Arnon Blum MD, Nina Pastukh MSc, Rizak Sirchan MA, Nava Blum PhD, Lev Chernikoff MD and Vladimir Vaispapir MD
Background: Endothelial progenitor cells may have a role in ongoing endothelial repair. Impaired mobilization or depletion of these cells may contribute to progression of vascular disease. Our hypothesis was that endothelial progenitor cells would be suppressed in patients with acute cerebrovascular event based on our previous study that found severe endothelial dysfunction in those patients.
Objectives: To study the ability of patients with acute stroke to build colonies of endothelial progenitor cells.
Methods: We studied the number of colony-forming units of endothelial progenitor cells (CFU-EPCs) from the peripheral blood of 22 male patients with a first-time acute stroke (age 58.09 ± 9.8 years) and 13 healthy men (34 ± 6.7 years), 8 female patients with a first-time acute stroke (54.6 ± 10.3 years) and 6 healthy women (38.3 ± 11.6 years). Endothelium-dependent function was assessed by high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery that measured the change in diameter of the artery by flow-mediated diameter percent change (FMD%). All patients had strokes demonstrated by a brain computed tomography (CT) scan done on admission. Peripheral blood was drawn soon after admission and was processed for endothelial progenitor cells in culture.
Results: Thirty patients without known cardiovascular risk factors and who did not take any medications were admitted with a first-time acute stroke. All demonstrated a strong correlation between CFU-EPCs grown in culture and endothelial dysfunction (r = 0.827, P < 0.01). Endothelial dysfunction with an FMD% of -2.2 ± 9.7% was noted in male patients vs. 17.5 ± 6.8% in healthy males (P = 0.0001), and -7.2 ± 10.1% in female patients vs. 25.1 ± 7.1% in healthy females (P = 0.0001). CFU-EPCs were 5.5 ± 6.3 in men with stroke vs. 23.75 ± 5.3 in healthy males (P = 0.0001), and 7.6 ± 4.9 in women with stroke vs. 22.25 ± 6.7 in healthy females (P = 0.0004).
Conclusions: Patients with acute stroke had an impaired ability to grow CFU-EPCs in culture and exhibited endothelial dysfunction. The novelty of this study was the discovery of the phenomenon of depressed numbers of EPCs and the poor ability to grow colonies of EPCs in the first 24 hours of the cerebrovascular event.
Sol Jaworowski MBBS FRANZCP, Jean-Louis Golmard MD PhD, Morag Engelberg MD, Sarah Prijs, Lital Twizer, Cornelius Gropp MD and Joseph Mergui MD
Background: A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a variety of physical and psychiatric illnesses, including ischemic heart disease and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of past CSA and re-traumatization among hospital psychiatric consultations and to determine whether a CSA group in a hospital setting shared characteristics with community samples described in the literature.
Methods: We divided 228 consecutive psychiatric consultations into two groups. One group comprised patients with a past history of CSA while the other group had no such history. Both groups were further divided into a subgroup that presented with features of re-traumatization.
Results: In the cohort, 38% described a history of CSA. Twenty patients were identified as presenting with features of re-traumatization. There were significant differences between the two groups. The patients with a history of CSA were more likely to have arrived at the emergency department (ED) during the preceding 12 months with a diagnosis of PTSD, personality disorder, and substance use disorder. There was a greater proportion of patients in the CSA group who had grown up in an ultra-Orthodox Jewish household and who currently identified as being secular.
Conclusions: The characteristics of the patients with past CSA in this study are similar to community-based samples, except for a significant gender difference. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate CSA history during hospital ED psychiatric consultations. A history of CSA should be considered during psychiatric consultations in a general hospital ED admission.
