Alan Katz MD, Amanda Almakias BsC and Ronit Wollstein MD
Background: Fractures of the distal radius are the most common fractures in the upper extremity, and their incidence is increasing with the aging of the population. Despite anatomical reduction of the bones, many patients complain of residual pain. A reason for this may be ligament injury not addressed during surgery or conservative treatment. Radiographic measurements may allow assessment of ligament integrity but they may be population specific and differ among races.
Objectives: To assess radiographic wrist measurements in an Israeli population and to compare them to existing values.
Methods: Demographic data, previous diagnosis of osteoporosis, fracture classification, and radiologic measurements (radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance, volar tilt, and d2/w2) were measured and compared.
Results: The study was comprised of 53 females and 27 males, mean age 64 years, with wrist radiographs following surgery. Of these, 13% were smokers and 38.5% had osteoporosis. According to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification system, most of the fractures were comminuted and intra-articular. The mean values for all measurements did not differ significantly from values in the literature. The average d2/w2 ratio (describing the radiocarpal ligaments) was 0.42, significantly differing from this measurement in normal wrists as described in the literature, but similar to a population following surgery (P = 0.002).
Conclusions: Our population had more fragility fractures than other populations. Otherwise, our demographics and measurements did not differ from normal values described in the literature. This study supports the validity of any wrist radiographic study performed in our population.
Noam Shohat MD, Yossy Machluf PhD, Rivka Farkash BSc MPH, Aharon S. Finestone MD MHA and Yoram Chaiter MD MSc
Background: Children and adolescents are commonly referred to an orthopedic surgeon to assess knee malalignment.
Objectives: To assess the prevalence of genu varum and valgum among adolescents, and to identify correlates of these conditions.
Methods: A medical database of 47,588 candidates for military service presenting to the northern recruitment center during an 11 year period was analyzed to identify clinical knee alignment. Based on the standing skin surface intercondylar distance (ICD) or intermalleolar distance (IMD), the prevalence rates of genu varum (ICD ≥ 3 cm) and genu valgum (IMD ≥ 4 cm) were calculated. The association of gender, body mass index (BMI), and place of residence to knee alignment was studied.
Results: The rates of genu varum and valgum were 11.4% (5427) and 5.6% (2639), respectively. Genu varum was significantly more prevalent among males than females (16.2% vs. 4.4%, P < 0.001). It was also more prevalent among underweight subjects and less prevalent among overweight and obese subjects (P < 0.001). Genu valgum was significantly more prevalent among females than males (9.4% vs. 2.9%) and in overweight and obese subjects compared to those with normal BMI, while less prevalent in underweight subjects (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that genu varum was independently positively associated with male gender, underweight, and living in a rural area. Genu valgum was independently positively associated with female gender, overweight, and obesity.
Conclusions: This study establishes a modern benchmark for the cutoff and prevalence of genu varum and valgum as well as associations with gender and BMI.
Xiaoyan Shao MD, Ye Xu MD, Xihui Xu MD, Yong Xu MD, Hu Chen MD, Ming Hong MD and Lingxiang Liu MD
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening disease with poor prognosis despite intensive therapy.
Objectives: To discuss the ideal therapy of EBV-associated HLH for adults.
Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 adult patients with EBV-associated HLH at our institution between January 2000 and June 2015. The clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of adult EBV-associated HLH were analyzed. The median age was 38 years (range 18–72).
Results: All patients were found to have high fever, thrombocytopenia, abnormal liver function, elevated ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase. Leukopenia, anemia, coagulopathy, hypofibrinogenemia, and splenomegaly were found in more than 80% of patients. Ten patients were treated with HLH-2004 protocol. Eventually, 95.7% of patients died of EBV-associated HLH. Non-HLH-2004 treatment and bone marrow suppression may predict early relapse independently, and the poor performance status and high lactate dehydrogenase level can be poor prognostic factors. It was also validated in comprehensive analysis of published articles.
