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עמוד בית
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November 2019
Agata Schlesinger MD, Avraham Weiss MD, Olga Nenaydenko MD, Nira Koren-Morag PhD, Abraham Adunsky MD and Yichayaou Beloosesky MD, MHA

Background: Statins and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have beneficial effects on health outcomes in the general population. Their effect on survival in debilitated nursing home residents is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the relationships between statins, SSRIs, and survival of nursing home residents.

Methods: Baseline patient characteristics, including chronic medications, were recorded. The association of 5-year survival with different variables was analyzed. A sub-group analysis of survival was performed according to baseline treatment with statins and/or SSRIs.

Results: The study comprised 993 residents from 6 nursing homes. Of them, 285 were males (29%), 750 (75%) were fully dependent, and 243 (25%) were mobile demented. Mean age was 85 ± 7.6 years (range 65–108). After 5 years follow-up, the mortality rate was 81%. Analysis by sub-groups showed longer survival among older adults treated with only statins (hazard ratio [HR] for death 0.68, 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 0.49–0.94) or only SSRIs (HR 0.6, 95%CI 0.45–0.81), with the longest survival among those taking both statins and SSRIs (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.25–0.67) and shortest among residents not taking statins or SSRIs (P < 0.001). The survival benefit remained significant after adjusting for age and after conducting a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, functional status, body mass index, mini-mental state examination, feeding status, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and hemato-oncological diagnosis.

Conclusion: Treatment with statins and/or SSRIs at baseline was associated with longer survival in debilitated nursing home residents and should not be deprived from these patients, if medically indicated. 

November 2016
Yechiel Sweed MD, Jonathan Singer-Jordan MD, Sorin Papura MD, Norman Loberant MD and Alon Yulevich MD

Background: Trauma is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Abdominal bleeding is one of the common causes of mortality due to trauma. Angiography and embolization are well recognized as the primary treatments in certain cases of acute traumatic hemorrhage in adults; however, evidence is lacking in the pediatric population. 

Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for blunt and penetrating abdominal and pelvic trauma in the pediatric age group.

Methods: Three children with blunt abdominal trauma and one child with iatrogenic renal injury (age 4–13 years) were managed with TAE for lacerated liver (one patient), pelvic fractures (one patient) and renal injuries (two patients). The first two patients, victims of road accidents, had multisystem injuries and were treated by emergency embolization after fluid resuscitation in the Emergency Department (ED). The other two patients had renal injuries: a 4 year old boy with blunt abdominal trauma was diagnosed on initial computed tomography with an unexpected Wilms tumor and was treated with embolization 1 day after admission due to hemodynamic deterioration caused by active arterial tumor bleeding. The following day he underwent successful nephrectomy. The other patient was 13 year old boy with nephrotic syndrome who underwent renal biopsy and developed hemodynamic instability. After fluid resuscitation, he underwent an initial negative angiography, but second-look angiography the following day revealed active bleeding from an aberrant renal artery, which was then successfully embolized.

Results: In all four patients, TAE was diagnostic as well as therapeutic, and no child required surgical intervention for control of bleeding.

Conclusions: We propose that emergency transcatheter angiography and arterial embolization be considered following resuscitation in the ED as initial treatment in children with ongoing bleeding after blunt abdominal trauma or iatrogenic renal injury. Implementation of this policy demands availability and cooperation of the interventional radiology services. 

 

July 2012
O. Megged, M. Bar-Meir and Y. Schlesinger
Background: The incidence of invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae has decreased since the implementation of vaccination against serotype B.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with H. influenzae meningitis or bacteremia in the vaccine era in Israel.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Shaare Zedek Medical Center between 1997 and 2010 who had blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for H. influenzae.

Results: The study group comprised 104 patients – 57 children and 47 adults. Overall, 21 (20%) of the infections were due to serotype b. The children had shorter hospitalizations (6 vs. 12 days, P = 0.005) and lower mortality rate (5% vs. 28%, P = 0.003) as compared to the adults. Bacteremic pneumonia was the most common diagnosis in adults (45% vs. 28% in children, P = 0.08) while meningitis was more common in children (17% vs. 3.5%, P = 0.09). There was a seasonal pattern, with infections being more common during the winter and spring.

Conclusions: Invasive H. influenzae disease is uncommon but still exists in both children and adults. The disease course tends to be more severe in adults. Even in the global vaccination era, serotype b constitutes a significant portion of invasive disease.
February 2012
V. Semionov, Y. Singer and P. Shvartzman

Background: The prevalence and severity of the most troublesome symptoms in terminally ill patients are well known and have been studied in many settings. However, these symptoms change during the course of advanced disease.

Objectives: To evaluate the range and trajectory of symptoms in the final stage of life as measured a month prior to death.

Methods: Patients with an expected prognosis of less than 6 months were recruited for the study. Excluded were non-Hebrew or Russian speakers, and patients with a diagnosis of brain tumor or with cognitive impairment. A structured questionnaire was used to interview patients and their caregivers at home every 2 weeks until death. We present a comparison analysis of 45 patients who completed both interviews 2 and 4 weeks before death.

Results: There were five symptoms (fatigue, pain, reduced well-being, lack of appetite, somnolence) that were reported most frequently, occurring in more than 70% of the patients. Most of the symptoms showed a worsening trend towards death.

Conclusions: Assessing the presence and severity of symptoms as a guide to start or modify treatment is recommended. Knowledge of how symptoms change in the final stage of life could better assist in the management of resources and could help patients and their families in their final preparations.

