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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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June 2016
Atira S. Bick PhD, Zeev Meiner MD, Marc Gotkine MBBS and Netta Levin MD PhD

Background: Neurolathyrism is a toxic nutritional disorder caused by consumption of the grass pea, Lathyrus sativus. The disease, which manifests as an acute or insidiously evolving spastic paraparesis, continues to occur throughout Africa and Asia. Research on this disease is limited, and to our knowledge no imaging studies of patients with neurolathyrism have been published. 

Objectives: To better localize the site of damage in neurolathyrism using advanced imaging methods. 

Methods: Three male patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, were included in the study. All had a history of arrested spastic paraparesis that had evolved before their emigration from Ethiopia, and a past history of exposure to grass pea without any other cause. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) included simple motor tasks to evaluate cortical motor areas. Anatomic scans included diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate the corticospinal tracts.

Results: In all patients clear activation was found in motor regions and the patients’ activity pattern was qualitatively similar to that in control subjects. In one patient in whom clinical symptoms were asymmetric, an asymmetric activity pattern in M1 was identified. DTI analysis identified intact corticospinal tracts connecting the pons and the primary motor regions, similar to control subjects. 

Conclusions: Advanced neuroimaging clearly identified well-functioning motor regions and tracts in neurolathyrism patients, suggesting a spinal etiology.

 

May 2016
Eran Millet MD, Josef Haik MD, Elad Ofir MD, Yael Mardor MD, Eyal Winkler MD, Moti Harats MD and Ariel Tessone MD

Background: Although fat grafting is a common technique to repair defects after breast cancer reconstruction surgery and has a low complication rate, the relation between fat grafting and the risk of breast cancer is unknown. Clinical trials to investigate this connection can elucidate the benefits and potential risks of fat grafting in oncology patients.

Objectives:To establish an efficient experimental model, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, for comparing different breast tumor study groups post-fat grafting. 

Methods: Breast tumor cells were injected into immunocompromised mice. After tumors formed they were removed. Liposuction was performed in a female human donor and fat was collected. Cells were extracted from the fat by enzymatic digestion. Immunocompromised mice were randomized into four groups: a preliminary experiment group and three equal groups according to the type of fat graft: (i) fresh fat enriched with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs), (ii) fresh fat without cell enrichment, and (iii) no fat injected. Tumor volume was assessed by serial MRI scans. 

Results: The rate of tumor growth was higher in the enriched fat group compared to the non-enriched fat group. 

Conclusions: This experimental model is an effective measurable method, allowing future investigation of the effect of autologous fat on breast cancer.

 

December 2015
Gleb Slobodin MD and Iris Eshed MD

The term non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nrAxSpA) was coined for patients who have a clinical picture of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but do not exhibit radiographic sacroiliitis. The ASAS classification criteria for nrAxSpA, ensuring the recruitment of homogenous study cohorts, were accepted in 2009, although the respective diagnostic criteria for daily clinical practice have not yet been developed. The clinical diagnosis should be based on the composite of clinical symptoms and signs of the disease, HLA B27 status, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints. Notably, a negative MRI or HLA B27 does not exclude the diagnosis in patients with a high clinical suspicion for nrAxSpA. The prevalence of nrAxSpA is similar to that of AS, but the former has a higher female preponderance. The rate of progression of nrAxSpA to the radiographic stage of disease (AS) ranges from 10% to 20% over 2 years. Current treatment strategies for nrAxSpA are the same as for AS and include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. While this review summarizes the current achievements in the field of nrAxSpA, further understanding of the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and, particularly, mechanisms of inflammation and subsequent new bone formation is essential for the development of new treatment strategies for nrAxSpA patients. 

November 2015
Abdel-Rauf Zeina MD, Mika Shapira-Rootman MD PhD, Ahmad Mahamid MD, Jalal Ashkar MD, Saif Abu-Mouch MD and Alicia Nachtigal MD

Background: Plain abdominal radiographs are still performed as a first imaging examination to evaluate abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED), despite uncertainty regarding their utility.

Objectives: To describe the frequency and outcomes of the use of plain abdominal radiographs in the diagnosis of patients presenting with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain in the ED of a medical center. 