Eran Ellenbogen MD, Shmuel Epshteyn MD, Shir Azrielant MD, Mor Pavlovsky MD, Andrea Gat MD, Eli Sprecher MD PhD and Ilan Goldberg MD
Background: Frozen section (FS) is often performed when histopathological evaluations are urgently required for implementation of therapeutic measures. In dermatology, this method is most commonly used to evaluate excision margins of tumors. FS are also routinely employed to differentiate toxic epidermal necrolysis from staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. However, little is currently known about the performance of FS in the diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses.
Objectives: To compare histopathological diagnoses in a series of patients with a clinical diagnosis of an inflammatory dermatosis for which FS and paraffin-section (PS) specimens were obtained on the same day.
Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of 43 cases. All histological slides were reviewed by a single dermato-pathologist. Concordance was calculated between FS and PS.
Results: Patients were divided into three groups according to diagnosis: papulosquamous diseases (group I), drug eruptions (group II), and a heterogeneous group (group III) that included cases of bullous vasculitis and Sweet syndrome. Among the three groups, the results of FS and of PS were discordant only in five cases (5/43, 11.6%). Compared to PS, FS had a sensitivity of 92.9% [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 64.17–99.63%] and a specificity of 100% in group I, sensitivity of 90.9% (95%CI 57.12–99.52%) and specificity of 100% in group II, and sensitivity of 83.33% (95%CI 60.78–94.16%) and specificity of 100% in group III. The degree of agreement between the results of the FS and of the PS was almost perfect (kappa = 0.95, 0.93 and 0.85 respectively).
Conclusions: This study suggests that FS is a valid approach for the rapid diagnosis of inflammatory dermatoses. This method is as specific as PS, although it is less sensitive.
Osnat Zmora MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Ayala Gover MD and Moshe Bronshtein MD
Background: Unilateral renal agenesis is a rare finding. There are no large-scale studies reporting this finding in early pregnancy.
Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of unilateral renal agenesis (URA) and of associated anomalies diagnosed by early prenatal trans-vaginal sonography.
Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 59,382 trans-vaginal scans performed at 14–16 weeks gestation by a single operator at different clinics during the period 1994–2013.
Results: The incidence of URA was 1:1212 (49/59382 cases). Associated anomalies were diagnosed in 22 cases (45%). Renal anomalies were diagnosed in 22.4%. Extra-renal anomalies (with exclusion of a single umbilical artery or nuchal edema as isolated findings) were diagnosed in 24.5%. Ambiguous genitalia were diagnosed in 8.2%.
Conclusions: URA is a rare finding in early trans-vaginal sonography. Associated anomalies are very common and should be sought.
Olga Perelshtein Brezinov MD, Michal J. Simchen MD, Sagit Ben Zekry MD and Rafael Kuperstein MD
Background: Rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is a relatively rare diagnosis in the developed countries and its treatment during pregnancy is challenging due to hemodynamic changes. With the demographic changes due to recent waves of immigration an increase in the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease is expected.
Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal complications in patients with mitral stenosis.
Methods: During the years 2006–2017, 22 women who underwent 31 pregnancies were followed at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel. We collected on regarding hemodynamic changes and their clinical course. MS was classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to mitral valve area by echocardiography. Maternal and fetal adverse events were evaluated according to severity of MS and compared by Poisson regression modeling.
Results: MS was severe in 7 pregnancies (22.6%), moderate in 9 (29%), and mild in 15 (48.4%). Twenty patients were managed conservatively and 2 underwent a successful percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PBMVP) during pregnancy. All pregnancies ended with a liveborn neonate and with no maternal mortality. Peak and mean mitral pressure gradients increased during pregnancy from 13.3 ± 5.3 to 18.6 ± 5.1 mmHg and from 5.9 ± 2.3 to 9.6 ± 3.4 mmHg respectively (P < 0.05). Eight pregnancies (25.8%) were complicated by pulmonary congestion, 2/15 (13.3%) with mild MS, 2/9 (22.2%) with moderate, and 4/7 (57.1%) with severe MS. The adverse event rate was higher among patients with severe MS compared with moderate and mild MS [hazard ratio (HR) 3.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CA) 1.04–9.52 and HR 4.06, 95%CI 1.4–11.19 respectively, P < 0.05]. Nine of 31 deliveries were vaginal; 6 of 22 cesarean sections (27.3%) were performed for cardiac indications.
