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עמוד בית Thu, 20.06.19

June 2017


Original Articles
Ella Even-Tov, Itzhak Koifman, Vladimir Rozentsvaig, Leonid Livshits and Peter Gilbey

Background: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) has become a standard technique for critically ill patients who require long-term ventilation. The most common early post-operative complication is bleeding related to anatomical variation in vasculature. The procedure is performed at the patient's bedside unless this is deemed unsafe and then the accepted alternative is open tracheostomy in the operating room. 

Objectives: To evaluate the use of pre-procedural ultrasound to aid in the decision of whether PDT in critical care patients should be performed at the patient's bedside or by open surgical tracheostomy.

Methods: Patients were jointly evaluated by a critical care physician and a head and neck surgeon. Based on this evaluation, the method of tracheostomy was determined. Subsequently, pre-procedural ultrasound examination of the anterior neck was performed. The final decision whether to perform PDT or open surgical tracheostomy was based on the ultrasound findings. Changes in management decisions following ultrasound were recorded. 

Results: We included 36 patients in this prospective study. Following ultrasound examination, the management decision was changed in nine patients (25%).

Conclusions: Pre-procedural ultrasound for critically ill patients undergoing tracheostomy can influence management decisions regarding the performance of tracheostomy. 

 

Hadar Moran-Lev MD, Dror Mandel MD, Yosef Weisman MD, Amit Ovental and Ronit Lubetzky MD

Background: Israel is a country with a sunny climate; however, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common findings in certain populations whose exposure to sunlight is limited. Medical residency is known for long indoor working hours, thus theoretically limiting the opportunities for sun exposure.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the vitamin D status among residents in a single medical center in Tel Aviv is below the normal range.

Methods: Forty-six residents (28 females, 18 males, average age 33.9 ± 2.8 years) in three residency programs (internal medicine, general surgery/obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics) were recruited. Demographic data, personal lifestyle, physical activity details and sun exposure duration were obtained by a questionnaire. Serum levels for 25(OH)D were analyzed by a radioimmunoassay.

Results: The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 29.8 ± 5.8 ng/ml. According to Institute of Medicine definitions, none of the residents were vitamin D deficient and only two residents (4%) were vitamin D insufficient (15 ng/ml each). The level of 25(OH)D was similar among the various medical specialties. The 25(OH)D levels correlated with the duration of sun exposure and the number of offspring (regression analysis: R2 = 9.2%, P < 0.04 and R2 = 8.9%, P < 0.04, respectively), but not with nutritional data, blood chemistry, or extent of physical activity. 

Conclusions: Most of the residents maintained normal or near normal 25(OH)D levels, indicating that the residency program itself did not pose a significant risk for vitamin D deficiency. 

 

Yaniv Levi MD, Aaron Frimerman MD, Avraham Shotan MD, Michael Shochat MD PhD, David S Blondheim MD, Amit Segev MD, Ilan Goldenerg MD, Mark Kazatsker MD, Liubov Vasilenko MD, Nir Shlomo PhD and Simcha R Meisel MD MSc

Background: Trials have shown superiority of primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) over in-hospital thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated within 6-12 hours from symptom onset. These studies also included high-risk patients not all of whom underwent a therapeutic intervention. 

Objectives: To compare the outcome of early-arriving stable STEMI patients treated by thrombolysis with or without coronary angiography to the outcome of PPCI-treated STEMI patients.

Methods: Based on six biannual Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Surveys comprising 5474 STEMI patients, we analyzed the outcome of 1464 hemodynamically stable STEMI patients treated within 3 hours of onset. Of these, 899 patients underwent PPCI, 383 received in-hospital thrombolysis followed by angiography (TFA), and 182 were treated by thrombolysis only.

Results: Median time intervals from symptom onset to admission were similar while door-to-reperfusion intervals were 63, 45 and 52.5 minutes for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P < 0.001). The 30-day composite endpoint of death, post-infarction angina and myocardial infarction occurred in 77 patients of the PPCI group (8.6%), 64 patients treated by TFA (16.7%), and 36 patients of the thrombolysis only group (19.8%, P < 0.001), with differences mostly due to post-infarction angina. One-year mortality rate was 27 (3%), 13 (3.4%) and 11 (6.1%) for PPCI, TFA and thrombolysis only, respectively (P = 0.12).

Conclusions: PPCI was superior to thrombolysis in early-arriving stable STEMI patients with regard to 30-day composite endpoint driven by a decreased incidence of post-infarction angina. No 1 year survival benefit for PPCI over thrombolysis was observed in early-arriving stable STEMI patients.

 

Sergio Susmallian MD, David Goitein MD, Royi Barnea PhD and Asnat Raziel MD

Background: Leakage from the staple line is the most serious complication encountered after sleeve gastrectomy, occurring in 2.4% of surgeries. The use of inappropriately sized staplers, because of variability in stomach wall thickness, is a major cause of leakage.

Objectives: To measure stomach wall thickness across different stomach zones to identify variables correlating with thickness.