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients presenting to the ED with acute abdominal pain during a 6 month period. Further imaging (computed tomography, ultrasonography), when performed, was compared with the abdominal radiography. 

Results: Of 573 consecutive patients, 300 (52%) underwent abdominal radiography. Findings were normal in 88% (n=264), non-specific in 7.3% (n=22), and abnormal in 4.7% (n=14). For those with normal results, no further imaging was ordered for 43% (114/264). Of the 57% (150/264) who had follow-up imaging, 65% (98/150) showed abnormal findings. In 9 (3%) of the 300 patients, abdominal radiography identified bowel perforations and obstructions, and treatment was provided without the need for further radiologic examination.

Conclusions: The use of plain abdominal radiography is still common despite the high rate of false positive results. Efforts are needed to decrease the indiscriminate use of radiography in patients presenting with abdominal symptoms.

 

Shmuel Chen MD PhD, Karine Atlan MD, Dan Gilon MD, Chaim Lotan MD and Ronen Durst MD
October 2015
Haim Shmilovich MD, Svetlana Trestman MD, Stella Bak MD, Galit Aviram MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Arie Steinvil MD and Gad Keren MD
September 2015
Sigal Tal MD, Michael Abrahamy MD, Paul Gottlieb MD, Hillel Maresky MD and Anna Ben Ely MD

Background: The practice of administering intravenous contrast to children varies by institution depending on their routine. 

Objectives: To assess the necessity of routine contrast administration in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pediatric outpatients referred for chronic headache workups. 

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of consecutive pediatric brain MRI examinations performed during January and February 2014 in 30 pediatric outpatients referred for evaluation of chronic headache. Independent review was performed by two board-certified neuroradiologists. The raters reviewed each MRI first as a non-contrast examination (without seeing the post-contrast images) and then with post-contrast images. 

Results: No abnormalities were found in six patients. One patient had an indeterminate finding of a tubular cerebellar lesion requiring follow-up. In the remaining patients (n=23), the findings were subclinical and included: mucosal thickening in the paranasal sinuses in 9 patients, cystic changes of the pineal gland in 8 (size 2–9 mm), small developmental venous anomalies in 6, non-specific FLAIR hyperintensities in 4, opacification of the mastoids in 2, and telangiectasia in 1 patient. The subclinical cases that were missed on pre-contrast images were: one small developmental venous anomaly, one telangiectasia and one small pineal cyst, none of which hold clinical significance. All kappa inter-rater and intra-rater agreement scores resulted in values above 0.75, excellent agreement according to Fleiss guidelines.

Conclusions: There seems to be little reason to medically justify large-scale use of routine IV contrast administration to evaluate a brain MRI of pediatric patients referred for chronic headache. 

 

August 2015
Alex Geftler MD, Abraham Sasson MD, Ilan Shelef MD, Zvi H. Perry MD3 and Dan Atar MD
July 2015
Osnat Halshtok-Neiman MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Arie Rundetsein MD, Yael Servadio MD, Michael Gotleib MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important role in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Suspicious findings on MRI are further evaluated with ultrasound. This case series illustrates the use of automated breast volumetric ultrasound (ABVS) as a tool for second-look ultrasound (SLUS) following MRI. Seven women underwent breast MRI with findings necessitating SLUS. ABVS was used for second look and all MRI lesions were detected. Four cancers, one fibroadenoma and two benign lesions, were diagnosed. This case series shows that ABVS can be used as a tool for SLUS following MRI and in some cases is superior to hand-held ultrasound.

Marina Leitman MD, Laurian Copel MD, Simcha Rosenblatt MD, Josef Gurevich MD and Zvi Vered MD FACC FESC
June 2015
Michal M. Amitai MD, Lisa Raviv-Zilka MD, Marjorie Hertz MD, Zippora Erlich PhD, Eli Konen MD, Shomron Ben-Horin MD and Sara Apter MD

Abstract

Background: Only a few studies have compared the accuracy of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) in the diagnosis of Crohn's disease and its complications.

Objectives: To compare the sensitivity of MRE and CTE analysis in their ability to detect, sign-by-sign, 10 classical imaging signs of Crohn's disease.

