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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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September 2022
Ronny Ben-Avi MD, Alex Sorkin MD, Roy Nadler MD, Avishai M. Tsur MD, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Jacob Chen MD MHA, and Avi Benov MD MHA; and Israel Trauma Group

Background: Chest trauma is among the most common types of trauma, corresponding to 10% of trauma patients admitted to hospitals. In the military setting, thoracic trauma was reported as a significant cause of death. With well-timed treatment, chest trauma is regarded as survivable. Emergency thoracotomy (ET) is considered when the patient with trauma to the chest needs immediate resuscitation. Survival rate is reported as low as 1% in some reports and 20% in others. The survival rate depends on injury mechanism, protocols for intervention, and other decompressive procedures.

Objectives: To determine parameters that may impact survival of ET.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare prehospital and in-hospital data regarding ET in the emergency department (ED) versus the operating room (OR).

Results: Between 2009 and 2017, 6532 casualties presented to the ED; 1125 with trauma to the chest. Fifty-four of those with chest trauma underwent ET in the hospital (4.8%), 22 (41%) in the ED, and 32 (59%) in the OR. The overall mortality of the ET subgroup was 48%. With regard to thoracotomies, 19/22 of patients (86%) who underwent ET in the ED died compared to 2/28 in the OR (13%).

Conclusions: Utilizing ET after chest trauma with appropriate clinical indications, well-trained personnel, and prompt transportation poses a significant challenge, but may be associated with better survival than that reported previously with military casualties. Adoption of indications and timed allocation to the OR may improve outcomes with chest trauma casualties.

Maxim Bez MD PhD, Dana Bez MD MPH, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Roy Nadler MD MHA, Avi Benov MD, and Jacob Chen MD MSc MHA

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death in the battlefield. TBI can be challenging to diagnose in the combat setting and remains a substantial challenge for advanced life support (ALS) providers.

Objectives: To compare prehospital and hospitalization characteristics between isolated and non-isolated TBI. To examine the effects of TBI with coexisting injuries on patient evaluation and outcomes based on the Israeli Defense Forces Trauma Registry and the Israeli National Trauma Registry of soldiers hospitalized for TBI between the years 2006–2017.

Methods: A total of 885 casualties were eligible for our study, of whom 271 (30%) had isolated TBI. Only 35% of hospitalized patients with isolated TBI were defined as urgent by the ALS providers versus 67% in the non-isolated TBI group (P < 0.001).

Results: Overall, 29% of the TBIs in the non-isolated group were missed by the ALS providers vs. 11% in the isolated group.

Conclusions: Concomitant injuries may delay the diagnosis of TBI by ALS providers. These findings should be considered in the prehospital evaluation to potentially improve the care and outcome of head injury patients.

Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Roy Nadler MD, Alex Sorkin MD, Ilona Lipkin BEMS, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Jacob Chen MD MHA, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: Vehicle-ramming attacks have become a common tactic for terror organizations worldwide. However, the medical implications of vehicle-ramming attacks remain unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of vehicle-ramming attack incidents and casualties in order to assist in guiding the policy of medical organizations. 

Methods: In this study we included all vehicle-ramming attacks recorded in the Israel Defense Forces-Trauma Registry between 2015 and 2019. Records were screened using text mining of incident, casualty, and injury descriptions. The selected records were examined manually to ensure that they were vehicle-ramming attacks. Incident and casualty data were retrieved from the trauma registry.

Results: During the years 2015–2019, a total of 36 vehicle-ramming attacks with 113 casualties were documented in the trauma registry. The median number of casualties, urgent casualties, and fatalities per incident was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2–5), 1 (IQR 1–2), and 1 (IQR 1–1), respectively. Of the incidents, 15 (42%) had three or more casualties. The most prevelant day of the week was Friday with 9 incidents (25%). Within the day, 21 incidents (58%) occurred between the hours of 12:00 and 18:00. Commonly injured body regions were lower extremities (55%), head (28%), and upper extremities. Ten victims (9%) died before arriving at a hospital.

