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עמוד בית
Mon, 20.05.24

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May 2018
Edward G. Abinader MD FRCPI

Cardiac patients of all ages were managed in the past by internists who specialized in cardiology. During the past 50 years, the medical field has witnessed great strides in the management of congenital heart disease, and thus pediatric cardiology has become a subspecialty in many countries. This review article focuses on the advances in fetal cardiac interventions (FCI) since its inception by our group in 1975. Three major modes of FCI have evolved during the past 42 years: pharmacologic, closed FCI, and open FCI. All treatments require a careful approach by the heart team and are reserved for severe fetal cardiac conditions. They call for prenatal intervention in view of the severity and progressive nature of the diseases that are associated with high fetal morbidity and mortality if left untreated. The well-established pharmacologic FCI approach includes several new and effective agents with recommendations often varying between class I and class IIa and IIb. The advances in prenatal echocardiographic imaging and color flow Doppler has given an impetus to the development of the other FCI modes; however, the need for uterine incision and fetal cardiac bypass in the open technique have limited its advance. Long-term outcomes are still unknown and definite conclusions as to the efficacy and safety of FCI need further investigation, including multicenter trials with long-term data. 

January 2018
November 2017
Cheri Korb MD, Abid Awisat MD, Doron Rimar MD, Itzhak Rosner MD, Arsen Schpigelman MD, Daniela Militianu MD and Gleb Slobodin MD

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has recently become the leading imaging modality in the study of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), has not been evaluated in the assessment of disease-specific changes at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) in patients with AS.

Objectives: To describe the spectrum of active inflammatory lesions at the CCJ using MRI in a cohort of patients with AS and neck pain.

Methods: The study included 18 patients with AS presenting with neck pain and a control group of 9 fibromyalgia patients matched for age and levels of neck pain. All patients underwent a focused rheumatologic examination, X-ray of the cervical spine, and a 3T MRI study, which included STIR, CUBE T2, FSE and FSE FAT SAT sequences before and after administration of gadolinium.

Results: The median age of AS patients was 43 years with a median disease duration of 7 years. Fifteen of 18 patients were under biologic treatment. Seven of 18 AS patients had evidence of cervical syndesmophytes on X-ray films. Active inflammatory lesions of atlanto-occipital joints and apical and alar ligaments were detected in MRIs in 2 out of the 18 patients with AS and in none of the patients with fibromyalgia. Both AS patients with active inflammation of CCJ detected on MRI received treatment with biological agents prior to and during the study.

Conclusions: Active inflammation of both entheses and joints of the CCJ can be demonstrated by MRI in patients with AS.

Abdulla Watad MD, Iris Eshed MD and Dennis McGonagle MD FRCPI PhD

Enthesitis is a term that refers to inflammation at tendon, ligament, or joint capsule insertions. The entheses are increasinlgly considered to be the primary site of joint inflammation in the spondyloarthropathies including psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Great advances have occurred in the understanding of enthesopathy, which has resulted in a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of PsA. Enthesitis is difficult to assess on both clinical examination and on imaging because of the overlap in features between mechanical, degenerative, and inflammatory pathologies. Ultrasonography frequently detects entheseal abnormalities in patients with psoriasis, despite the absence of clinical symptoms of arthropathy and the longitudinal value of such lesions for PsA prediction remains unknown. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment and monitoring of enthesitis is not fully agreed on but it is clearly superior for the assessment of spinal polyenthesitis and for diffuse peri-enthseal osteitis that can occur anywhere in the skeleton. Nuclear medicine, including conventional positron-emission tomography (PET) and high-resolution PET scan (hrPET), is more of a research tool for enthesitis and can, for example, help distinguish between PsA and osteoarthritis. Entheseal abnormalities are common in osteoarthritis, which creates diagnostic difficulty from PsA. Entheseal changes, especially on imaging, may also occur in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and likely reflect the extension of the inflammatory process from the adjacent synovium. The nail is anatomically anchored to the skeleton via a mini-enthesis network. An association between ultrasonography determined distal interphalageal joint (DIP) extensor tendon enthesopathy and clinical nail disease was found, which highlights the pivotal role of the enthesis in this PsA risk factor. This review summarizes the relevant insights and implication of imaging for enthesitis, primarily in PsA but also in other arthropathies.

