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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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June 2014
Haim Shmuely MD, Morad Wattad MD, Alejandro Solodky MD, Jacob Yahav MD, Zmira Samra PhD and Nili Zafrir MD
 Background: The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and coronary artery disease (CAD) has as yet not been fully examined. The myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) stress test has proven its efficacy as an integral part of diagnosing CAD.


Objectives: To investigate the association between CAD and H. pylori infection using MPI.

Methods: This prospective study evaluated CAD positivity among consecutive patients referred to a tertiary medical center for a stress/rest MPI. All patients were tested for serum anti-H. pylori and CagA protein immunoglobulin G antibodies. The CAD-positive group included patients with ischemia and/or myocardial infarctions (MI) on a stress MPI, coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). CAD-negative subjects were defined as participants with a normal MPI, no pathological Q waves in resting ECG tracing, and no history of CAD. Both groups were compared for H. pylori and CagA seropositivity. Patients’ demographic data, risk factors for CAD, and childhood socioeconomic status were recorded.

Results: The study group consisted of 300 consecutive patients, 170 men and 130 women; 64% (110/173) CAD-positive patients and 47% (60/127) CAD-negative participants were found seropositive for H. pylori infection (P = 0.005). In the adjusted analysis, H. pylori infection was found to be associated with CAD- positive (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.06–3.17, P = 0.031), and MI (fixed perfusion defects on MPI) (OR 3.36, 95%CI 1.44–7.84, P = 0.005). No association was noted with CagA positivity.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing a stress MPI, serum anti-H. pylori antibodies positivity was found to be associated with CAD, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. 

March 2014
Lela Migirov, Gahl Greenberg, Ana Eyal and Michael Wolf
Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that is characterized by independent and progressive growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, especially the bone tissue, and tendency to recurrence. Treatment of cholesteatoma is essentially surgical. The choice of surgical technique depends on the extension of the disease, and preoperative otoscopic and radiological findings can be decisive in planning the optimal surgical approach. Cholesteatoma confined to the middle ear cavity and its extensions can be eradicated by use of the minimally invasive transmeatal endoscopic approach. Computerized tomography of the temporal bones fails to distinguish a cholesteatoma from the inflammatory tissue, granulations, fibrosis or mucoid secretions in 20–70% of cases showing opacification of the middle ear and mastoid. Using the turbo-spin echo (TSE), also known as non-echo planar imaging (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging, cholesteatoma can be distinguished from other tissues and from mucosal reactions in the middle ear and mastoid. Current MRI sequences can support the clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma and ascertain the extent of the disease more readily than CT scans. The size determined by the TSE/HASTE (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin echo) DW sequences correlated well with intraoperative findings, with error margins lying within 1 mm. Our experience with more than 150 endoscopic surgeries showed that lesions smaller than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extension, as depicted by the non-EPI images, can be managed with transmeatal endoscopic approach solely. We call upon our otolaryngologist and radiologist colleagues to use the newest MRI modalities in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for cholesteatoma surgery.

February 2014
Renata Faermann, Fani Sperber, Schlomo Schneebaum and Daphna Barsuk
Background: The surgical approach to breast cancer has changed dramatically in the past 20 years. The surgical objective today is to remove the tumor, ensuring negative margins and good cosmetic results, and preserving the breast when possible. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an essential imaging tool prior to surgery, diagnosing additional tumors and assessing tumor extent. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio, an important predictor of breast conservation, can be measured with MRI and may change the surgical decision.

Objectives: To measure the tumor-to-breast volume ratio using MRI in order to assess whether there is a correlation between this ratio and the type of surgery selected (breast-conserving or mastectomy).

Methods: The volumes of the tumor and the breast and the tumor-to-breast volume ratio were retrospectively calculated using preoperative breast MRI in 76 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.