Conclusions: Vehicle-ramming attacks tend to have multiple casualties, be deadly, occur more often on Fridays and in the afternoon, and result mostly in injuries to the extremities and the head. These findings could guide policymaking to improve medical response to vehicle-ramming attacks.

Helit Nakar MD, Alex Sorkin MD, Roy Nadler MD, Avishai M. Tsur MD, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Guy Avital MD, Elon Glassberg MD MHA MBA, Tarif Bader MD MHA MA, Lidar Fridrich MD, Jacob Chen MD MHA MSc, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: Pain control in trauma is an integral part of treatment in combat casualty care. More soldiers injured on the battlefield need analgesics for pain than life-saving interventions (LSIs). Early treatment of pain improves outcomes after injury, while inadequate treatment leads to higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Objective: To describe the experience of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps with prehospital use of analgesia.

Methods: All cases documented in the IDF-Trauma Registry between January 1997 and December 2019 were examined. Data collection included analgesia administered, mechanism of injury, wound distribution, and life-saving interventions performed.

Results: Of 16,117 patients, 1807 (11.2%) had at least one documented analgesia. Demographics included 91.2% male; median age 21 years. Leading mechanism of injury was penetrating (52.9%). Of injured body regions reported, 46.2% were lower extremity wounds. Most common types of analgesics were morphine (57.2%) and fentanyl (27%). Over the two decades of the study period, types of analgesics given by providers at point of injury (POI) had changed. Fentanyl was introduced in 2013, and by 2019 was given to 39% of patients. Another change was an increase of casualties receiving analgesia from 5–10% until 2010 to 34% by 2019. A total of 824 LSIs were performed on 556 patients (30.8%) receiving analgesia and no adverse events were found in any of the casualties.

Conclusions: Most casualties at POI did not receive any analgesics. The most common analgesics administered were opioids. Over time analgesic administration has gained acceptance and become more commonplace on the battlefield.

Mor Rittblat MD, Lilach Gavish PhD, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Avi Benov MD MHA, and Amir Shlaifer MD

Background: Freeze dried plasma (FDP) is a commonly used replacement fluid in the prehospital setting when blood products are unavailable. It is normally administered via a peripheral intravenous (PIV) line. However, in severe casualties, when establishing a PIV is difficult, administration via intraosseous vascular access is a practical alternative, particularly under field conditions.

Objectives: To evaluate the indications and success rate of intraosseous administration of FDP in casualties treated by the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of data from the IDF-Trauma Registry was conducted. It included all casualties treated with FDP via intraosseous from 2013 to 2019 with additional data on the technical aspects of deployment collected from the caregivers of each case.

Results: Of 7223 casualties treated during the study period, intravascular access was attempted in 1744; intraosseous in 87 of those. FDP via intraosseous was attempted in 15 (0.86% of all casualties requiring intravascular access). The complication rate was 73% (11/15 of casualties). Complications were more frequent when the event included multiple casualties or when the injury included multiple organs. Of the 11 failed attempts, 5 were reported as due to slow flow of the FDP through the intraosseous apparatus. Complications in the remaining six were associated with deployment of the intraosseous device.

Conclusions: Administration of FDP via intraosseous access in the field requires a high skill level.

David Segal MD MPH, Nitzan Shakarchy-Kaminsky MD MSc, Yair Zloof MD, Tomer Talmy MD, Galina Shapiro MD PHD, Irina Radomislensky BSc, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, Erez Karp MD MHA, and Avi Benov MD MHA; Israel Trauma Group

Background: Medical organizations worldwide aim for equity and diversity in the medical profession to improve care quality. Data on whether the caregiver gender affects outcomes in the prehospital setting are essential but scarce compared to available in-hospital studies.

Objective: To analyze the rates of missed injuries in the prehospital setting and determine whether these rates were associated with the gender of the on-field physician or paramedic.

Methods: A retrospective record review was conducted, which included trauma records documented in two trauma registries, the prehospital Israel Defense Forces-Trauma Registry (IDF-TR), and the in-hospital Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR). Missed injuries were defined as injuries documented in the INTR but not in the IDF-TR. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association between provider’s gender and missed injuries.

