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עמוד בית
Sat, 22.06.24

Search results

December 2018
Yael Shapira-Galitz MD, Galia Karp MD, Oded Cohen MD, Doron Halperin MD MHA, Yonatan Lahav MD and Nimrod Adi MD

Background: Nasal device-related pressure ulcers are scarcely addressed in the literature.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and severity of cutaneous and mucosal nasogastric tube (NGT)-associated pressure ulcers (PU) in critically ill patients and to define predictors for their formation.

Methods: A single center observational study of intensive care unit patients with a NGT for more than 48 hours was conducted. Nasal skin was evaluated for PU. Ulcers were graded according to their depth. Consenting patients underwent a nasoendoscopic examination to evaluate intranasal mucosal injury.

Results: The study comprised 50 patients, 17 of whom underwent nasoendoscopic examination. Mean time of NGT presence in the nose was 11.3 ± 6.17 days. All patients had some degree of extranasal PU, 46% were low grade and 54% were high grade. Predictors for high grade extranasal PU compared to low grade PU were higher peak Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (11.52 vs. 8.87, P = 0.009), higher peak C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (265.3 mg/L vs. 207.58, P = 0.008), and bacteremia (33.3% vs. 8.7%, P = 0.037). The columella was the anatomical site most commonly involved and the most severely affected. The number of intranasal findings and their severity were significantly higher in the nasal cavity containing the NGT compared to its contralateral counterpart (P = 0.039 for both).

Conclusions: NGTs cause injury to nasal skin and mucosa in critically ill patients. Patients with bacteremia, high CRP, and high SOFA scores are at risk for severe ulcers, warranting special monitoring and preventive measures.

Said Abo Zaid MD, Shira Shoher MD, Merav Elovits MD, Wael Nasser MD, Goor Zamir MD, Wisam Abo Zaid MD and Avi On MD
October 2018
David Dahan MD, Gali Epstein Shochet PhD, Ester Fizitsky MD, Miriam Almagor MD and David Shitrit MD

Background: Sepsis is a common cause of hospitalization, particularly in intensive care units (ICUs), and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often difficult due to the absence of characteristic clinical signs (e.g., fever and leukocytosis); therefore, additional markers, in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count, are needed.

Objectives: To prospectively link resting energy expenditure (REE) with CRP, WBC count, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores in ICU patients. Such a correlation may suggest REE measurement as an additional parameter for sepsis diagnosis.

Methods: Our study comprised 41 ventilated consecutive patients > 18 years of age. Patient demographic data, height, actual body weight, and SOFA scores were collected at admission. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. REE, CRP, and WBC measurements were collected at admission, on day three after admission, and 1 week later or as clinically indicated.

Results: Comparison of the REE and CRP changes revealed a significant correlation between REE and CRP changes (r = 0.422, P = 0.007). In addition, CRP changes also correlated with the changes in REE (r = 0.36, P = 0.02). Although no significant correlations in REE, WBC count, and SOFA score were found, a significant trend was observed.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to link REE and CRP levels, indicative of severe infection. Further study is needed to establish these findings.

August 2018
Yael Shachor-Meyouhas MD, Orna Eluk RN, Yuval Geffen PhD, Irena Ulanovsky MD, Tatiana Smolkin MD, Shraga Blazer MD, Iris Stein RN and Imad Kassis MD

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a challenging nosocomial pathogen in the last 50 years.

Objectives: To describe an investigation and containment of an MRSA outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: Our NICU is a 25-bed level III unit. Almost 540 neonates are admitted yearly. The index case was an 8 day old term baby. MRSA was isolated from his conjunctiva. Immediate infection control measures were instituted, including separation of MRSA+ carriers, strict isolation, separate nursing teams, and screening of all infants for MRSA. Healthcare workers and parents of positive cases were screened and re-educated in infection control measures. New admissions were accepted to a clean room and visiting was restricted. MRSA isolates were collected for molecular testing.

Results: MRSA was isolated from five infants by nasal and rectal swabs, including the index case. Screening of healthcare workers and families was negative. Two MRSA+ patients already known in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) located near the NICU were suspected of being the source. All NICU isolates were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis but were different from the two PICU isolates. The NICU and one of the PICU isolates were defined as ST-5 strain by multilocus sequence typing. One PICU isolate was ST-627. All NICU isolates were Panton–Valentine leukocidin negative and SCCmec type IV. No further cases were detected, and no active infections occurred.

Conclusions: A strict infection control policy and active screening are essential in aborting outbreaks of MRSA in the NICU.