January 2011
L. Leibenson, S. Banani, A. Borer, M. Meirovitz, Y. Shemer Avni, D. Singer, F. Schlaeffer, M. Leibenson, T. Silberstein, A. Wiznitzer and K. Riesenberg

Background: Concomitant human immunodeficiency virus and human papillomavirus infection increases both HPV[1] persistence and the risk of invasive cervical cancer. An estimation of HPV prevalence among HIV[2]-positive women in Israel would contribute to improving care for this population and preventing morbidity and mortality related to cervical cancer.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical cytology abnormalities, and to assess the possible influence of HIV infection on HPV carriage in HIV-positive women attending the Infectious Disease Clinic at Soroka University Medical Center.

Methods: The study population included 84 HIV-seropositive women. They were examined by a gynecologist and screened for HPV genotyping, and Pap smears were obtained for cervical cytology. Demographic, behavioral, and HIV infection variables were also recorded and analyzed.

Results: Forty-nine (58.3%) of the study participants were HPV-positive; 34 of them had oncogenic genotypes. Young age (< 16 years) at first sexual intercourse was the only variable significantly associated with HPV infection (P < 0.05). Abnormal cervical cytology was present in 17 women (20.3%); 21 women were referred to colposcopy, which was abnormal in 9 (10.7%).

Conclusions: The prevalence of HPV carriage among HIV-positive woman in our study was slightly higher than published elsewhere. The prevalence of pathological cervical cytology was much higher than in the general population. An extremely high prevalence of pathological colposcopies requiring further treatment was found. Screening for HPV and premalignant changes in the uterine cervix is highly recommended in the HIV-seropositive population. We suggest that colposcopy be considered part of the routine workup in HIV-seropositive woman.






[1] HPV = human papillomavirus



[2] HIV = human immunodeficiency virus


May 2010
O. Toker, S. Schwartz, G. Segal, N. Godovitch, Y. Schlesinger and D. Raveh

Background: Ritual circumcision in neonates may cause a urinary tract infection within 2 weeks of the procedure.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of urinary tract infection among Jewish male circumcised neonates (¡Ü 28 days old) evaluated for fever in the emergency room.

Methods: All available medical records of neonates presenting to the pediatric emergency room for evaluation of fever over a 10 year period were reviewed. Data included gender, ethnic background, age in days on presentation to the emergency room, age in days when circumcision was performed (in males ¡Ý 8 days of age), and results of urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Families of males older than 8 days of age who had a UTI[1] were contacted by telephone to verify the circumcision status when the infant presented to the ER[2], to ascertain whether the circumcision was performed ritually by a mohel*
or by a physician, and, when not recorded in the chart, to verify the day of life on which circumcision was performed.

Results: Among neonates older than 8 days of age, 60 (24.7%) of the 243 febrile Jewish males had a UTI, as compared to 12 (8.4%) of 143 females (P < 0.0001). In 39 of 54 male neonates (72%) for whom circumcision was performed ritually on the eighth day of life, UTI occurred within 9 days of the circumcision. For females, there was no such clustering of UTI cases in the second week of life, nor during any other time period.

Conclusions: Febrile male neonates who have undergone ritual circumcision have a high prevalence of UTI and must be evaluated and treated accordingly.
 

[1] UTI = urinary tract infection

[2] ER = emergency room

* Mohel is a Jewish man trained in the practice of Brit milah (circumcision).

D. Miron, Y. Horovitz, A. Luder, F.S. Ohnona and Y. Schelisinger

Background: Human parvovirus B19 is a global and common infectious pathogen in humans, primarily in children.

Objectives: To assess the immunoglobulin G seroprevalence of B19 in children in Israel.

Methods: Overall, 128 previously healthy children (1.5–17 years old) hospitalized for various diseases other than acute human parvovirus B19 infection were assessed for IgG[1] to the virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 

Results: The IgG seroprevalence increased from 22% in children aged 1.5–9 years to 52% in older children (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that most acute parvovirus B19 infections in Israel occur in the early school years, and that by 18 years of age 50% of Israeli children have been infected by the virus.


[1] IgG = immunoglobulin G

October 2008
A. Neville, R. Peleg, Y. Singer, M. Sherf and P. Shvartzman

Background: The prevalence of chronic pain in the general population ranges from 10% to over 40%, depending on the definition and the population studied. No large study has been conducted in Israel.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of patients with chronic pain, and characterize them in a large community random sample.

Methods: We conducted a survey of Clalit Health Services members, interviewing them by phone. A random sample of 4063 Clalit members, 25 years or older and Hebrew speakers, were screened for chronic pain, defined as: any pain or discomfort that in the last 6 months has persisted continuously or intermittently for more than 3 months.

Results: Eight percent (n=325) refused to participate. Of the 3738 included in the study, 1722 (46%) reported chronic pain in at least one site. Most of the patients were over 50 years old (62%) (mean age 56 ± 16, range 27–97 years). Women suffered significantly more than men, as did those who were older, less educated and born in Israel and Eastern Europe. Prevalent painful sites were the back (32%), limbs (17%) and head (13%). More than a third reported severe pain and impaired life activities. Only 4.8% of the patients suffering from chronic pain were referred to pain specialists and 11% used complementary medicine. A logistic regression model showed that women and patients with lower education level were the only significant variables predicting higher life impact index and higher pain severity.

Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of chronic pain in the study population. Chronic pain causes severe disturbance to quality of life. A low rate of referral to pain specialists and complementary medicine was observed.

July 2008
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