Conclusions: The number of total adverse events were higher among patients with severe MS. Patients with moderate and mild MS should be treated attentively, but good obstetric and maternal outcome can be expected.
Shirley Friedman MD, Lilach Zac MD, Anat Cattan MsC, Dror Ovadia MD, David E. Lebel MD and Idit Matot MD PhD
Background: Hyperchloremia is frequent in adult surgical patients and is associated with renal dysfunction. Studies in surgical pediatric patients are lacking.
Objectives: To identify both the incidence of postoperative hyperchloremia in children undergoing surgery for idiopathic and non-idiopathic scoliosis, and the association of postoperative hyperchloremia with intraoperative fluid management and postoperative diuresis.
Methods: The records of 74 children and adolescents who underwent elective scoliosis surgery were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serum chloride level ≥ 110 mEq/L at the end of surgery and 12 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints were the type and volume of administered fluids, 12 hours postoperative diuresis, and the incidence of postoperative oliguria.
Results: Hyperchloremia occurred in 55% of the patients at the end of surgery and in 52% 12 hours postoperatively. Hyperchloremic patients received larger intraoperative volume of 0.9% NaCl diluted cell-saver blood and 10% HAES than did normochloremic patients [median (interquartile range) 6.8 (2.5–11.0) ml/kg vs. 0 (0–7.3), P = 0.003 and 10.0 (0–12.8) vs. 4.4 (0–9.8), P = 0.02, respectively]. Additionally, when compared with normochloremic patients, diuresis during the first 12 hours postoperatively was lower in hyperchloremic patients. Postoperative oliguria (urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/hr for 12 hours) was diagnosed in 7 children (9%), of whom 6 were hyperchloremic at the end of surgery.
Conclusions: Early postoperative hyperchloremia is common in children undergoing scoliosis repair surgery and may be attributed to the administration of 0.9% NaCl diluted cell-saver blood and 10% HAES. Postoperative hyperchloremia might be associated with postoperative oliguria.
Jonathan Kuten MD MHA, Nicola J. Mabjeesh MD PhD, Hedva Lerman MD, Charles Levine MD, Sophie Barnes MD and Einat Even-Sapir MD PhD
Background: Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (Ga-PSMA PET/CT) is part of the initial workup of patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer provided by the Israeli national health services.
Objectives: To assess the incidence of metastatic spread in consecutive patients with newly diagnosed cancer, and the potential added value of Ga-PSMA PET/CT to the staging imaging algorithm.
Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer were referred for initial staging by Ga-PSMA PET/CT between May 2016 and April 2017. Blood prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, clinical history, imaging reports and histopathological reports (including Gleason scores) were obtained. Maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were determined for the primary lesions detected within the prostate.
Results: The study included 137 consecutive patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease who underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT staging. Of these, 75 had Ga-PSMA uptake in both prostate lobes, 57 had unilateral uptake, and 5 patients had no uptake. SUVmax in the primary tumor correlated significantly with PSA levels. Thirty-five patients had increased uptake compatible with metastatic disease involving lymph nodes, bone, and viscera. Twenty-seven patients had available bone scintigraphy results: 18 (69%) of their 26 bone metastases detected by Ga-PSMA PET/CT were missed on bone scintigraphy.
Conclusions: Ga-PSMA PET/CT shows promise as a sole whole-body imaging modality for assessing the presence of soft tissue and bone metastases in the setting of prostate cancer.
Einat Levy MSc MD, Eyal Sela MD, Vadim Letichevsky MD and Ohad Ronen MD
Background: The currently accepted treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is systemic steroids as first-line and intratympanic steroids as salvage therapy. Intratympanic (IT) treatment is applied worldwide in many different ways with no universally accepted protocol.