Results: Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) was performed in 64 patients and mastectomy in 12. The average tumor-to-breast volume ratio was 0.06 (6%) in the lumpectomy group and 0.30 (30%) in the mastectomy group (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The tumor-to-breast volume ratio correlated with the type of surgery. As measured on MRI, this ratio is an accurate means of determining the type of surgery best suited for a given patient. It is recommended that MRI-determined tumor-to-breast volume ratio become part of the surgical planning protocol for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

January 2014
Varda Gross-Tsur, Harry Hirsch and Fortu Benarroch
November 2013
D. Belkić and K. Belkić
 With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computed tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection, especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers.

September 2013
I. Strauss, N. Carmi-Oren, A. Hassner, M. Shapiro, M. Giladi and Z. Lidar

Background: Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease with a potentially devastating outcome, and a reported incidence traditionally estimated at 0.2–2 cases/10,000 hospital admissions. Since the implementation in October 2007 of a program to increase medical personnel’s awareness of SEA, we have documented a sharp increase in the incidence of SEA at our medical center

Objectives: To investigate the cause of the increased incidence of SEA.

Methods: All cases diagnosed with SEA during the period 1998–2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases diagnosed before 2007 were compared with those diagnosed thereafter.

Results: From January 1998 to October 2007 SEA was diagnosed in 22 patients (group A), giving an annual incidence of 0.14–0.6 cases per 10,000 admissions. During the period November 2007 to April 2010, 26 additional patients were diagnosed (group B), yielding an incidence of 0.81–1.7 cases per 10,000 admissions (P < 0.01). The two groups did not differ significantly in epidemiological, clinical or laboratory characteristics, or in the causative bacteria isolated.

Conclusions: The threefold rise in the incidence of SEA observed at a tertiary medical center in Tel Aviv since November 2007 was not explained by different host characteristics or by more virulent bacterial isolates. We suggest that heightened awareness of the clinical presentation and timely utilization of MR imaging has resulted in more cases being identified. 

July 2013
G. Yaniv, G. Twig, O. Mozes, G. Greenberg, C. Hoffmann and Y. Shoenfeld
 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder involving multiple organs. One of the main sites of SLE morbidity is the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the brain. In this article we review several imaging modalities used for CNS examination in SLE patients. These modalities are categorized as morphological and functional. Special attention is given to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its specific sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). These modalities allow us to better understand CNS involvement in SLE patients, its pathophysiology and consequences.

 

May 2013
A. Hamdan, O. Goitein, S. Matetzky, S. Yishay, E. Di Segni, D. Yakubovitch, D. Silverberg, M. Halak, M. Eldar and E. Konen
Background: Over the past few years dobutamine stress magnetic resonance (DSMR) has proven its efficacy as an integral part of the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Objectives: To present the feasibility and safety of DSMR in Israel.

Methods: Thirty patients with suspected or known CAD were studied. DSMR images were acquired during short breath-holds in three short axis views and four-, two-, and three-chamber views. Patients were examined at rest and during a standard dobutamine-atropine protocol. Regional wall motion was assessed in a 16-segment model and the image quality was evaluated using a four-point scale for the visibility of the endocardial border.

Results: In 28 patients (93.4%) DSMR was successfully performed and completed within an average of 55 ± 6 minutes. One patient could not be examined because of claustrophobia and another patient, who was on beta-blockers, did not reach the target heart rate. Image quality was excellent and there was no difference between the rest and stress images in short axis (3.91 ± 0.29 vs. 3.88 ± 0.34, P = 0.13, respectively) and long axis (3.83 ± 0.38 vs. 3.70 ± 0.49, P = 0.09, respectively) views. Segmental intra-observer agreement for wall motion contractility at rest and stress cine images was almost perfect (κ = 0.88, 95% confidence interval = 0.93–0.84, and κ = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.88–0.76) respectively. No serious side effects were observed during DSMR.

Conclusion: The present study confirms the feasibility, safety and excellent image quality of DSMR for the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases.

