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עמוד בית
Mon, 02.10.23

May 2023

Ola Gutzeit MD MSc, Zvi Millo MD, Naftali Justman MD, Natali Constantinescu MD, Ido Solt MD

Background: Uterine tachysystole during labor can lead to a decrease in fetal oxygen saturation and intracerebral oxygen saturation. Acute tocolysis using atosiban can inhibit uterine smooth muscle activity, potentially improving fetal status and facilitating vaginal delivery or allowing time to prepare for operative delivery.

Objectives: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in cesarean and vaginal deliveries following atosiban administration during fetal prolonged deceleration and tachysystole at gestational age 37 0/7 to 43 0/7 weeks.

Methods: We conducted a single-center, descriptive retrospective cohort study at a large tertiary referral center.

Results: Of the 275 patients treated with atosiban, 186 (68%) delivered vaginally (either spontaneous delivery or instrumental delivery) and 89 (32%) underwent a cesarean delivery. In a univariate analysis, cesarean delivery was associated with higher body mass index (27.9 ± 4.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.8, P = 0.003). Second stage atosiban administration was associated with vaginal delivery (89.3% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.01). Cesarean delivery was associated with lower Apgar at 1 and 5 minutes and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The incidence of PPH among women treated with atosiban in our study (2.3–4.3%) was higher than the incidence reported in the literature (1–3%)  

Conclusions: Atosiban may be an effective acute intervention for non-reassuring fetal heart rate during tachysystole, increasing the rate of vaginal delivery and potentially reducing the need for cesarean delivery. However, the potential risk of postpartum hemorrhage should be taken into consideration.

Hagit Hemi RN, Olga Morelli MD, Mordehay Vaturi MD, Ran Kornowski MD, Alexander Sagie MD, Yaron Shapira MD, Shmuel Schwartzenberg MD

Background: Cancellation of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) tests leads to inefficient use of echocardiography laboratory (echo lab) time and wastes resources.

Objectives: To identify the causes of same-day TEE cancellations in hospitalized patients, to formulate a TEE order screening protocol, and to evaluate its efficacy at implementation.

Methods: We performed a prospective analysis of inpatients referred to a single tertiary hospital echo lab for TEE study by inpatient wards. A comprehensive screening protocol emphasizing active participation of all links directly involved in the chain of inpatient TEE referral was developed and implemented. Comparison of pre- and post-implementation of the new screening protocol on two consecutive periods of 6 months on TEE cancellation rates out of total ordered TEEs stratified by cause categories was performed.

Results: In total, 304 inpatient TEE procedures were ordered during the initial observation period; 54(17.8%) were canceled on the same day. The most common cancellation reasons were equally respiratory distress and patient not in fasted state (20.4% of total cancellations and 3.6% of all scheduled TEEs for each cause). Following implementation of the new screening process, total TEEs ordered (192) and cancelled (16) dropped significantly. A decrease in the rate of each cancellation category was observed, with statistical significance achieved for the overall cancellation rate (8.3% vs. 17.8%, P = 0.003), but not for the individual cancellation categories in split analysis.

Conclusions: A concerted effort to implement a comprehensive screening questionnaire significantly reduced same-day cancellations of scheduled TEEs.

Shaul Pery MD, Fadi Abu Baker MD, Yael Kopelman MD

Background: Esophageal cancer is comprised of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Upper endoscopy may reveal a partially or completely lumen-occluding mass at diagnosis, yet the prognostic significance of such a presentation is not clear.

Objectives: To investigate whether endoscopic obstructing lesions have a meaning regarding patient prognosis.

Methods: We reviewed upper gastrointestinal endoscopic studies performed over a 20-year period (2000–2020). We compared overall survival, disease stage, histologic criteria, and anatomic location of the lesions in esophagus lumen-obstructing and non-obstructing tumors. Differences between the two groups were statistically evaluated.

