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עמוד בית
Sun, 26.05.24

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April 2017
Eliezer Robinson MD, Barbara G. Silverman MD MPH and Lital Keinan-Boker MD PhD MPH

Background: The number of cancer survivors has been increasing worldwide and is now approximately 32.6 million and growing. Cancer survivors present a challenge to health care providers because of their higher susceptibility to long-term health outcomes related to their primary disease and treatment.

Objective: To report on the number of cancer survivors and incident cancer cases in the period 1960–2009 in Israel, in order to provide data on the scope of the challenge Israel’s health care funds face.

Methods: The Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR) database was used to identify new cancer cases diagnosed during the period 1960–2009. Lifetable analysis was used to assess changes in cumulative survival and population prevalence of cancer survivors throughout the 50 year study period.

Results: Almost 600,000 invasive cancer cases were diagnosed during the period 1960–2009 (overall absolute survival rate 54%). Within this time period, the number of new patients diagnosed with cancer increased fivefold and that of cancer survivors ninefold. The absolute survival of cancer patients and the prevalence of cancer survivors in the general population significantly increased with time from 34% and 0.5%, respectively (1960–1969), to 62% and 1.9%, respectively (2000–2009). Cumulative absolute survival for 5, 10 and 15 years following diagnosis increased with time as well.

Conclusions: The INCR database is useful to assess progress in the war against cancer. The growing numbers of cancer survivors in Israel present a challenge to the national health and social services system.

William Nseir MD, Zuhair Abu-Rahmeh MD, Alex Tsipis MD, Julnar Mograbi RN and Mahmud Mahamid MD

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease which refers to the presence of hepatic steatosis. Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in women and is the leading cause of death from cancer among women.

Objectives: To assess the relationship between NAFLD and newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer.

Methods: The results of mammography screening examinations in women referred to the Breast Center, Holy Family Hospital, Nazareth during a 4 year period were collected. We identified cases of women who were newly diagnosed with breast cancer and who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) within 1 month of the diagnosis. The control group comprised 73 women with normal mammography and breast ultrasonography who underwent abdominal CT within 3 months from the date of the breast cancer screening during the same study period. The control cases were matched by age and body mass index (BMI). We compared the cases with the controls in terms of the presence of diffuse hepatic fatty liver and other known risk factors for breast cancer.

Results: Of the 133 women who were screened, 73 with new diagnosis of breast cancer were eligible for the study. NAFLD was found in 33 of the women with breast cancer and in 12 in the control group (45.2% vs.16.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed NAFLD (odds ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.2–5.5, P = 0.016) to be associated with breast cancer.

Conclusions: NAFLD is associated with breast cancer.

February 2017
Ilit Turgeman MD and Gil Bar-Sela MD

A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Currently, cannabis is approved in several countries for indications of symptomatic alleviation. However, limited knowledge on the benefits and risks precludes inclusion of cannabis in standard treatment guidelines. This review provides a summary of the available literature on the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines in palliative oncology. Favorable outcomes are demonstrated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain, with evidence of advantageous neurological interactions. Benefit in the treatment of anorexia, insomnia and anxiety is also suggested. Short- and long-term side effects appear to be manageable and to subside after discontinuation of the drug. Finally, cannabinoids have shown anti-neoplastic effects in preclinical studies in a wide range of cancer cells and some animal models. Further research is needed before cannabis can become a part of evidence-based oncology practice.

Eran Glikson MD, Eran Alon MD, Lev Bedrin MD and Yoav P. Talmi MD

Background: More than 90% of all thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) with a 10 year survival rate greater than 90%. The commonly used risk stratification systems for DTC include: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), AGES (Age, histologic Grade, Extent of tumor, Size), AMES (Metastasis) and MACIS (Completeness of resection, local Invasion). Other systems are also utilized. Several new factors that may be involved in DTC risk stratification have emerged in recent studies, with other "traditional" factors being challenged. 

Objectives: To present recent updates in the literature on new potential prognostic factors for DTC.

Methods: We conducted a literature review and analysis of publications regarding DTC prognostic factors or risk stratification published in the last 10 years. 

Results: Several new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC were noted, including family history, lymph node involvement parameters, positive PET-CT findings, multifocal disease, thyroglobulin level and several molecular markers including BRAF. Increasing age is associated with poorer outcome in DTC; however, recent studies suggest that the cutoff point of 45 years may be contested. Furthermore, several studies have shown contradictory results regarding male gender as a negative prognostic factor, thus questioning its prognostic significance. 

Conclusions: A number of new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC have emerged and should be addressed. However, their role and possible inclusion in new staging systems has yet to be determined.