Methods: The study comprised 100 patients (52 females). Stomach wall thickness was measured immediately after surgery using a digital caliper at the antrum, body, and fundus. Results were correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, gender, and pre-surgical diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver.

Results: Stomach thickness was found to be 5.1 ± 0.6 mm at the antrum, 4.1 ± 0.6 mm at the body, and 2. 6 ± 0.5 mm at the fundus. No correlation was found between stomach wall thickness and BMI, gender, or co-morbidities. 

Conclusions: Stomach wall thickness increases gradually from the fundus toward the antrum. Application of the correct staple height during sleeve gastrectomy is important and may, theoretically, prevent leaks. Staplers should be chosen according to the thickness of the tissue.

 

Noam Shohat MD, Dror Lindner MD, Eran Tamir MD, Yiftah Beer MD and Gabriel Agar MD

Background: The debate continues regarding the best way to manage partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears.

Objectives: To prospectively compare the clinical outcomes of remnant-preserving augmentation (RPA) and double-bundle reconstruction (DBR) in patients with ACL tears.

Methods: In this prospective study, we included 13 cases of RPA and 30 cases of DBR with a follow-up period of 6 months, 12 months and 24 months. We clinically compared the preoperative and postoperative range of motion, Knee Society Score (KSS), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Lysholm score, Tegner activity score, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), thigh and calf circumference and anterior translation (Using the KT-1000 knee arthrometer). 

Results: There were no significant differences in Lysholm score, Tegner score, VAS or KSS within the two groups at any time. The KT-1000 arthrometer results were higher in the RPA group at 6 months than in the DBR group; however, it did not reach statistical significance. 

Conclusions: We found no significant differences between the two specific groups leading us to believe that RPA may play a role in reconstruction when only a single bundle is injured.

 

Shelly Rachman-Elbaum MSc, Aliza H. Stark PhD, Josefa Kachal MPH, Teresa W. Johnson DCN and Bat Sheva Porat-Katz MD

Background: Standardization of the dietetic care process allows for early identification of malnutrition and metabolic disorders, interdisciplinary collaboration among the medical team, and improved quality of patient care. Globally, dietitians are adopting a nutrition care model that integrates national regulations with professional scope of practice. Currently, Israel lacks a standardized dietetic care process and documentation terminology.

Objectives: To assess the utilization of a novel sectoral documentation system for nutrition care in Israel.

Methods: Seventy dietitians working in 63 geriatric facilities completed an online training program presenting the proposed patient-sectoral-model. Training was followed by submission of sample case studies from clinical practice or completion of a case simulation. Application of the proposed model was assessed by measuring the frequency participants implemented different sections of the model and responses to an approval questionnaire.

Results: Fifty-four participants (77%) provided completed cases. Over 80% of participants reported each step of the proposed dietary care process with 100% reporting the “nutrition diagnosis”. Fifty-one dietitians (72.8%) completed the approval survey with the section on nutrition diagnosis receiving a highly favorable response (95%), indicating that the new documentation system was beneficial. Over 80% of participants rated the model useful in clinical practice.

Conclusions: A sectoral approach for documenting dietetic care may be the ideal model for dietitians working in specific patient populations with the potential for improving interdisciplinary collaboration in patient care.

Hagit Schayek PhD, Yael Laitman MSc, Lior H Katz MD, Elon Pras MD, Liat Ries-Levavi PhD, Frida Barak MD and Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Background: Biallelic BLM gene mutation carriers are at an increased risk for cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether heterozygous BLM gene mutations confer an increased cancer risk remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate CRC and endometrial cancer risk in BLM heterozygous mutation carriers.

Methods:
Jewish Ashkenazim at high risk for colon or endometrial cancer and endometrial cancer cases unselected for family history were genotyped for the BLMAsh predominant mutation.

Results: Overall, 243 high-risk individuals were included: 97 men CRC patients (55.12 ± 12.3 years at diagnosis), 109 women with CRC (56.5 ± 13.7 years), 32 women with endometrial cancer (58.25 ± 13.4 years) and 5 women with both CRC and endometrial cancer. In addition, 120 unselected Ashkenazi women with endometrial cancer (64.2 ± 11.58 years) were genotyped. The BLMAsh mutation was present in 4/243 (1.65%) high-risk patients; 2 CRC (0.97%) 2 endometrial cancer (5.4%), and 1/120 unselected endometrial cancer patients (0.84%). Notably, in high-risk cases, BLMAsh mutation carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (for CRC 47.5 ± 7.8 years; P = 0.32 ; endometrial cancer 49.5 ± 7.7 years; P = 0.36) compared with non-carriers.

Conclusions: Ashkenazi high risk CRC/endometrial cancer, and women with endometrial cancer have a higher rate of BLMAsh heterozygous mutation compared with the general population. BLMAsh heterozygous mutation carriers are diagnosed with CRC and endometrial cancer at a younger age compared with non-carriers. These observations should be validated and the possible clinical implications assessed.

