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עמוד בית
Tue, 27.02.24

Search results

February 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PHD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a medical emergency. The standard of care for AA had been surgical appendectomy. Recently, non-operative management (NOM) has been considered, mainly for uncomplicated AA.

Objectives: To evaluate AA NOM trends over two decades.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on Israel’s National Hospital Discharges Database (NHDD). Inclusion criteria were AA admissions from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2019, with either primary discharged diagnosis of AA, or principal procedure of appendectomy. Predefined groups were children (5 ≤ 18 years) and adults (≥ 18 years). We compared the last decade (2010–2019) with the previous one (2000–2009).

Results: The overall AA incidence rate over two decades was 126/100,000/year; higher in children 164/100,000/year than 113/100,000/year in adults. Surgery was the predominant AA treatment in 91.9%; 93.7% in children and 91.1% in adults. There was an increase in AA NOM rates when comparing the previous decade (5.6%) to the past decade (10.2%); 3.2% vs. 9.1% in children and 6.8% vs. 10.7% in adults, respectively. Annual trends revealed a mild increase in AA NOM rates. Delayed appendectomy (within 90 days of AA NOM) was 19.7% overall; 17.3% in adults and 26.3% in children.

Conclusions: There was an increase in AA NOM rates during the last decade in the overall population. Since 2015, there has been a noticeable increase in AA NOM rates, probably associated with World Society of Emergency Surgery Jerusalem guidelines. Surgery is still the predominant treatment for AA despite the increasing trend in NOM.

January 2023
Doron Carmi MD MHA, Ziona Haklai MA, Ethel-Sherry Gordon PhD, Ada Shteiman MSC, Uri Gabbay MD MPH

Background: Bacterial meningitis (BM) remains a considerable cause of morbidity.

Objectives: To evaluate BM incidence rate trends in diverse age groups.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on the Israeli national registry. Inclusion criteria were acute admissions 2000 to 2019 with primary diagnosis of BM. Predefined age groups were neonates (≤ 30 days), infants (31 days to 1 year), younger children (1 ≤ 5 years), older children (5 ≤ 18 years), and adults (≥ 18 years). Average annual incidence rates per 100,000/year were calculated for the entire period and by decade. Incidence rates for neonates and infants were calculated per 100,000 live births (LB).

Results: There were 3039 BM cases over 2 decades, 60% were adults. The overall BM incidence rate was 2.0/100,000/year, neonates, 5.4/100,000/year LB, infants 17.6/100,000/year LB. First year of life incidence rate (neonates and infants combined) was 23.0/100,000/year, younger children 1.5/100,000/year, older children 0.9/100,000/year, and adults 1.8/100,000/year. All age groups presented a decrease in incidence rate (last decade vs. previous) except neonates, which increased by 34%. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease: 48% and 37% (last decade vs. previous).

Conclusions: Adults showed the highest number of BM cases. The incidence rate was highest during the first year of life (neonates and infants combined). All age groups, except neonates, showed a decreasing trend. Younger and older children presented the most considerable decrease, most likely attributable to vaccination. The observed increase in BM incidence rate in neonates may influence whether preventive strategy is considered.

October 2022
Natav Hendin B.Sc., Raanan Meyer, M.D., Ravit Peretz-Machluf, B.Sc., Ettie Maman, M.D., Micha Baum, M.D.

Background: Gestational hypertensive (GH) disorders remain a major obstetric problem.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of gestational hypertensive disorders among participants undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI) after exposure to various levels of sperm from sperm donation (SD).

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019. Participants conceived via IUI using SD from a single sperm bank and had a successful singleton birth. Group 1 conceived during 1–2 cycles of IUI from the same sperm donor; whereas Group 2 after 3+ cycles.

Results: Overall 171 patients (Group 1 = 81, Group 2 = 90) met inclusion criteria. Participants showed no differences in age, chronic medical conditions, or history of pregnancy complications. The groups differed in gravidity and parity. The factors positively associated with Group 1 included either preeclampsia or GH (11 [13.5%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.001) and GH alone (8 [9.9%] vs. 1 [1.1%], P = 0.014). Newborns from Group 1 had a statistically significant lower birth weight than those from Group 2 (3003 grams ± 564.21 vs. 3173 grams ± 502.59, P = 0.039). GH was more prevalent in Group 1 (P = 0.008) than a control group of 45,278 participants who conceived spontaneously. No significant differences were observed between Group 2 and the control group.