 

January 2017
Haim Werner PhD, Lena Lapkina-Gendler PhD and Zvi Laron MD
Sarit Appel MD, Yaacov R. Lawrence MRCP, Jeffery Goldstein MD, Raphael M. Pfeffer MD, Ilana Weiss MA, Tatiana Rabin MD, Shira Felder MD, Maoz Ben-Ayun PhD, Lev Tzvang MSc, Dror Alezra PhD, David Simansky MD, Alon Ben-Nun MD PhD, Jair Bar MD PhD and Zvi Symon MD

Background: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is the application of a very high radiation dose to a small treatment volume. It is the new standard of care in medically inoperable early-stage lung cancer. 

Objectives: To report the outcomes of SABR in stage I lung cancer at Sheba Medical Center since its introduction in 2009.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with stage I lung cancer treated during the period 2009–2015. Survival status was retrieved from the electronic medical records and confirmed with the national registry. Local failure was defined as increased FDG uptake on PETCT scan within a 2 cm radius of the treated region. Toxicity was estimated from medical records and graded according to common toxicity criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) version 4.03. Overall survival and local control were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: During the study period 114 patients were treated for 122 stage I lung cancer lesions. Median follow-up time was 27 months (range 8.2–69.5 months), median age was 76 years. Eighty-two percent of the tumors were stage IA (size ≤ 3 cm). Median survival was 46 months; estimated 3 year overall survival was 59% (95%CI 47–69%) and local control was 88% (95%CI 78–94%). Toxicity included chest wall pain in 8.4% of patients, rib fracture in 0.9%, grade 1–2 pneumonitis in 12%, grade 3 in 12% and grade 5 (death) in 0.9%.

Conclusions: SABR has been successfully implemented at Sheba Medical Center for the treatment of stage I lung cancer in inoperable patients. It is associated with excellent local control, minor toxicity and an acceptable overall survival.

 

October 2016
Osnat Halshtok Neiman MD, Zippy Erlich PhD, Eitan Friedman M PhD, Arie Rundstein MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Yael Servadio MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD

Background: Automated breast volumetric sonography (ABVS) is a new technology with various possible applications.

Objectives: To compare ABVS and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the surveillance of women with BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study in Jewish female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who underwent breast MRI and ABVS. The results of both exams performed 6 months apart or less, and relevant clinical data, were reviewed. The BIRADS results were divided into three subgroups according to subsequent expected management: BIRADS 1-2 (normal study), BIRADS 3 (probably benign finding), and BIRADS 4 and 5 (suspicious findings). BIRADS 0 and 6 scores were excluded from the study. Distribution of ABVS and MRI BIRADS scores were compared using McNemar's test, and concordance was calculated using the Cohen kappa test.

Results: Overall, 68 women, 40 BRCA1 and 28 BRCA2 mutation carriers, age range 26–69 (mean 44.55 ± 12.1 years), underwent 79 paired ABVS and MRI examinations. McNemar's test calculations showed no significant difference between MRI and ABVS BIRADS score distribution. Cohen’s kappa test resulted in k = 0.158, an agreement that can be described as only "slight agreement" between both modalities. Of 14 discordant cases there was one cancer, revealed by MRI and not by ABVS performed 6 months prior to MRI.

Conclusions: ABVS showed slight agreement with MRI in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These preliminary results on a small group of healthy high risk patients suggest that the diagnostic abilities of ABVS are inferior to MRI. Further studies encompassing larger groups are needed.

 

August 2016
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Lital Keinan-Boker MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a broad spectrum of neoplasms and have a high overall incidence. The incidence rates in Israel vary among ethnic groups due to different risk factors.

Objectives: To investigate incidence trends of these cancers in Israel in both Jewish and Arab ethnic groups in order to better understand the risks in those groups.

Methods: This study is based on data published by the Israel National Cancer Registry and the Central Bureau of Statistics. We compared statistics between ethnicities and genders. We examined the eight most common gastrointestinal cancers, focusing on colon, rectal and gastric cancers.

Results: Between 1980 and 2012 there was a decline in the incidence of gastric cancer in the Jewish population; in contrast, a significant increase occurred in Arab women, but there was no significant change in Arab men. Colon cancer showed a relative decrease in incidence in the Jewish population, but an increase in the Arab population. A decrease in the incidence of rectal cancer in the Jewish population and an increase in the Arab population was observed. 

Conclusions: Gastric, colon and rectal cancers exhibit differences in incidence and outcome between Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. These differences were not observed in the other five types of less common gastrointestinal cancers.

 

July 2016
David Yardeni MD, Ori Galante MD, Lior Fuchs MD, Daniela Munteanu MD, Wilmosh Mermershtain MD, Ruthy Shaco-Levy MD and Yaniv Almog MD
June 2016
Forsan Jahshan MD, Ilana Doweck MD and Ohad Ronen MD

Background: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used to provide rapid diagnostic information regarding masses of the head and neck. To achieve good results, adequate training is essential.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of head and neck masses performed by residents and attending physicians.

Methods: Palpable guided FNA biopsies from 166 consecutive patients with head and neck masses, excluding thyroid, who were treated in our department between 2008 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated.