Results: Sixty-nine patients were diagnosed with histologically confirmed esophageal cancer. As assessed through endoscopy, 32/69 (46%) patients had obstructive and 37/69 (54%) had non-obstructive cancers. Median survival was significantly shorter in the lumen-obstructing lesions compared with the non-obstructing lesions (3.5 months vs. 10 months, P = 0.001). Female median survival displayed a trend toward shorter survival compared to males (3.5 months vs. 10 months, P = 0.059). There was no statistically significant difference in the percentages of advanced, stage IV disease in the obstructive group and the non-obstructive group (11/32 [34.3%] and 14/37 [37.8%], respectively P = 0.80).

Conclusions: Obstructive esophageal cancers predict shorter median overall survival compared with non-obstructive cancers, without any correlation between obstruction of the lesion and tumor metastatic stage.

Marina Leitman MD FESC, Isabella Pilcha MD, Vladimir Tyomkin MSc, Zoe Haitov MD

Background: Traditionally, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been performed under moderate sedation and local pharyngeal anesthesia. Respiratory complications during the TEE can occur.

Objectives: To test the effectiveness of low-dose midazolam combined with verbal sedation during TEE.

Methods: The study comprised 157 consecutive patients who underwent TEE under mild conscious sedation. All patients received local pharyngeal anesthesia and low doses of midazolam combined with verbal sedation. The course of TEE and clinical characteristics of the patients were analyzed.

Results: The mean age was 64 ± 15.3 years, 96 males (61%). In 6% of the patients, low dose midazolam in combination with verbal sedation was insufficient and propofol was administrated. In women under 65 years of age with normal renal function, there was a 40% risk of low-dose midazolam being ineffective (P = 0.0018).

Conclusions: In most patients, TEE can be conducted easily using low-dose midazolam combined with verbal sedation. Some patients need deeper sedation with anesthetic agents like propofol. These patients tended to be younger, in good general health, and more often female.

Yaniv Zager MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Dan Assaf MD, Nadav Zilka MD, Roi Anteby MD, Yehonatan Nevo MD, Liran Barda MD, Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has demonstrated prognostic value in various malignant conditions, including gastric adenocarcinoma. However, chemotherapy may affect NLR.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of NLR as an accessory decision-making tool in terms of operating patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer.

Methods: We collected oncologic, perioperative, and survival data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative intent gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy between 2009 and 2016. The NLR was calculated from preoperative laboratory tests and classified as high (> 4) and low (≤ 4). The t-test, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess associations of clinical, histologic, and hematological variables with survival.

Results: For 124 patients the median follow-up was 23 months (range 1–88). High NLR was associated with greater rate of local complication (r=0.268, P < 0.01). The rate of major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) was higher in the high NLR group (28% vs. 9%, P = 0.022). Among the 53 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, those with low NLR had significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) (49.7 vs. 27.7 months, P = 0.025). Low NLR was not significantly associated with overall survival (mean survival, 51.2 vs. 42.3 months, P = 0.19). Multivariate regression identified NLR group (P = 0.013), male gender (P = 0.04), and body mass index (P = 0.026) as independently associated with DFS.

Conclusions: Among gastric cancer patients planned for curative intent surgery who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NLR may have prognostic value, particularly regarding DFS and postoperative complications.

Ilan Merdler MD MHA, Haytham Katas MD, Ariel Banai MD, Keren-Lee Rozenfeld MD, Dana Lewit MD, Itamar Loewenstein MD, Gil Bornstein MD, Shmuel Banai MD, Yacov Shacham MD

Background: Among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, baseline neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may reflect the severity of renal impairment. No data exists on serial changes in serum NGAL levels in CKD patients before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Objectives: To evaluate serial serum NGAL levels relation to contrast induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) following PCI.

Methods: The study included 58 patients with CKD who underwent elective PCI. Plasma NGAL measurements were performed before (pre-NGAL) and 24 hours following (post-NGAL) PCI. Patients were followed for CI-AKI and changes in NGAL levels. Receiver operator characteristic identified the optimal sensitivity and specificity for pre-NGAL levels compared with post-NGAL for patients with CI-AKI.