Conclusions: The incidence of GH and preeclampsia in participants was higher among those exposed to 1–2 cycles than those exposed to 3+ cycles of IUI.

February 2022
Viacheslav Bard MD, Baruch Brenner MD, and Hanoch Kashtan MD

There has been a general reduction over the last 20 years in the incidence within Israel of gastric cancer (GC). This has particularly been noted in the Jewish population with a slight increase in the incidence of cancer of the gastroesophageal junction among Jews of Sephardi origin. Given the diversity of individual ethnic subpopulations, the effects of GC incidence in second-generation immigrant Jews, particularly from high prevalence regions (e.g., the former Soviet Union, Iraq, and Iran), awaits determination. There are currently no national data on GC-specific mortality. The most recent available cross-correlated Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR) and International Association for Cancer Research (IARC) incidence data for GC of the body and antrum in Israel are presented. Some of the challenges associated with GC monitoring in the changing Israeli population are discussed. We propose the establishment of a national GC management committee designed to collect demographic and oncological data in operable cases with the aim of recording and improving GC-specific outcomes. We believe that there is value in the development of a national surgical planning program, which oversees training and accreditation in a dynamic environment that favors the wider use of neoadjuvant therapies, minimally invasive surgery and routine extended (D2) lymphadenectomy. These changes should be supported by assessable enhanced recovery programs

August 2021
Ilia Prosso MD, Nugzar Oren MD, Gilad Livshits MD, and Dror Lakstein MD

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had enormous impact on many aspects of our society, including huge medical, social, and economic challenges.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the related movement restrictions on the incidence of hip fractures in different age groups.

Methods: This single center retrospective observational study included all patients over 60 years old admitted to our hospital with the diagnosis of hip fracture during March and April 2020. Exclusion criteria were periprosthetic or pathologic fractures and multitrauma. We collected the same data on all patients with hip fractures admitted during March and April of 2018 and 2019.

Results: Mean patient age increased from 81.7 to 85.0 years. Only two of 49 patients tested positive for COVID-19. The data show a decrease of 38% in fracture load, but a striking decrease of 85% and 59% among sexagenarians and septuagenarian, respectively. There was no decrease among nonagenarians. Early mortality, both at 30 days and 90 days, was twice as common during the pandemic. However, stratification by age group demonstrated that the risks of early mortality were the same as previous years. Mean waiting time for surgery decreased from 27.5 to 18.9 hours. Patient discharge to home over a rehabilitation facility increased from 9% to 17%.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the epidemiology of hip fractures in the elderly. The incidence of fractures and age distribution were significantly different from other years. Discharge destinations were also affected. The management of hip fracture patients was not compromised.

December 2020
Jair Bar MD PhD, Marina Perelman MD, Damien Urban MD, Maya Gottfried MD, Mor Moskovitz MD, Hovav Nechushtan MD PhD, Julia Dudnik MD, Alona Zer MD, Elizabeth Dudnik MD, Ofer Merimsky MD, Amir Onn MD, Barbara Silverman MD

Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death.

Objectives: To identify changing patterns of lung cancer and its histologic subtypes among different population groups in Israel over a 25 year period.

Methods: Primary lung cancers, all types and all stages, diagnosed during 1990–2014 were recorded in the Israel National Cancer Registry database. Demographic information was retrieved from the National Population Register. Age-standardized rates for the different subgroups were calculated for each year. Joinpoint software was used to analyze trends in incidence.

Results: We identified 42,672 lung cancer cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (34%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (19%), large cell/not-otherwise-specified (19%), other histologies (15%), and small cell lung cancer (11%). The adenocarcinoma incidence rose from 25.7% to 48.2% during the examined period. Large cell/not-otherwise-specified incidence peaked around 2005–2006 and declined after. Lung cancer incidence increased significantly for the population overall and specifically in Arab females, followed by Jewish females and by Arab males. Adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer increased in Jewish females and in Arab males. A younger age of diagnosis was seen in Arab compared to Jewish patients.