Methods: The study group comprised 42 biopsy-proven Crohn's disease patients who underwent both CTE and MRE within an average period of 6 weeks. Agreement between the two modalities in detecting the 10 most significant radiological signs of CD was evaluated using the Kappa index. The sensitivity of MRE and CTE was calculated using a standard of reference composed of all the findings seen by CTE and/or MRE. We analyzed MRE and CTE sensitivity separately in two groups, according to the time interval between the examinations.

Results: Agreement between CTE and MRE was more than 70% in 8 of the 10 signs: mural thickening, phlegmon, stenosis, skip lesions, mucosal stratification, fistula, abscess, and creeping fat. The Kappa level of agreement values for CTE versus MRE varied between substantial for phlegmon and skip lesions; moderate for fistula, creeping fat, abscess and mural thickening; and fair for stenosis and dilatation. CTE detected more findings than MRE, except for creeping fat and fistula. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity of CTE and MRE in the two groups defined by the time interval (time < 1.5 and time > 1.5 months) except for detection of dilatation.

Conclusions: Almost all imaging signs of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by both modalities regardless of the time interval between examinations. We therefore consider MRE to be reliable for imaging and follow-up in patients with Crohn's disease who may need recurrent imaging.

 

March 2015
Sigal Tal MD, Nadav Berkovitz MD, Paul Gottlieb MD and Konstantin Zaitsev MD

Abstract

Background: Forensic imaging was officially introduced in Israel in 2011. Religious and cultural opposition to autopsies prevails in most of the population in Israel.

Objectives: To examine the extent to which forensic imaging has been accepted as an adjuvant or partial replacement of forensic autopsy, particularly among those opposed to forensic autopsy.

Methods: The study was conducted in a pediatric population. Data were collected from the National Center of Forensic Medicine and Assaf Harofeh Medical Center during the 18 month period following the introduction of forensic imaging (group A). The data were compared to those of the previous 18 months (group B). The examined parameters were cases submitted, examined, autopsied or imaged depending on family consent.

Results: Consent to autopsy was similar in both groups (A = 56% vs. B = 54%). In group A, consent for imaging was 24% of all cases, and of those imaged 77% underwent autopsy. Of those examined externally only, 16% consented to imaging. For 7% of the total cases in group A, estimation of cause of death was based on virtopsy alone.

Conclusions: In a country with a high level of religious opposition to autopsy, it is a challenge to add forensic to the pediatric forensic investigation. Those consenting to forensic imaging are more likely to be those consenting to autopsy. Consent for forensic imaging only was given in 7% of cases. Greater efforts should be invested to educate and inform the public regarding the benefits of virtual autopsy and the importance of data acquired from forensic images. 

November 2014
Maya Wertman MD, Charles Milgrom MD, Gabriel Agar MD, Yael Milgrom MD, Newton Yalom and Aharon S. Finestone MD

Background: Medical evaluation of a suspected meniscus injury begins with a history-taking and physical examination. Suspected meniscus injuries not responding to treatment are usually sent for imaging to confirm the diagnosis before arthroscopy. Tc-MDP bone single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan has been suggested as an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating suspected knee meniscus tears.

Objectives: To examine the accuracy of knee SPECT as a tool to identify meniscus tears versus that of MRI as compared to the gold standard of arthroscopy.

Methods: The Israel Defense Forces database for 2005 through 2009 was searched according to the key words knee MRI, knee SPECT and knee arthroscopy. We identified 330 subjects who had undergone both a single knee SPECT and a single knee MRI prior to knee surgery. The medical files of 193 of the 330 subjects were randomly selected for review. A comparison was made between the preoperative SPECT and MRI studies and the arthroscopic finding. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated.

Results: The subjects’ age was 21.3 ± 3.9. The agreement between SPECT and arthroscopy was 0.14 for the medial meniscus and 0.29 for the lateral meniscus. The agreement between MRI and arthroscopy was 0.59 for the medial meniscus and 0.69 for the lateral meniscus. SPECT scan was found to be 61% sensitive, 54% specific and 58% accurate in detecting common knee pathology, whereas MRI was found to be 95% sensitive, 67% specific and 85% accurate.

Conclusions: Knee SPECT has a lower sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than MRI in evaluating meniscal injuries and its use can result in increased unnecessary surgery.

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