which result in increased survival of cancer patients today. More patients with cancer; therefore, present with hypertension, which is attributed to different factors, including genetics and age as well as the type of tumor and cancer-related treatments. Given the increased cardiovascular and mortality risk related to hypertension, it is important to appropriately identify and treat hypertension, particularly in the population of vulnerable cancer patients. In this article we discuss the epidemiology, different etiologies, and approaches to the management of hypertension in cancer patients.

Filipe Cirne MD, Som D. Mukherjee MD, Jehonathan Pinthus MD, Darryl P. Leong MBBS

Increased life expectancy due to improved cancer prognosis, shared determinants (e.g., tobacco use), and cardiovascular toxicities related to cancer therapies, including the adverse cardiometabolic effects of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, make cardiovascular disease an frequent and important co-morbidity in patients with a genitourinary malignancy. Complex cardiovascular disease can pose significant challenges in the management of these patients given the uncertainties related to the best approach to reconcile ischemic and bleeding risks, and the role of invasive cardiovascular interventions in individuals with advanced cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence that informs decision-making in this clinical context.

Aaron Lubetsky MD MSc

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is very common in cancer patients and is a marker of increased mortality in these patients. Treatment is associated with increased rates of recurrent thrombosis and bleeding and has undergone significant change in the last years with the increasing use of direct oral anticoagulants. Diagnosis of PE and risk stratification is possible with minor changes to existing risk scores. Thrombolytic therapy should be considered in appropriate patients.

Sebastian Szmit MD PhD, Jarosław Kępski MD, and Michał Wilk MD

Atrial fibrillation is becoming an increasingly important problem in cardio-oncology. Specific risk factors for atrial fibrillation occurrence include type of cancer disease and anticancer drugs. Anticoagulation is often abandoned. The CHA2DS2-VASc and CHA2DS2 scores may be important not only in predicting stroke but also in mortality. The role of new direct oral anticoagulants is growing, but they need to be used in a personalized approach depending on the risk of unbeneficial interactions with cancer treatment and the risk of bleeding.

Nicole Prabhu MD and Jeanne M. DeCara MD

Cardiac tumors are rare and the majority are from a primary source outside of the heart. Most are found, incidentally, with echocardiography but often additional cardiac imaging is needed to refine the differential diagnosis. For this purpose, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to a lesser extent cardiac computed tomography (CT) or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) are useful imaging modalities to better characterize a cardiac tumor and determine the likelihood of a neoplastic versus non-neoplastic origin. Cardiac CT may be useful to evaluate the effect of treatment while using 18F-FDG PET/CT to evaluate cardiac masses is under-studied but may be useful in patients who are already having a scan performed for oncologic reasons. It is through understanding the clinical context of a newly discovered cardiac mass, knowledge of the typical locations of various cardiac tumor types, combined with imaging techniques that avoid ionizing radiation that yield the greatest confidence in the noninvasive diagnosis of a cardiac mass

February 2022
Viacheslav Bard MD, Baruch Brenner MD, and Hanoch Kashtan MD

There has been a general reduction over the last 20 years in the incidence within Israel of gastric cancer (GC). This has particularly been noted in the Jewish population with a slight increase in the incidence of cancer of the gastroesophageal junction among Jews of Sephardi origin. Given the diversity of individual ethnic subpopulations, the effects of GC incidence in second-generation immigrant Jews, particularly from high prevalence regions (e.g., the former Soviet Union, Iraq, and Iran), awaits determination. There are currently no national data on GC-specific mortality. The most recent available cross-correlated Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR) and International Association for Cancer Research (IARC) incidence data for GC of the body and antrum in Israel are presented. Some of the challenges associated with GC monitoring in the changing Israeli population are discussed. We propose the establishment of a national GC management committee designed to collect demographic and oncological data in operable cases with the aim of recording and improving GC-specific outcomes. We believe that there is value in the development of a national surgical planning program, which oversees training and accreditation in a dynamic environment that favors the wider use of neoadjuvant therapies, minimally invasive surgery and routine extended (D2) lymphadenectomy. These changes should be supported by assessable enhanced recovery programs

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