Conclusions: Jewish females and Arab males and females living in Israel demonstrated a constant increase in lung cancer incidence, mostly in adenocarcinoma and small cell lung cancer incidence. In addition, a younger age of diagnosis in Arabs was noted. Smoking reduction interventions and screening should be implemented in those populations.

November 2019
Elisha Goshen-Gottstein MD, Ron Shapiro MD, Chaya Shwartz MD, Aviram Nissan MD, Bernice Oberman Msc, Mordechai Gutman MD FACS and Eyal Zimlichman MD MSc

Background: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is a major complication following colorectal surgery, with many risk factors established to date. The incidence of AL varies in the medical literature and is dependent on research inclusion criteria and diagnostic criteria.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of and the potential risk factors for AL following colorectal surgery at a single academic medical center.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all operative reports of colorectal procedures that included bowel resection and primary bowel anastomosis performed at Sheba Medical Center during 2012. AL was defined according to the 1991 United Kingdom Surgical Infection Study Group criteria. Data were assessed for leak incidence within 30 days. In addition, 17 possible risk factors for leakage were analyzed. A literature review was conducted.

Results: This cohort study comprised 260 patients, and included 261 procedures performed during the study period. The overall leak rate was 8.4%. In a univariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.37, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.21–9.43), pulmonary disease (OR 3.99, 95%CI 1.49–10.73), current or past smoking (OR 2.93, 95%CI 1.21–7.10), and American Society of Anesthesiologist score ≥ 3 (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.16–8.13) were associated with an increased risk for anastomotic leakage. In a multivariate analysis, male gender (OR 3.62, 95%CI 1.27–10.33) and pulmonary disease (OR 4.37, 95%CI 1.58–12.10) were associated with a greater risk.

Conclusions: The incidence of AL in the present study is similar to that found in comparable series. Respiratory co-morbidity and male sex were found to be the most significant risk factors.

March 2019
Ibrahim Zvidi MD, Doron Boltin MBBS, Yaron Niv MD, Ram Dickman MD, Gerald Fraser MD and Shlomo Birkenfeld MD

Background: Temporal trends in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel have been poorly described.

Objectives: To compare the annual incidence and prevalence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Arab and Jewish populations in Israel between the years 2003 and 2008.

Methods: We applied a common case identification algorithm to the Clalit Health Services database to both determine trends in age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates for IBD in both populations during this period and estimate the burden of IBD in Israel.

Results: The incidence of CD in the Arab population increased from 3.1/100,000 in 2003 to 10.6/100,000 person-years in 2008, compared with a decrease in the Jewish population from 14.3/100,000 to 11.7/100,000 person-years for the same period. The incidence of UC in the Arab population increased from 4.1/100,000 in 2003 to 5.0/100,000 person-years in 2008, a low but stable rate, compared with a decrease from 16.4/100,000 to 9.5/100,000 person-years for the same time period in the Jewish population. The prevalence of both diseases increased due to the accumulation of incident cases but remained much lower among Arabs.

Conclusions: Understanding the factors underlying the differences in incidence and prevalence of IBD in the Jewish and Arab populations may shed light on the genetic and environmental factors associated with these diseases.

February 2019
Osnat Zmora MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Ayala Gover MD and Moshe Bronshtein MD

Background: Unilateral renal agenesis is a rare finding. There are no large-scale studies reporting this finding in early pregnancy.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of unilateral renal agenesis (URA) and of associated anomalies diagnosed by early prenatal trans-vaginal sonography.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 59,382 trans-vaginal scans performed at 14–16 weeks gestation by a single operator at different clinics during the period 1994–2013.

Results: The incidence of URA was 1:1212 (49/59382 cases). Associated anomalies were diagnosed in 22 cases (45%). Renal anomalies were diagnosed in 22.4%. Extra-renal anomalies (with exclusion of a single umbilical artery or nuchal edema as isolated findings) were diagnosed in 24.5%. Ambiguous genitalia were diagnosed in 8.2%.

Conclusions: URA is a rare finding in early trans-vaginal sonography. Associated anomalies are very common and should be sought.