May 2018
Viktoria Leikin-Zach MD, Eilon Shany MD, Maayan Yitshak-Sade PhD, Ron Eshel B Med Sc, Tali Shafat MD, Avraham Borer MD and Rimma Melamed MD

Background: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production is the most common antimicrobial resistance mechanism in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), with colonization and blood stream infections being a major threat to this population. Since 2013, all NICU admissions at our facility were screened twice weekly for ESBL colonization.

Objectives: To determine independent risk factors for colonization of infants with ESBL-producing bacteria in the NICU.

Methods: A retrospective case study of ESBL-colonized infants vs. controls (matched by date of birth and gestational age) was conducted in the NICU of Soroka University Medical Center, Israel, between 2013 and 2014. Epidemiological, laboratory, and clinical data were extracted from medical files. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess associations between ESBL colonization and possible clinical risk factors.

Results: Of 639 admissions during the study period, 87 were found to be ESBL-colonized (case infants) and were matched to 87 controls. Five case infants became infected (5.7%) with ESBL strains. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common isolated bacteria. The mean time from admission to colonization was 15 days. Univariable analysis showed an association of male gender and highest Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes with ESBL colonization (P < 0.05). Multivariable analysis yielded only a possible association of higher Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.515, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.993-2.314; HR 1.603, 95%CI 0.958–2.682, respectively) with ESBL colonization.

Conclusions: Future studies should focus on maternal colonization and possible strategies for preventing vertical transmission of ESBL strains to high-risk neonates.

October 2017
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Abraham Borer MD, Aviel Roy-Shapira MD, Evgeni Brotfain MD, Leonid Koyfman MD, Lisa Saidel-Odes MD, Alir Adina RN and Moti Klein MD

Background: The authors describe a multifaceted cross-infection control program that was implemented to contain an epidemic of multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MRO) (carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii; extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis; and ‎methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Candida species). 

Objectives: To assess the effect of a control program on the incidence of cross-infection with MRO.

Methods: Clinical criteria triaged patients into a high-risk wing (HRW) or a low-risk wing (LRW). Strict infection control measures were enforced; violations led to group discussions (not recorded). Frequent cultures were obtained, and use of antibiotics was limited. Each quarter, the incidence of MRO isolation was reported to all staff members. 

Results: Over a 6 year period, 1028 of 3113 patients were placed in the HRW. The incidence of MRO isolation within 48 hours of admission was 8.7% (HRW) vs. 1.91% (LRW) (P < 0.001). Acquired MRO infection density was 30.4 (HRW) vs. 15.6 (LRW) (P < 0.009). After the second year, the incidence of group discussions dropped from once or twice a month to once or twice a year.

Conclusions: These measures contained epidemics. Clinical criteria successfully triaged HRW from LRW patients and reduced cross-infection between the medical center wings. The quarterly reports of culture data were associated with improved staff compliance. MRO epidemic control with limited resources is feasible. 


November 2014
Evgeni Brotfain MD, Alexander Zlotnik MD PhD, Andrei Schwartz MD, Amit Frenkel MD, Leonid Koyfman MD, Shaun E. Gruenbaum MD and Moti Klein MD

Background: Optimal oxygen supply is the cornerstone of the management of critically ill patients after extubation, especially in patients at high risk for extubation failure. In recent years, high flow oxygen system devices have offered an appropriate alternative to standard oxygen therapy devices such as conventional face masks and nasal prongs.

Objectives: To assess the clinical effects of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) compared with standard oxygen face masks in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients after extubation.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive ventilated critical care patients in the ICU over a period of 1 year. The patients were allocated to two treatment groups: HFNC (34 patients, group 1) and non-rebreathing oxygen face mask (NRB) (33 patients, group 2). Vital respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were assessed prior to extubation and 6 hours after extubation. The primary clinical outcomes measured were improvement in oxygenation, ventilation-free days, re-intubation, ICU length of stay, and mortality.

Results: The two groups demonstrated similar hemodynamic patterns before and after extubation. The respiratory rate was slightly elevated in both groups after extubation with no differences observed between groups. There were no statistically significant clinical differences in PaCO2. However, the use of HFNC resulted in improved PaO2/FiO2 post-extubation (P < 0.05). There were more ventilator-free days in the HFNC group (P < 0.05) and fewer patients required re-intubation (1 vs. 6). There were no differences in ICU length of stay or mortality.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated better oxygenation for patients treated with HFNC compared with NRB after extubation. HFNC may be more effective than standard oxygen supply devices for oxygenation in the post-extubation period.