 

Xenofon Baraliakos MD PhD

Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) covers the stage of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and classic ankylosing spondylitis. The pathognomonic findings of axSpA are mainly inflammatory and osteoproliferative changes in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) and the spine. Various imaging techniques are being used in daily practice for assessment of disease-specific changes, such as periarticular bone marrow edema, erosions, sclerosis, fat metaplasia and ankylosis in the SIJ or spondylitis, spondylodiscitis, facet joint involvement, or syndesmophytes in the spine of patients with axSpA. Conventional radiographs are still considered the gold standard for assessment of structural changes, while the method of for detection of inflammatory changes is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

A result for an MRI in the SIJ is considered positive for axSpA when more than one lesion is present on one MRI slice, If there is one lesion only, this should be present on at least two consecutive slices. For the spine, inflammatory lesions should preferably be located in the corner of the vertebral bodies, while occurrence of spondylitis in three or more vertebral corners is considered highly suggestive of axSpA.

This review gives a detailed overview about the benefits and limitations of all available imaging techniques in patients with axSpA, explains the usage of imaging techniques in the context of diagnosis and differential diagnosis of the disease, and reports on the potential future trends in the area of imaging of the axial skeleton in patients who are suspicious for this diagnosis.

Maria Antonietta D’Agostino MD PhD

Over the last 15 years ultrasound has gained importance for the clinical management of patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. This review summarizes the recent developments and achievements in the use of ultrasound in RA, as well as the unmet needs.

October 2017
Natalia Simanovsky MD, Nurith Hiller MD, Maxim Timofeev, Eli M. Eisenshtein MD, Zeev Perles MD and Sigal Tal MD

Background: Virtual autopsies by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging can be valuable in cases of unexplained infant death. The radiologist must be familiar with the normal appearance of all the segments of the thoracic aorta in normal and deceased children. A thorough review of the literature revealed no prior articles describing CT changes in the ascending aorta or the aortic arch in pediatric virtual autopsies.

Objectives: To compare the CT appearance of the thoracic aorta in deceased children and in those younger than 3 years of age.

Methods: Hospital registries were searched for cases of unexpected deaths in children younger than 3 years old, with a postmortem CT available, as well as for clinically indicated chest CT in children of the same age during a 5 year period. The ascending aorta (AA), aortic arch (arch), and the descending aorta (DA) diameters were measured. Student's t-tests and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to compare the two groups.

Results: A total of 64 scans were reviewed: 35 postmortem and 29 performed on living patients. The differences in the diameter and the ratios of the diameter between the AA and the arch, as well as between the arch and the DA in the postmortem and living groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: On postmortem CT scans, we found focal tapering of the aortic caliber at the level of the arch between the origin of the brachiocephalic artery and left subclavian artery. This finding should not be misinterpreted as a hypoplastic aortic arch.

 

June 2017
Ronen Goldkorn MD, Alexey Naimushin MD, Roy Beigel MD, Ekaterina Naimushin, Michael Narodetski MD and Shlomi Matetzky MD

Background: While patients presenting to emergency departments (ER) with chest pain are increasingly managed in chest pain units (CPU) that utilize accelerated diagnostic protocols for risk stratification, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), data are lacking regarding the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal scans in this population.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal SPECT MPI results in patients with acute chest pain.