Results: A total of 193 FNACs were performed in 161 patients (5 patients were excluded due to age under 18). Mean age was 57.3 years; female to male ratio was approximately 5:4. Most FNACs were performed in masses in the parotid gland (37.3%), 14.5% in the posterior neck, 19.1% in the lateral neck, 15% at level 1, and 9.3% at level 6. The median size of the masses aspirated was 2 cm. Most FNACs were performed by an experienced physician (2.5:1). About 25% of the patients required a second FNAC. Almost 70% of FNACs were diagnostic. Of these, 71.2% were of benign processes and 28.8% of malignancies.

Conclusions: An FNAC of a palpable mass in all sites of the neck, excluding the thyroid, can be done as an office procedure with reasonable results without imaging guidance. About 25% of patients will require another biopsy. The procedure is not difficult to master, as evident by the fact that there were no differences in the results of FNACs performed by an attending otolaryngologist or a resident.

 

May 2016
Eran Millet MD, Josef Haik MD, Elad Ofir MD, Yael Mardor MD, Eyal Winkler MD, Moti Harats MD and Ariel Tessone MD

Background: Although fat grafting is a common technique to repair defects after breast cancer reconstruction surgery and has a low complication rate, the relation between fat grafting and the risk of breast cancer is unknown. Clinical trials to investigate this connection can elucidate the benefits and potential risks of fat grafting in oncology patients.

Objectives:To establish an efficient experimental model, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, for comparing different breast tumor study groups post-fat grafting. 

Methods: Breast tumor cells were injected into immunocompromised mice. After tumors formed they were removed. Liposuction was performed in a female human donor and fat was collected. Cells were extracted from the fat by enzymatic digestion. Immunocompromised mice were randomized into four groups: a preliminary experiment group and three equal groups according to the type of fat graft: (i) fresh fat enriched with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs), (ii) fresh fat without cell enrichment, and (iii) no fat injected. Tumor volume was assessed by serial MRI scans. 

Results: The rate of tumor growth was higher in the enriched fat group compared to the non-enriched fat group. 

Conclusions: This experimental model is an effective measurable method, allowing future investigation of the effect of autologous fat on breast cancer.

 

Efraim Siegler MD, Yakir Segev MD, Lena Mackuli MD, Ron Auslender MD, Mayan Shiner PhD and Ofer Lavie MD

Background: Vulvar and vaginal malignant and premalignant lesions are uncommon and are clinically heterogeneous diseases with two pathways of carcinogenesis: human papillomavirus (HPV) induced or non-HPV induced.                    

Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with vulvar or vaginal cancer and vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VIN3, VAIN3).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 148 women with vulvar and vaginal malignancy and pre-malignancy for the period October 2004 to October 2012, and identified 59 and 19 patients with vulvar and vaginal cancer respectively, and 57 and 13 patients with VIN3 and VAIN3 respectively

Results: The median age of vulvar cancer patients was 30 years older than that of VIN3 patients. HPV was found in 60% and 66.6% of vulvar and vaginal cancer patients respectively, and in 82.3% and 84.6% of patients with VIN3 and VAIN3 respectively. A history of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or warts was observed in 10% and 10.5% of vulvar and vaginal cancer patients respectively, and in 57.9% and 46% of patients with VIN3 and VAIN3 respectively. In 52.6% of patients the vaginal cancer was metastases from other organs. 

Conclusions: Most women with vulvar carcinoma are older than 70 years old. VIN3 and VAIN3 are associated with HPV infection and the most prevalent type is HPV16. Almost half the vaginal cancers are associated with metastases from other organs and almost half of VAIN3 is associated with past cervical dysplasia or carcinoma. 

 

February 2016
Yuval Nachalon MD, Ohad Hilly MD, Karl Segal MD, Eyal Raveh MD, Dania Hirsch MD, Eyal Robenshtok MD, Ilan Shimon MD, Jacob Shvero MD, Carlos Benbassat MD and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC). However, disease characteristics, optimal treatment, time from exposure to disease appearance, and the effect on outcome of age at initial exposure have yet to be determined. 

Objectives: To identify the characteristics of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: We retrieved the charts of all patients previously exposed to radiation who were diagnosed with WDTC between the years 1985 and 2013 in a tertiary referral center. 

Results: Forty-four patients were reviewed. Median time from radiation exposure to diagnosis was 23 years. These patients had higher rates of aerodigestive symptoms and distant metastases on presentation than seen in non-radiated patients. Patients who were exposed to radiation before age 15 years tended to develop the disease at a younger age but had a longer latency period (34.7 ± 15.3 vs. 16.3 ± 10 years, P < 0.001) and none had significantly higher rates of vocal cord palsy, hoarseness on presentation, or aggressive variants on histology compared to patients exposed to radiation at an older age. Disease-specific survival (DSS) was the same for both groups and were similar to that seen in the general population (95% 20 year DSS).

Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroid cancer has a more aggressive presentation and the age at exposure affects the presentation of disease. Nonetheless, appropriate treatment leads to a favorable prognosis.

 

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