Objectives: To present the current disparity in ISSHL management and to discuss the necessity for establishing a common national protocol.
Methods: In 2014 we conducted a national survey by sending questionnaires on ISSHL management to otologists in every otolaryngology department in the country.
Results: The majority of otolaryngology departments (56%) admit patients with sudden sensorineural hearing. Almost two-thirds (61%) of departments recommend supplementary initial treatment in addition to systemic steroids. None of the medical centers offer intratympanic steroid treatment as primary therapy, but 94% offer this treatment as a salvage therapy. Fewer than half the medical centers (44%) consider the maximal period for intratympanic therapy to be 4 weeks since hearing loss appears. Almost half (48%) the departments use intratympanic steroids once every 5–7 days, usually in an ambulatory setting. Almost half (44%) the medical centers tend to use not more than four courses of IT steroids. In 44% of departments an audiogram is performed at the beginning and at the end of the intratympanic course.
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a variability among Israeli medical centers in many aspects of intratympanic treatment. We believe this reinforces the need for a comparative international study in order to establish a standard protocol.
Lital Oz-Alcalay MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD MSc, Aharona Glatman-Freedman MD MPH, Sarit Weisman-Demri MD, Alexander Lowenthal MD and Gilat Livni MD MHA
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-related bronchiolitis is a common cause of morbidity in young infants. The recommendations for its passive prevention by palivizumab are currently under intensive debate.
Objectives: To elucidate the optimal prevention strategy by studying the morbidity of RSV disease under the current recommendations for palivizumab prophylaxis in Israel.
Methods: We collected demographic and clinical data of all children hospitalized with microbiologically confirmed RSV bronchiolitis during 2015–2016 at Schneider Children's Medical Center. The seasonality of RSV disease was also studied for the period 2010–2017 in sentinel clinics scattered throughout Israel.
Results: Of the 426 hospitalized children, 106 (25%) had underlying diseases but were not eligible for palivizumab prophylaxis according to the current criteria in Israel. Their course was severe, with a mean hospital stay of 6.7 days and a 12% admission rate to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Palivizumab-eligible children who did not receive the prophylaxis before hospitalization had the most severe course, with 22% admitted to the PICU. More children were diagnosed with RSV disease in October than in March among both hospitalized and ambulatory children; 44% of the palivizumab-eligible hospitalized children were admitted in the last 2 weeks of October, before 1 November which is the recommended date for starting palivizumab administration in Israel.
Conclusions: According to the results of the present study we suggest advancing RSV prophylaxis in Israel from 1 November to mid-October. The precise palivizumab-eligible categories should be reconsidered.
Waseem A. Abboud DMD, Sahar Nadel DMD, Sharon Hassin-Baer MD, Abigail Arad MD, Alex Dobriyan DMD and Ran Yahalom DMD
Background: Drooling is the unintentional loss of saliva from the mouth, usually caused by poor coordination of the swallowing mechanism. It is commonly seen in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebral palsy, and stroke, as well as in patients with cognitive impairment and dementia.
Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular salivary glands for the treatment of drooling.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 12 consecutive patients treated with botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular glands for the first time. The primary outcome variable was the subjective improvement of drooling on a 5-point scale. Secondary outcome variables were duration of the therapeutic effect, request to undergo additional treatment, and adverse events.
Results: Of 12 patients, 8 (67%) reported considerable improvement after treatment, 3 reported slight improvement, and 1 reported development of dry mouth. All patients stated that they felt the effects 1 week after the injections; the mean duration of the therapeutic effect was 4.5 months (range 3–9 months). One patient suffered from local hematoma and ecchymosis that did not require medical care. Another patient complained of difficulty swallowing, which did not require medical treatment and resolved spontaneously within 1 month.
Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections into the parotid and submandibular glands seem to be a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of drooling. Further long-term prospective studies with varying doses are warranted.