July 2014
Arie Soroksky MD, Sergey Nagornov MD, Eliezer Klinowski MD, Yuval Leonov MD, Eduard Ilgiyaev MD, Orit Yossepowitch MD and Galina Goltsman M

Background: The role of routine active surveillance cultures (ASCs) in predicting consequent blood stream infections is unclear.

Objectives: To determine prospectively whether routine screening ASCs obtained on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) can predict the causative agent of subsequent bloodstream infections.

Methods: We prospectively studied a cohort of 100 mechanically ventilated patients admitted consecutively to a 16-bed ICU. On admission, ASCs were obtained from four sites: skin cultures (swabs) from the axillary region, rectal swabs, nasal swabs, and deep tracheal aspirates. Thereafter, cultures were obtained from all four sites daily for the next 5 days of the ICU stay.

Results: Of the 100 recruited patients 31 (31%) had culture-proven bacteremia; the median time to development of bacteremia was 5 days (range 1–18). Patients with bacteremia had a longer median ICU stay than patients without bacteremia: 14 days (range 2–45) vs. 5 days (1–41) (P < 0.001). ICU and 28 day mortality were similar in patients with and without bacteremia. Most ASCs grew multiple organisms. However, there was no association between pathogens growing on ASCs and eventual development of bacteremia.

Conclusions: ASCs obtained on ICU admission did not identify the causative agents of most subsequent bacteremia events. Therefore, bloodstream infections could not be related to ASCs.

May 2012
L. Barski, R. Nevzorov, E. Rabaev, A.B. Jotkowitz, I. Harman-Boehm, M. Zektser, L. Zeller, E. Shleyfer and Y. Almog

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common and serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, hospital management and outcomes of patients with DKA.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with DKA during the period 1 January 2003 to 1 January 2010. Three groups were compared: patients with mild DKA, with moderate DKA, and with severe DKA. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were 30 days all-cause mortality, length of hospital stay, and complication rate.

Results: The study population comprised 220 patients with DKA. In the mild (78 patients) and moderate (116 patients) groups there was a higher proportion of patients with type 1 DM (75.6%, 79.3%) compared with 57.7% in the severe group (26 patients, P = 0.08). HbA1C levels prior to admission were high in all three groups, without significant difference (10.9 ± 2.2, 10.7 ± 1.9, and 10.6 ± 2.4 respectively, P = 0.9). In all groups the most frequent precipitating factors were related to insulin therapy and infections. The patients with severe DKA had more electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia) compared with the mild and moderate forms of the disease. While 72.7% of the entire cohort was hospitalized in the general medical ward, 80.8% of those with severe DKA were admitted to the intensive care unit. The in-hospital mortality rate for the entire cohort was 4.1%, comparable with previous data from experienced centers. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors associated with 30 day mortality: hazard ratio (HR) 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–1.11; HR 6.8, 95% CI 2.03–23.1; and HR 3.8, 95% CI 1.13–12.7, respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with DKA in our study were generally poorly controlled prior to their admission, as reflected by high HbA1c levels. Type 2 DM is frequently associated with DKA including the severe form of the disease. The most common precipitating factors for the development of DKA were related to insulin therapy and infections. Advanced age, mechanical ventilation and bedridden state were independent predictors of 30 day mortality.

March 2012
D. Levy Faber, L. Anson Best, M. Orlovsky, M. Lapidot, R.Reuven Nir and R. Kremer
Background: Pediatric empyema necessitates prompt resolution and early hospital discharge with minimal morbidity. However, the most effective treatment approach is not yet established.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of an intrapleural streptokinase washing protocol as a non-operative treatment for stage II pediatric empyema as compared to operative decortications, by the number of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions, length of PICU stay and hospitalization duration.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 75 consecutive pediatric empyema cases for the period January 2006 to December 2009. Since July 2007 we have used repeated streptokinase-based pleural washing for stage II patients whose condition did not improve with chest drainage.

Results: Before July 2007, 17 of 23 stage II empyema patients underwent decortication, compared to only 1 of 21 after July 2007. Non-operated children were admitted to the PICU less frequently than those who were operated (83% vs. 31%, P = 0.0006), spent less time in the PICU (2.56 ± 1.92 vs. 1.04 ± 1.9 days, P = 0.0148), with no significant statistical difference in overall hospitalization (13.33 ± 3.69 vs. 11.70 ± 5.74 days, P=0.301).