August 2018
Yoav Michowitz MD, Jeremy Ben-Shoshan MD, Oholi Tovia-Brodie MD, Aharon Glick MD and Bernard Belhassen MD

Background: The incidence, characteristics, and clinical significance of catheter-induced mechanical suppression (trauma) of ventricular arrhythmias originating in the outflow tract (OT) area have not been thoroughly evaluated.

Objectives: To determine these variables among our patient cohort.

Methods: All consecutive patients with right ventricular OT (RVOT) and left ventricular OT (LVOT) arrhythmias ablated at two medical centers from 1998 to 2014 were included. Patients were observed for catheter-induced trauma during ablation procedures. Procedural characteristics, as well as response to catheter-induced trauma and long term follow-up, were recorded.

Results: During 288 ablations of OT arrhythmias in 273 patients (RVOT n=238, LVOT n=50), we identified 8 RVOT cases (3.3%) and 1 LVOT (2%) case with catheter-induced trauma. Four cases of trauma were managed by immediate radiofrequency ablation (RFA), three were ablated after arrhythmia recurrence within a few minutes, and two were ablated after > 30 minutes without arrhythmia recurrence. Patients with catheter-induced trauma had higher rates of repeat ablations compared to patients without: 3/9 (33%) vs. 12/264 (0.45%), P = 0.009. The three patients with arrhythmia recurrence were managed differently during the first ablation procedure (immediate RFA, RFA following early recurrence, and delayed RFA). During the repeat procedure of these three patients, no catheter trauma occurred in two, and in one no arrhythmia was observed.

Conclusions: Significant catheter-induced trauma occurred in 3.1% of OT arrhythmias ablations, both at the RVOT and LVOT. Arrhythmia suppression may last > 30 minutes and may interfere with procedural success. The optimal mode of management following trauma is undetermined.

June 2017
Yael C. Cohen MD, Tamar Berger MD MHA, Lora Eshel MD, Dorit Stern MD, Osnat Bairey MD, Pia Raanani MD and Ofer Shpilberg MD MPH

Background: Pulmonary infiltrates (PIs) detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may present a diagnostic challenge due to their wide differential diagnosis, including infection, pulmonary lymphoma and immunochemotherapy-associated pulmonary toxicity.

Objectives: To characterize therapy-associated PIs by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging.

Methods: We conducted a historical analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) PIs in NHL patients treated with combined immunochemotherapy including rituximab. Incidence of PIs, radiological features, patients’ characteristics, underlying NHL type, rituximab/chemotherapy dosing schedules, and symptoms were recorded. Therapy-associated PIs were defined as new or worsening PIs appearing after treatment onset, without evidence of active pulmonary lymphoma or infection.

Results: Among 80 patients who met the pre-specified criteria, therapy-associated PIs were identified in 17 (21%), 6 of whom had accompanying symptoms. Increased FDG uptake was observed in nine, and PI resolution in six. The incidence of PIs was higher in females and in patients with aggressive lymphoma, at advanced stages, and in those who had received treatment consisting of a combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 14 days (R-CHOP-14).

Conclusions: This characterization of therapy-associated PIs may support the clinician managing NHL patients. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of each therapeutic component and the natural history of this phenomenon.

April 2017
Eliezer Robinson MD, Barbara G. Silverman MD MPH and Lital Keinan-Boker MD PhD MPH

Background: The number of cancer survivors has been increasing worldwide and is now approximately 32.6 million and growing. Cancer survivors present a challenge to health care providers because of their higher susceptibility to long-term health outcomes related to their primary disease and treatment.

Objective: To report on the number of cancer survivors and incident cancer cases in the period 1960–2009 in Israel, in order to provide data on the scope of the challenge Israel’s health care funds face.

Methods: The Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR) database was used to identify new cancer cases diagnosed during the period 1960–2009. Lifetable analysis was used to assess changes in cumulative survival and population prevalence of cancer survivors throughout the 50 year study period.

Results: Almost 600,000 invasive cancer cases were diagnosed during the period 1960–2009 (overall absolute survival rate 54%). Within this time period, the number of new patients diagnosed with cancer increased fivefold and that of cancer survivors ninefold. The absolute survival of cancer patients and the prevalence of cancer survivors in the general population significantly increased with time from 34% and 0.5%, respectively (1960–1969), to 62% and 1.9%, respectively (2000–2009). Cumulative absolute survival for 5, 10 and 15 years following diagnosis increased with time as well.