Results: Overall CI-AKI incidence was 33%. Both pre-NGAL (172 vs. 119 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and post-NGAL (181 vs. 121 ng/ml, P < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in patients with CI-AKI, but no significant changes were detected. Pre-NGAL levels were similar to post-NGAL levels in predicting CI-AKI (area under the curve 0.753 vs. 0.745). Optimal cutoff value for pre-NGAL was 129 ng/ml (sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 72%, P < 0.001). Post-NGAL levels > 141 ng/ml were independently associated with CI-AKI (hazard ratio [HR] 4.86, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.34–17.64, P = 0.02) with a strong trend for post-NGAL levels > 129 ng/ml (HR 3.46, 95%CI 1.23–12.81, P = 0.06).

Conclusions: In high-risk patients, pre-NGAL levels may predict CI-AKI. Further studies on larger populations are needed to validate the use of NGAL measurements in CKD patients.

Shirel Barnea Melamed MD, Esther Ganelin-Cohen MD, Yarden Bulkowstein MD, Mika Shapira Rootman MD, Irit Krause MD

An 11-year-old female presented with encephalomyelitis in the presence of anti-myelin oligodendrocytes glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies (Abs), suspected to be triggered by concurrent respiratory adenovirus infection. The prognosis of such cases depends on prompt treatment; therefore, early diagnosis is crucial.

Shoshana Amos MD, Rena Pollack MD, Inon Sarig MD, Ehud Rudis MD, Nir Hirshoren MD, Jeffrey Weinberger MD, Ariela Arad MD, Matan Fischer MD, Aviv Talmon MD, Joshua Stokar MD

Thyroid storm-related heart failure is a rare, life threatening complication of hyperthyroidism. In refractory cases, urgent thyroidectomy is required for definitive control of thyrotoxicosis. venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a supportive measure for cardiorespiratory failure requiring continuous anticoagulation to prevent clotting. We presented two cases of thyrotoxic cardiac failure that necessitated VA-ECMO. One of the patients was successfully treated with thyroidectomy while on VA-ECMO. To the best of our knowledge, only two such cases have previously been reported.

Alon Bnaya MD, Gabriel S. Breuer MD, Eliel Ben-David MD, Linda Shavit MD

The patient, a 32-year-old woman diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), according to the 2016 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, presented with paresthesia of her face and limbs. Extra glandular manifestations of her primary disease included severe Raynaud's phenomenon and chronic interstitial nephritis. There was no family history of neurologic diseases. Neurological examination was notable for symmetrical decreased sensation in the upper limbs distally. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.

Haim Krespin MD, Lior Saban MD, Eran Israeli MD, Mordechai Shimonov MD, Tomer Greener MD

Pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) is a rare complication of pancreatitis and usually constitutes a diagnostic challenge. There are many causes for recurrent and chronic pancreatitis, with the main etiology being alcohol and choledocholithiasis [1]. However, the association between pancreatic divisum (PD), a common congenital anomaly of the pancreas that is rarely symptomatic, and complications of pancreatitis is still not firmly established [2]. Furthermore, the optimal management of PPF is still uncertain due to its rarity [3]. We describe a rare case of a 45-year-old woman with recurrent pancreatitis that presented with a PPF on the background of PD, successfully managed with conservative treatment. The purpose of this report is to highlight the rare association between PPF and PD together with the excellent response to conservative therapy.

Shani Sultani MD, Nerel Cohen MD, Matan Fischer MD

Sulfonylureas have been used to treat patients with diabetes for the last 80 years. The main side effect of this drug class is hypoglycemia, which might be severe and protracted. With the emergence of new medications with improved safety and better efficacy in preventing diabetes complications and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the use of these agents is waning.

Sulfonylureas are historically classified into two generations. The generation first includes drugs such as tolbutamide and chlorpropamide, which are no longer used. The second generation includes glibenclamide and glimepiride, which have different pharmacokinetic properties and active metabolites.

In this case report, we present a patient with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who developed prolonged hypoglycemia following the unauthorized use of a food supplement containing the first-generation sulfonylurea - tolbutamide.