Methods: Of the 3753 chest pain patients admitted to the CPU at the Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center 1593 were further evaluated by SPECT MPI. Scans were scored by extent and severity of stress-induced perfusion defects, with 1221 patients classified as normal, 82 with myocardial infarction without ischemia, 236 with mild ischemia, and 54 with more than mild ischemia. Mild ischemia patients were further classified to those who did and did not undergo coronary angiography within 7 days.

Results: Mild ischemia patients who underwent coronary angiography were more likely to be male (92% vs. 81%, P = 0.01) and to have left anterior descending ischemia (67% vs. 42%, P = 0.004). After 50 months, these patients returned less often to the ER with chest pain (53% vs. 87%, P < 0.001) and had a lower combined endpoint of acute coronary syndrome and death (8% vs. 16%, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Compared to patients with chronic stable angina, patients presenting with acute chest pain exhibiting mildly abnormal SPECT MPI findings should perhaps undergo a more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

May 2017
Abdel-Rauf Zeina MD, Saif Abu-Mouch MD and Amir Mari MD
April 2017
Abdel-Rauf Zeina MD, Helit Nakar MD, Nadir Reindorp MD, Alicia Nachtigal MD, Michael M Krausz MD, Itamar Ashkenazi MD and Mika Shapira-Rootman MD PhD

Background: Four-dimensional parathyroid computed tomography (4DCT) is a relatively new parathyroid imaging technique that provides functional and highly detailed anatomic information about parathyroid tumors.

Objective: To assess the accuracy of 4DCT for the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas (PTAs) in patients with biochemically confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and a history of failed surgery or unsuccessful localization using 99mTc-sestamibi scanning and ultrasonography.

Methods: Between January 2013 and January 2015, 55 patients with PHPT underwent 4DCT at Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel. An initial unenhanced scan was followed by an IV contrast injection of nonionic contrast material (120 ml of at 4 ml/s). Scanning was repeated 25, 60, and 90 seconds after the initiation of IV contrast administration. An experienced radiologist blinded to the earlier imaging results reviewed the 4DCT for the presence and location (quadrant) of the suspected PTAs. At the time of the study, 28 patients had undergone surgical exploration following 4DCT and we compared their scans with the surgical findings.

Results: 4DCT accurately localized 96% (27/28) of abnormal glands, all of which were hypervascular and showed characteristic rapid enhancement on 4DCT that could be distinguished from Level II lymph nodes. Surgery found hypovascular cystic PTA in one patient who produced a negative 4DCT scan. All patients had solitary PTAs. The scan at 90 seconds provided no additional information and was abandoned during the study.

Conclusions: 4DCT accurately localized hypervascular parathyroid lesions and distinguished them from other tissues. A three-phase scanning protocol may suffice.

February 2017
Avishay Tzur MD,Yair Sedaka MD, Yariv Fruchtman MD, Eugene Leibovitz, MD, Yuval Cavari MD, Iris Noyman MD, Shalom Ben-Shimol MD, Ilan Shelef MD and Isaac Lazar MD
December 2016
Eyal Klang MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Stephen Raskin MD, Noa Rozendorn, Nicholas Keddel MD, Jana Pickovsky MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Background: Silicone breast augmentation is a common cosmetic surgery. Previous case reports demonstrated lymphadenopathy in the presence of implant ruptures.

Objectives: To investigate the association between enlarged axillary lymph nodes and silicone implant ruptures as seen on breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Two groups were derived retrospectively from breast MRI reports in our institution for the period December 2011–May 2014. A search of our hospital records for "silicone" and "lymph node" was performed (group A), and the relationship between the presence of enlarged nodes and ruptures was evaluated. The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was calculated and the association between MRI imaging features and ruptures evaluated. A search for "silicone" and "implant rupture" was performed (group B) and, as for group A, the relationship between the presence of ruptures and nodes was evaluated and the prevalence of enlarged nodes in the presence of ruptures calculated.