Ronen Goldkorn MD, Alexey Naimushin MD, Roy Beigel MD, Ekaterina Naimushin, Michael Narodetski MD and Shlomi Matetzky MD

Background: While patients presenting to emergency departments (ER) with chest pain are increasingly managed in chest pain units (CPU) that utilize accelerated diagnostic protocols for risk stratification, such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), data are lacking regarding the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal scans in this population.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic implications of mildly abnormal SPECT MPI results in patients with acute chest pain.

Methods: Of the 3753 chest pain patients admitted to the CPU at the Leviev Heart Center, Sheba Medical Center 1593 were further evaluated by SPECT MPI. Scans were scored by extent and severity of stress-induced perfusion defects, with 1221 patients classified as normal, 82 with myocardial infarction without ischemia, 236 with mild ischemia, and 54 with more than mild ischemia. Mild ischemia patients were further classified to those who did and did not undergo coronary angiography within 7 days.

Results: Mild ischemia patients who underwent coronary angiography were more likely to be male (92% vs. 81%, P = 0.01) and to have left anterior descending ischemia (67% vs. 42%, P = 0.004). After 50 months, these patients returned less often to the ER with chest pain (53% vs. 87%, P < 0.001) and had a lower combined endpoint of acute coronary syndrome and death (8% vs. 16%, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Compared to patients with chronic stable angina, patients presenting with acute chest pain exhibiting mildly abnormal SPECT MPI findings should perhaps undergo a more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

Yael C. Cohen MD, Tamar Berger MD MHA, Lora Eshel MD, Dorit Stern MD, Osnat Bairey MD, Pia Raanani MD and Ofer Shpilberg MD MPH

Background: Pulmonary infiltrates (PIs) detected in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may present a diagnostic challenge due to their wide differential diagnosis, including infection, pulmonary lymphoma and immunochemotherapy-associated pulmonary toxicity.

Objectives: To characterize therapy-associated PIs by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging.

Methods: We conducted a historical analysis of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F-FDG-PET/CT) PIs in NHL patients treated with combined immunochemotherapy including rituximab. Incidence of PIs, radiological features, patients’ characteristics, underlying NHL type, rituximab/chemotherapy dosing schedules, and symptoms were recorded. Therapy-associated PIs were defined as new or worsening PIs appearing after treatment onset, without evidence of active pulmonary lymphoma or infection.

Results: Among 80 patients who met the pre-specified criteria, therapy-associated PIs were identified in 17 (21%), 6 of whom had accompanying symptoms. Increased FDG uptake was observed in nine, and PI resolution in six. The incidence of PIs was higher in females and in patients with aggressive lymphoma, at advanced stages, and in those who had received treatment consisting of a combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 14 days (R-CHOP-14).

Conclusions: This characterization of therapy-associated PIs may support the clinician managing NHL patients. Further prospective studies are needed to establish the role of each therapeutic component and the natural history of this phenomenon.

Editorials
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD MPH and Abdulla Watad
Mathilde Versini MD and Yehuda Shoenfeld MD, FRCP, MaACR
Reviews
Luis J Jara MD, Gabriela Medina MD MSc, Polita Cruz-Cruz MD MSc, Javier Olivares-Rivera MD, Carolina Duarte-Salazar MD and Miguel A. Saavedra MD

Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (Obs-APS) is one of the most commonly identified causes of recurrent pregnancy loss and its accurate diagnosis is a requirement for optimal treatment. Some patients do not fulfill the revised Sapporo classification criteria, the original APS classification criteria, and are considered to be non-criteria Obs-APS. In these patients with non-criteria, there is controversy about their inclusion within the spectrum of APS and eventually their treatment as having Obs-APS. A subset of patients may also have clinical characteristics of Obs-APS even though lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies, and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies are consistently negative. These patients are recognized as seronegative Obs-APS.

We reviewed evidence of non-criteria Obs-APS and discuss a case of a woman with a diagnosis of active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-criteria Obs-APS with four consecutive pregnancy losses. After an accurate diagnosis the patient received prenatal counseling and benefited from the optimal treatment of Obs-APS that led to a successful pregnancy. The applicability of this successful experience about outcomes in women with non-criteria, or seronegative, Obs-APS is also evaluated.

 

Case Communications
Ophir Eyal MD, Yuval Tal MD PhD, Arie Ben MD, Ofer N. Gofrit MD PhD and Mordechai Golomb MD
Ohad Ben-Nun MD, Nir Bitterman MD, Tamar Tadmor MD, Jacob Bejar MD, Adel Shalata MD, PhD , Hadid Yarin PhD and Noam Calderon MD
Abdulla Watad MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD, Noam Grysman MS, Hussein Mahagna MD and Howard Amital MD MHA

Taxanes are often used in the treatment of many types of cancers. Side effects of docetaxel are not as well documented as paclitaxel, but both can cause pulmonary injury. We present a dramatic case of a patient being treated for prostatic adenocarcinoma with docetaxel who presented with interstitial pneumonitis and responded dramatically to the early treatment with corticosteroids. This case is important as it reveals the side effects of docetaxel administration without administration of other chemotherapeutic agents, and it illustrates the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of docetaxel-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Further research into the mechanism of the side effects of docetaxel is warranted.

הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303