Yuval Cavari MD, Olga Yermiahu CCRN MHA, Orna Staretz Chacham MD, Guy Beck Rosen MD MHA, Eitan Neeman MD, Isaac Lazar MD

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1; MIM *608307; E.C. is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle, an essential metabolic pathway for ammonia detoxification. CPS1 deficiency (CPS1-D) is characterized by severe hyperammonemia during disease exacerbations. During a metabolic crisis, children with CPS1-D are admitted with vomiting, altered mental status, and high serum levels of ammonia. Rapid normalization of ammonia level ameliorates neurological outcome [1,2]. The first-line treatment for hyperammonemia in these patients is ammonia scavengers in combination with citrulline or arginine and high-calorie supplementation while controlling protein intake [1].

Walid Shalata MD, Motaz Abo Abod MD, Mitchell Golosky MD, Liora Boehm Cohen MD, Michael Kassirer MD, Iris Kamenev MD, Yael Raviv MD

In September 2020, a 37-year-old man without significant medical history or medication use presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath. The patient denied any history of shortness of breath, travel history, recent sick contacts, or history of lung disease. On arrival, the patient was afebrile with a respiratory rate of 26 breaths per minute (b/m), oxygen saturation 82% on ambient air, blood pressure 130\80 mmHg, and heart rate 130 beats per minute (bpm). He was started on three liters per minute oxygen therapy, which improved his saturation to 90%. Physical examination was remarkable for tachypnea and diffuse bilateral inspiratory lung crackles. Electrocardiogram revealed sinus tachycardia.

Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya MD, Reli Hershkovitz MD PhD

A 26-year-old female at 28 weeks of gestation with her fourth pregnancy presented with a 24-hour history of diffuse abdominal pain and distension. In addition, she had nausea, vomiting, and constipation. The pain did not respond to analgesics. She had poor prenatal care during her pregnancy. She had previously had three cesarean deliveries. The first cesarean delivery was due to non-progressive second stage of labor, the second was preterm due to abdominal pain and suspected uterine rupture, and the last was due to the previous cesarean deliveries. In her last previous pregnancy, she presented with recurrent milder abdominal pain, which resolved spontaneously.

On examination, she was afebrile, with normal blood pressure and heart rate. Her abdomen was distended, tympanic, and mildly tender to palpation with no tenderness on the cesarean scar and no peritoneal signs. Her laboratory testing was normal except for mild hypokalemia.

Mailam Eltity MD, Merav Ben-David MD, Vera Nikitin MD, Amir Dori MD PhD

Contactin associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (LGI1) voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) proteins are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems [1]. Antibodies against these proteins are associated with encephalopathy, seizures, peripheral nerve hyper-excitability, autonomic dysfunction, hyponatremia, pain, and insomnia in varying severity and combination [1].

Morvan syndrome, first described in 1890, combines symptoms of peripheral nervous system (PNS), central nervous system (CNS), and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. It was later found to be associated with VGKC-complex antibodies, mainly against CASPR2 or LGI1 or both.

Our patient had a history of anti-LGI1 positive limbic encephalitis, which presented years later with anti-CASPR2 positive Morvan syndrome.

Moran Gawie-Rotman MD, Alon Shrim MD, Ester Maor-Sagie MD, Noa Haggiag MD, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv MD, Mordechai Hallak MD

Fetal hydrops is a life-threatening condition defined as abnormal accumulation of fluid in two or more fetal compartments: ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or generalized skin edema [1]. Fetal hydrops may also be associated with polyhydramnios and placental edema [2].

Based on pathophysiology results, fetal hydrops is classified as either immune or non-immune. The frequency of immune fetal hydrops has decreased dramatically since the development of Rh (D) immunization given to mothers at risk. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) accounts for almost 90% of cases [1]. The etiology of NIHF is further classified as cardiovascular (17–35%), chromosomal (7–16%), hematologic (4–12%), infectious (5–7%), and unknown (15–25%). Inborn errors of metabolism account for only 1–2% of NIHF cases [1]. NIHF is commonly progressive. Complete resolution of NIHF before birth is rare.