Results: Group A comprised 45 women with enlarged nodes. Intracapsular ruptures were associated with nodes (P = 0.005), while extracapsular ruptures showed a trend of association with nodes (P = 0.08). The prevalence of ruptures in the presence of nodes was 31.4%. Nodes associated with ruptures showed a strong silicone signal (P = 0.008) and absent enhancement (P = 0.005). Group B comprised 73 women with ruptures. Enlarged nodes were associated with both intra- and extracapsular ruptures (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002 respectively). The prevalence of nodes in the presence of ruptures was 22.2%.

Conclusions: Enlarged axillary nodes were associated with ruptures in two groups of patients. This finding can guide clinical decisions when either enlarged nodes or ruptures are encountered in patients with silicone implants. The association between silicone lymphadenopathy and implant rupture raises concerns regarding the role of rupture in silicone-induced systemic disease.

 

October 2016
Michal M. Amitai MD, Eldad Katorza MD, Larisa Guranda MD, Sara Apter MD, Orith Portnoy MD, Yael Inbar MD, Eli Konen MD, Eyal Klang MD and Yael Eshet MD

Background: Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain pose a diagnostic challenge. Delay in diagnosis may result in significant risk to the fetus. The preferred diagnostic modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since ultrasonography is often inconclusive, and computed tomography (CT) would expose the fetus to ionizing radiation

Objectives: To describe the process in setting up an around-the-clock MRI service for diagnosing appendicitis in pregnant women and to evaluate the contribution of abdominal MR in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting with acute abdominal pain over a 6 year period who underwent MRI studies. A workflow that involved a multidisciplinary team was developed. A modified MRI protocol adapted to pregnancy was formulated. Data regarding patients' characteristics, imaging reports and outcome were collected retrospectively. 

Results: 49 pregnant women with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Physical examination was followed by ultrasound: when positive, the patients were referred for MR scan or surgery treatment; when the ultrasound was inconclusive, MR scan was performed. In 88% of women appendicitis was ruled out and surgery was prevented. MRI diagnosed all cases with acute appendicitis and one case was inconclusive. The overall statistical performance of the study shows a negative predictive value of 100% (95%CI 91.9–100%) and positive predictive value of 83.3% (95%CI 35.9–99.6%).

Conclusions: Creation of an around-the-clock imaging service using abdominal MRI with the establishment of a workflow chart using a dedicated MR protocol is feasible. It provides a safe way to rule out appendicitis and to avoid futile surgery in pregnant women.

Osnat Halshtok Neiman MD, Zippy Erlich PhD, Eitan Friedman M PhD, Arie Rundstein MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Yael Servadio MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD

Background: Automated breast volumetric sonography (ABVS) is a new technology with various possible applications.

Objectives: To compare ABVS and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the surveillance of women with BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study in Jewish female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who underwent breast MRI and ABVS. The results of both exams performed 6 months apart or less, and relevant clinical data, were reviewed. The BIRADS results were divided into three subgroups according to subsequent expected management: BIRADS 1-2 (normal study), BIRADS 3 (probably benign finding), and BIRADS 4 and 5 (suspicious findings). BIRADS 0 and 6 scores were excluded from the study. Distribution of ABVS and MRI BIRADS scores were compared using McNemar's test, and concordance was calculated using the Cohen kappa test.

Results: Overall, 68 women, 40 BRCA1 and 28 BRCA2 mutation carriers, age range 26–69 (mean 44.55 ± 12.1 years), underwent 79 paired ABVS and MRI examinations. McNemar's test calculations showed no significant difference between MRI and ABVS BIRADS score distribution. Cohen’s kappa test resulted in k = 0.158, an agreement that can be described as only "slight agreement" between both modalities. Of 14 discordant cases there was one cancer, revealed by MRI and not by ABVS performed 6 months prior to MRI.

Conclusions: ABVS showed slight agreement with MRI in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These preliminary results on a small group of healthy high risk patients suggest that the diagnostic abilities of ABVS are inferior to MRI. Further studies encompassing larger groups are needed.

 

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