Conclusions: Adult EBV-associated HLH occurs most often in people of Asian descent who are older than 35 years. These patients had a disappointing outcome despite intensive treatment, especially with high lactate dehydrogenase levels, poor performance status, and bone marrow suppression. HLH-2004 protocol has shown a glimmer of hope in the adult populations.
Nataša Beader MD PhD, Branko Kolarić MD PhD, Domagoj Slačanac, Irena Tabain MD PhD and Tatjana Vilibić-Čavlek MD PhD
Background: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common viruses found in humans, causing lifelong infection in up to 95% of the world population.
Objectives: To analyze the seroprevalence of EBV infection in different population groups in Croatia.
Methods: During a 2 year period (2015–2016), a total of 2022 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of EBV-specific viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. IgM/IgG-positive samples were further tested for IgG avidity.
Results: The overall prevalence of EBV IgG antibodies was 91.4%. Females had significantly higher IgG seroprevalence than males (93.1% vs. 89.9%, P = 0.008). According to age, IgG seropositivity increased progressively from 59.6% in children age < 9 years to 98.3% in 30–39 year olds, and remained stable thereafter (P < 0.001). The IgG seroprevalence differed significantly among groups: 68.1% in children/adolescents and 95.9% in adults; multiple sclerosis (100%), hemodialysis patients (97.7%), heart transplant recipients (93.8%), hematological malignancies (91.2%), and Crohn’s disease (88.5%), P < 0.001. IgM antibodies were detected in 9% of participants. Using IgG avidity, recent primary EBV infection was documented in 83.8% of IgM-positive subjects < 9 years old, 69.2% age 10–19, 33.3% age 20–29, and 3.6–4.2% > 40. All IgM positive participants > 40 years showed high IgG avidity. Logistic regression showed that age is associated with EBV IgG seropositivity.
Conclusions: EBV is widespread in the Croatian population. Older age appears to be the main risk factor for EBV seropositivity.
Elena De Santis PhD, Alessandra Melegari PhD, Chiara Bonaguri PhD , Gilda Sandri MD, Maria Teresa Mascia MD, Federica Gaiani MD, Valentina Pecoraro PhD , Gianluigi De Angelis MD and Tommaso Trenti MD
Background: Biological agents for anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy have revolutionized treatments for autoimmune diseases; however, approximately 20% of rheumatology and 40% of gastroenterology patients do not respond to the therapy, or they show reduced drug efficacy because of anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation.
Objectives: To evaluate laboratory tools for individual monitoring of infliximab therapy and the relationship between ADA and infliximab serum levels, ADA and clinical response, and ADA and autoantibodies.
Methods: Our study comprised patients treated with infliximab and affected by selected rheumatology and gastroenterology diseases. Sera were analyzed for infliximab, total-anti-drug antibodies (Total-ADA), and free-anti-drug antibodies (Free-ADA) serum levels and for the detection of specific autoantibodies.
Results: We analyzed 73 patients. Total-ADA were detected in 26 rheumatology and 21 gastroenterology patients. Serum infliximab levels were significantly lower in Total-ADA positive patients (P = 0.01 for rheumatology group, P = 0.02 for gastroenterology group). A lack of response was observed in 7 rheumatology and 15 gastroenterology samples. Total-ADA serum levels were statistically significantly higher in patients with treatment failure in both groups (P = 0.01 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant association between the presence of Total-ADA and other autoantibodies. Free-ADA were detected in only 27 rheumatology patients. Results showed a significant correlation with clinical outcome (P = 0.006).
Conclusions: The correlation with clinical response suggests that the presence of ADA could interfere with efficacy of therapy. The tests for monitoring therapy may be an important tool to assist clinicians in early detection and prevention of therapy failure.
Oded Shamriz MD, Mariana Druker Bsc, Tzahi Neuman MD MHA, Zvi Dranitzki MD and Yuval Tal MD PhD
Background: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disease characterized by scleroderma-like skin, inflammation of deep muscle fascia, hypergammaglobulinemia, peripheral eosinophilia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Objectives: To present our experience in diagnosis and treatment of seven biopsy-proven EF patients in a large tertiary medical center.