Daniel Leshin-Carmel MD, Aino Shperber MD, Inessa Minz MD, David Hassin MD, Daniel Starobin MD

Metastatic pulmonary calcinosis (MPC) is characterized by deposits of calcium in normal pulmonary parenchyma. Diffuse pulmonary calcinosis commonly occurs in hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia and is more commonly related to renal failure than primary hyperparathyroidism, skeletal metastases, or multiple myeloma [1]. Calcium depositions favor alkaline tissue and are thus more common in the upper lobes of the lung, which have a higher ventilation to perfusion ratio and a low capillary pCO2, resulting in an alkaline pH [2]. Therefore, the most common radiographic manifestation consists of poorly defined nodular opacities bilaterally in the upper lung zones [3].

Larisa Gorenstein MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Eyal Klang MD

Gallbladder metastasis is an extremely rare entity [1]. It is mainly secondary to melanoma but has also been reported as originating from breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer. Its diagnosis is often late in the advanced stage of the disease with the involvement of other organ systems [2].

We present a case of a patient who developed gastric cancer gallbladder metastasis. These findings are usually incidental on pathology of cholecystectomy specimens [1]. In our case, the metastatic lesion was demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery. Of note, the lesion had a similar enhancement pattern to the primary tumor.

Aviv Schupper MD, Galia Barash MD, Lilach Benyamini MD, Revital Ben-Haim MD, Eli Heyman MD, Eli Lahat MD, Haim Bassan MD

Global developmental delay (GDD), defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains (e.g., gross/fine motor, cognitive, speech/language, personal/social, activities of daily living), affects 1–3% of children. According to the Israeli Ministry of Health, thyroid function studies are not indicated in children with GDD unless there are systemic features suggestive of thyroid dysfunction (https://www.health.gov.il/hozer/mr36_2012.pdf). This approach also exists in other countries with newborn screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism.

We present the case of an infant with GDD, who despite normal newborn screening tests, underwent a repeated extended thyroid function analysis (including T3 levels) leading to a diagnosis of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a rare genetic neurodevelopmental syndrome.

Kobi Perl MD PhD, Ksenya Epshtein MD, Micha J. Rapoport MD

Ruxolitinib is an inhibitor of the cytosolic tyrosine kinase Janus kinase (JAK) family of proteins (JAK1/2), which is widely used to treat various myeloid neoplasms that are characterized by constant activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway.

Many side effects are associated with ruxolitinib, including anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased rate of infections (especially herpes zoster), and mild hypercalcemia noted in 15.4% of patients [1]. The possible mechanism causing hypercalcemia may involve altered bone and mineral metabolism with secondary hyperparathyroidism, as described for other kinase inhibitors [2].

Avi Ohry MD

Familial spastic paraparesis is a non-progressive disorder. However, clinical experience shows that after trauma, disease, surgery, or limb fracture that force a patient's long immobilization, a significant functional deterioration is observed. I describe two patients with Silver syndrome who experienced such functional deterioration after sustaining a simple fracture. A description of Silver syndrome and a biographical sketch of Dr. Silver, who explained the disorder in 1966, are given.

May-Tal Rofe-Shmuel MD, Michael Shapira MD, Gad Keren MD

Romidepsin is an intravenously administered antineoplastic agent, which acts by inhibiting histone deacetylases, thus preventing removal of acetyl groups from histones. The accrual of acetyl groups on histones causes cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. It was approved for use in the United States in 2009 for treatment of refractory or relapsed cutaneous and peripheral T cell lymphomas [1-3].

The most common side effects are mild to moderate in severity and include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, fever, myelosuppression (e.g., anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia), elevated liver enzymes, constipation, and rash. More severe adverse events can include marked neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, serious infections such as line sepsis, acute renal failure, tumor lysis syndrome, and cardiac arrhythmias [1].

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