 

 

April 2013
B. Haviv, S. Bronak and R. Thein
 Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common joint disease that can cause substantial pain and disability. The manifestation of pain, however, is highly variable with a poor correlation to plain radiographs. The source of pain in gonarthrosis is elusive. Pain receptors have been found in the synovium, ligaments, capsule, subchondral bone and surrounding tissues with the exception of articular cartilage. The perception of pain is regulated at the spinal and cortical level and is often influenced by psychosocial conditions. There is no definitive treatment modality to relieve the pain and surgery does not necessarily guarantee improvement. Understanding and careful clinical assessment of the sore osteoarthritic knee together with better imaging such as magnetic resonance may improve treatment strategies.

February 2013
O. Halshtok Neiman, S. Sadetzki, A. Chetrit, S. Raskin, G. Yaniv and C. Hoffmann
 Background: MRI differentiation between metastases and high grade gliomas is a challenging task. Contrast enhancement and size of edema do not provide clear-cut differentiators. The differences in the properties of the peritumoral edema between these tumor types may be exploited to distinguish between them, using MRI perfusion sequences, which are capable of imaging edema in the clinical setting and may be a reliable method to make this differentiation.

Objectives: To assess the ability of perfusion-weighted imaging to differentiate between high grade gliomas and brain metastases.

Methods: During 5 months, 21 patients (age 40–85, median age 61, 16 males and 5 females) with either glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or metastasis (pathology proven), underwent MRI for assessment of the tumor prior to surgery. Most of the scans were done at 3 Tesla. The scans included perfusion-weighted imaging sequences. Perfusion in the tumor, in the peritumoral edema and in normal tissue were assessed using Functool® software. The ratios of tumor perfusion and peritumoral edema perfusion to normal tissue perfusion were calculated and compared.

Results: Bleeding artifact precluded perfusion assessment in four patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the tumor perfusion ratios of high grade gliomas and those of metastases. The edema perfusion ratios were higher in GBM than in metastases (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: Perfusion-weighted imaging of peritumoral edema can help to differentiate between GBM and metastases.

December 2012
G. Slobodin, I. Rosner, D. Rimar, N. Boulman, M. Rozenbaum and M. Odeh
May 2012
E. Moisseiev, D. Goldenberg, D. Gold, M. Neuderfer and Z. Habot-Wilner
April 2012
A. Achiron, B.-Z. Garty, S. Menascu, D. Magalashvili, M. Dolev, B. Ben-Zeev and O. Pinhas-Hamiel
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs in young adults and infrequently appears in childhood.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of MS and describe the clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at onset MS in children in Israel.

Methods: Incidence and case-specific data were obtained through the MS Center Database and Israeli Health Statistics Census Data over 15 years, from 1995 to 2009, and compared between patients with childhood (< 12 years), juvenile (> 12 years, < 18 years) and adult (> 18 years) onset MS.

Results: Of 1129 eligible MS patients, we identified 10 (0.89%) with childhood-onset MS, 74 (6.55%) with juvenile-onset MS, and 1045 (92.56%) with adult-onset MS. There were 0 to 3 incident childhood cases/year, leading to an annual incidence of 0.1/100,000 among Israeli children the incidence of juvenile and adult MS was 2.6 and 5.4/100,000, respectively. Neurological presentation among children with MS was optic neuritis, motor weakness or brainstem involvement. CSF oligoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) were positive in 62.5%. The most frequent MRI finding was the occurrence of ¡Ý 3 periventricular white matter lesions followed by corpus callosum lesions, with 71% co-occurrence. Cervical and thoracic lesions occurred in 33% and 43%, respectively. Time to second neurological event ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 years and none of the patients with childhood MS reached EDSS=6.0 within a mean follow-up period of 8.4 years.

Conclusions: Childhood-onset MS is rare, with an incidence of 0.1/100,000 Israeli children. Childhood MS does not differ significantly from juvenile and adult-onset MS in terms of clinical, laboratory and imaging findings.
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