Conclusions: Using intrapleural streptokinase washing as a non-operative treatment for stage II pediatric empyema yielded comparable success rates to the operative approach, with less morbidity.
November 2011
D.E. Carney, K. Matsushima and H.L. Frankel

Since the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guideline (SSG) was published in 2004, critical care physicians can readily access the evidence and current recommendations regarding management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However, several issues including a potential conflict of interest in developing the guidelines were disclosed. There have also been dramatic changes in the management of sepsis, supported by high levels of evidence. SSG[1] 2008 was developed to update the evidence using a new grading system. We reviewed select topics, routinely addressed by intensivists in the surgical intensive care unit, that have changed between SSG 2004 and SSG 2008: namely, glucose control, and administration of steroids, recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) and total parenteral nutrition.

[1] SSG = Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guideline

October 2011
D. Shaham, N.R. Bogot, G. Aviram, L. Guralnik, S. Lieberman, L. Copel, J. Sosna, A.E. Moses, I. Grotto and D. Engelhard

An outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel swine-origin influenza virus (influenza A/H1N1 2009) that began in Mexico was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in June 2009. The pandemic affected many countries, including Israel.

Objectives: To compare the course of chest radiographic and computed tomography findings in patients who survived and those who died following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or intubation due to severe laboratory-confirmed swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 2009.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patient records (267 radiographs, 8 CTs) of 22 patients (10 males, 12 females) aged 3.5–66 years (median 34) with confirmed influenza A/H1N1 2009, admitted to the ICU and/or intubated in five major Israeli medical centers during the period July–November 2009. We recorded demographic, clinical, and imaging findings –including pattern of opacification, extent, laterality, distribution, zone of findings, and presence/absence of nodular opacities– at initial radiography and during the course of disease, and compared the findings of survivors and non-survivors. Statistical significance was calculated using the Wilcoxon (continuous variables) and Fisher's exact tests (categorical variables).

Results: The most common findings on the initial chest radiography were airspace opacities, which were multifocal in 17patients (77%) and bilateral in 16 (73%), in the lower or lower and middle lung zones in 19 patients (86%). Large airspace nodules with indistinct margins were seen in 8 patients (36%). Twelve patients survived, 10 died. Patients who died had multiple background illnesses and were significantly older than survivors (P = 0.006). Radiologic findings for the two groups were not significantly different.

Conclusion: Airspace opacities, often with nodular appearance, were the most common findings among patients with severeinfluenza A/H1N1 2009. The course of radiologic findings was similar in patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 2009 whosurvived and those who died.

R. Farah and N. Makhoul

Background: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major problem worldwide and are usually the main indication for mechanical ventilation (MV), especially in the intensive care unit (ICU). The rate of weaning failure is also high and prolonged MV leads to complications of intubation. The goal is to wean these patients as soon as possible.

Objective: To determine the optimal time necessary to start the weaning process.

Methods: In an attempt to determine the length of MV and stay in the ICU, we compared the length of MV, weaning, re-intubations and discharge during a 10 month period. This study included 122 patients on MV due to severe exacerbation of COPD who were not suitable for non-invasive ventilation. For each patient serial arterial blood gases were measured at admission and during hospitalization. PeCO2 (mixed expired CO2) was tested using a Datex S/5 instrument at follow-up.

Results: The study population comprised all patients who required MV; of these 122, 108 were ventilated from 6 to 140 hours (average 48 ± 42), 9 needed more than 168 hours, and 5 died due to severe ventilation-associated pneumonia. No correlation was found between pH, PCO2 and length of MV; these findings did not contribute to evaluation of the patient’s condition nor did they enable us to predict the length of treatment necessary.

Conclusion: Most of the patients (93%) ventilated for acute respiratory failure due to COPD required MV for only 6–90 hours.

September 2011
D.A. Galvan, K. Matsushima and H.L. Frankel

Ultrasonography in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become a valuable tool for expeditiously, safely and effectively diagnosing and treating a myriad of conditions commonly encountered in this setting. Most surgeons are familiar with FAST (focused assessment with sonography in trauma) and can readily grasp the fundamentals of a limited or directed ultrasonographic exam. Thus, with appropriate training and practice, surgeons can utilize this tool in visualizing, characterizing and treating life-threatening conditions in their role as intensivists in the surgical ICU (SICU). In this review we will discuss the role of ultrasonography in evaluating the acute cardiac status of a patient in the SICU as well as its use in general critical care for assessing the thoracic, abdominal and vascular systems.

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