Methods: We screened all patients who were admitted to our tertiary medical center and diagnosed with EF by tissue biopsies from January 2000 to January 2016. We analyzed relevant patient files regarding diagnosis, treatment, and outcome parameters. A comprehensive framework was presented based on the results of our observations and the corresponding literature.
Results: We identified seven patients (six males; one child). Mean age at diagnosis was 37.4 years (range 10–67 years). Underlying autoimmune disorders were observed in three patients (42.8 %). Disease anatomical distribution was noted in lower and upper limbs (85.7% and 57.1%, respectively) as well as neck and shoulders (14.3% each). Three patients (42.8%) had a history of initial misdiagnosis. The mean time period from first clinical presentation to histopathological diagnosis was 150.3 days (range 16–602 days). Treatment included oral glucocorticoids (71.4%), pulse methylprednisolone (14.2%), and methotrexate (42.8%). Recovery from symptoms related to EF was observed in six patients.
Conclusions: Diagnosis of EF is primarily based on clinical and histopathological findings. As eradication of this disease can be expedited with early treatment, it is important to increase awareness in the medical community.
Ori Eyal MD, Asaf Oren MD, Dganit Almasi-Wolker MD, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover MD, Marianna Rachmiel MD and Naomi Weintrob MD
Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as the first presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a serious complication that is preventable.
Objectives: To identify risk factors for DKA at presentation of T1DM to delineate high-risk Israeli populations that could benefit from preventative measures.
Methods: Data for this multicenter retrospective study were collected from the medical files of three pediatric diabetes centers representing three districts in Israel. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of T1DM, age at diagnosis ≤ 17 years, permanent residency in Israel, and documentation of the presence or absence of DKA at presentation.
Results: The study population included 607 patients of whom 438 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.5 years. DKA was present at diagnosis in 156/438 patients (35.6%). The incidence of DKA was different among the three diabetes centers (P = 0.04). The DKA group was significantly younger than the non-DKA group (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9.5 ± 4.4, respectively, P = 0.008). DKA was significantly associated with maternal origin (Ashkenazi Jewish origin [lower] vs. non-Ashkenazi, P = 0.04) and with paternal education level (academic [lower] vs. non-academic education, P = 0.04). Stepwise logistic regression showed that maternal Ashkenazi Jewish origin has a protective effect on DKA (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.21–0.74, P = 0.004) and that younger age is an independent risk factor (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01–1.1, P = 0.02).
Conclusions: A diabetes educational program targeting high-risk population groups may reduce the prevalence of DKA nationwide.
Ayelet Priel MD, Vicktoria Vishnevskia-Dai MD, Liran Hochma MD, Juliana Gildener-Leapman MD, Guy J. Ben Simon MD, Mordechai Rosner MD, Gal Antman MD and Ofira Zloto MD
Background: The distribution of pathology and clinical characteristics of lacrimal gland diseases are different in different areas of the world.
Objectives: To evaluate the incidence rate, patient characteristics, and indications for surgical intervention of lacrimal gland lesions in a tertiary care center in Israel.
Methods: All biopsied or surgically removed lacrimal gland lesions at the Goldschleger Eye Institute from 2009 to 2015 were identified. The following data were collected: age, gender, indications for surgical intervention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.
Results: We evaluated 28 lacrimal gland biopsies from 26 patients (11 men, 15 women). Mean age at biopsy was 47.5 years old. The most common presenting symptoms were: eyelid swollenness (57.14%), ptosis (32.14%), and proptosis (10.71%). All patients underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In 28 cases, infiltrations of the lacrimal gland were found. In nine cases infiltration of muscles or orbital extension were found. The most common pathologies were non-specified inflammation (44.82%), lymphoma (20.68%), and immunoglobulin G4-related disease (10.34%). The treatment was diverse according to the patient diagnosis. Prognosis of lacrimal gland disease was good; however, in five patients the systemic disease progressed.
Conclusions: Lesions of the lacrimal gland comprise a wide variety of pathological findings that require different treatment strategies. Lacrimal gland biopsies enable physicians to precisely recognize the pathology; therefore, it is important to consider this surgical method in any patient with lesions in the lacrimal gland.