Conclusions: The INCR database is useful to assess progress in the war against cancer. The growing numbers of cancer survivors in Israel present a challenge to the national health and social services system.

March 2017
Yakir Segev MSc MD, Ella Arnon MD, Efraim Siegler MD, Ofer Gemer MD, Yael Goldberg MD, Ron Auslender MD, Anis Kaldawy MD and Ofer Lavie MD
August 2016
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Lital Keinan-Boker MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Gastrointestinal malignancies comprise a broad spectrum of neoplasms and have a high overall incidence. The incidence rates in Israel vary among ethnic groups due to different risk factors.

Objectives: To investigate incidence trends of these cancers in Israel in both Jewish and Arab ethnic groups in order to better understand the risks in those groups.

Methods: This study is based on data published by the Israel National Cancer Registry and the Central Bureau of Statistics. We compared statistics between ethnicities and genders. We examined the eight most common gastrointestinal cancers, focusing on colon, rectal and gastric cancers.

Results: Between 1980 and 2012 there was a decline in the incidence of gastric cancer in the Jewish population; in contrast, a significant increase occurred in Arab women, but there was no significant change in Arab men. Colon cancer showed a relative decrease in incidence in the Jewish population, but an increase in the Arab population. A decrease in the incidence of rectal cancer in the Jewish population and an increase in the Arab population was observed. 

Conclusions: Gastric, colon and rectal cancers exhibit differences in incidence and outcome between Jewish and Arab populations in Israel. These differences were not observed in the other five types of less common gastrointestinal cancers.


July 2016
Avivit Brener MD, Eran Mel MD, Shlomit Shalitin MD, Liora Lazar MD, Liat de Vries MD, Ariel Tenenbaum MD, Tal Oron MD, Alon Farfel MD, Moshe Phillip MD and Yael Lebenthal MD

Background: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are exempt from conscript military service, but some volunteer for national service. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of national service (military or civil) on metabolic control and incidence of acute diabetes complications in young adults with T1D. 

Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 145 T1D patients were retrieved from medical records. The cohort comprised 76 patients volunteering for national service and 69 non-volunteers. Outcome measures were HbA1c, body mass index-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), insulin dosage, and occurrence of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). 

Results: Metabolic control was similar in volunteers and non-volunteers: mean HbA1c at various time points was: 7.83 ± 1.52% vs. 8.07% ± 1.63 one year before enlistment age, 7.89 ± 1.36% vs. 7.93 ± 1.42% at enlistment age, 7.81 ± 1.28% vs. 8.00 ± 1.22% one year thereafter, 7.68 ± 0.88% vs. 7.82 ± 1.33% two years thereafter, and 7.62 ± 0.80% vs. 7.79 ± 1.19% three years thereafter. There were no significant changes in HbA1c from baseline throughout follow-up. BMI and insulin requirements were similar and remained unchanged in volunteers and controls: mean BMI-SDS one year before enlistment age was 0.23 ± 0.83 vs. 0.29 ± 0.95, at enlistment age 0.19 ± 0.87 vs. 0.25 ± 0.98, one year thereafter 0.25 ± 0.82 vs. 0.20 ± 0.96, two years thereafter 0.10 ± 0.86 vs. 0.15 ± 0.94, and three years thereafter 0.20 ± 0.87 vs. 0.16 ± 0.96. Mean insulin dose in U/kg/day one year before enlistment age was 0.90 ± 0.23 vs. 0.90 ± 0.37, at enlistment age 0.90 ± 0.28 vs. 0.93 ± 0.33, one year thereafter 0.86 ± 0.24 vs. 0.95 ± 0.33, two years thereafter 0.86 ± 0.21 vs. 0.86 ± 0.29, and three years thereafter 0.87 ± 0.23 vs. 0.86 ± 0.28. There were no episodes of severe hypoglycemia or DKA in either group. 

Conclusions: Our data indicate that during voluntary national service young adults with T1D maintain metabolic control similar to that of non-volunteers. 


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