Results: Of 490 casualties, 369 (75.3%) were treated by teams that included only male paramedics or physicians. In 386 (78.8%) cases, a physician was a part of the prehospital team. In all, 94 (19.2%) casualties sustained injuries that were missed by the prehospital medical team. Missed injuries were not associated with the gender of the paramedic or physician (odds ratio 1.242, 95% confidence interval 0.69–2.193).

Conclusions: No association was found between the gender of the medical provider in the prehospital setting and the rate of missed injuries. These results should encourage prehospital emergency medical systems to aim for a balanced and diverse caregiver population.

Alex Sorkin MD, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Roy Nadler MD, Ariel Hirschhorn MD, Ezri Tarazi BDes, Jacob Chen MD MHA, Noam Fink MD, Guy Avital MD, Shaul Gelikas MD MBA, and Avi Benov MD MHA

Background: The Israeli Defense Forces-Medical Corps (IDF-MC) focuses on reducing preventable death by improving prehospital trauma care. High quality documentation of care can serve casualty care and to improve future care. Currently, paper casualty cards are used for documentation. Incomplete data acquisition and inadequate data handover are common. To resolve these deficits, the IDF-MC launched the BladeShield 101 project.

Objectives: To assess the quality of casualty care data acquired by comparing standard paper casualty cards with the BladeShield 101.

Methods: The BladeShield 101 system consists of three components: a patient unit that records vital signs and medical care provided, a medical sensor that transmits to the patient unit, and a ruggedized mobile device that allows providers to access and document information. We compared all trauma registries of casualties treated between September 2019 and June 2020.

Results: The system was applied during the study period on 24 patients. All data were transferred to the military trauma registry within one day, compared to 72% (141/194) with a paper casualty card (P < 0.01). Information regarding treatment time was available in 100% vs. 43% (P < 0.01) of cases and 98% vs. 67% (P < 0.01) of treatments provided were documented comparing BladeShield 101 with paper cards, respectively.

Conclusions: Using an autonomous system to record, view, deliver, and store casualty information may resolve most current information flow deficits. This solution will ultimately significantly improve individual patient care and systematic learning and development processes.

August 2022
Nir Tsur MD, Omri Frig BSc, Orna Steinberg-Shemer MD, Hannah Tamary MD, Noga Kurman MD, Aviram Mizrachi MD, and Aron Popovtzer MD

Background: Recent studies show a high risk of developing malignancy in patients with Fanconi anemia. The most common solid tumor in this condition is head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and there is often uncertainty and about disease behavior as well as chemotherapy and radiation response.

Objectives: To describe and characterize HNSCC among Fanconi anemia patients on the Israeli Fanconi Registry

Methods: Our study population included patients in Israel's inherited bone marrow failure registry who were diagnosed with Fanconi anemia between1980 and 2016. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from patient charts.

Results: From the collected data, HNSCC was confirmed in 6/111 (5.4%) Fanconi anemia patients; 1 (17%) had classic HNSCC risk factors of tobacco abuse and 4 (56%) had undergone primary surgery. The 3 (50%) receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy had mild side effects, while half developed metachronous primary malignancy, and all developed > 2 primary malignancies. The overall median survival of the patients in our study was 14 (0.5–57) months.

Conclusions: Fanconi anemia patients have a very high risk of developing HNSCC. Proactive screening for malignancies is needed for the head and neck regions. We also found that chemoradiotherapy can be used safely in high-stage cancers.

July 2021
Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Amitai Ziv MD MHA, and Howard Amital MD MHA
June 2021
Omer Gendelman MD, Yuval Kuntzman MD, Ora Shovman MD, Pnina Langevitz MD, Avishai M. Tsur MD MHA, Daniel Erez MD, Yair Levy MD, and Howard Amital MD MHA

Background: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare small vessel vasculitis. It usually involves the respiratory tract and kidney. Rarely, tumor-resembling inflammatory changes ensue.

Objectives: To report three unique cases of GPA presenting with tumor-like lesions in various organs.

Methods: We presented three cases of GPA. Case 1 presented with typical upper respiratory symptoms of GPA and a mediastinal mass. Case 2 presented with low back pain, a large retroperitoneal mass, and nodular skin lesions. Case 3 presented with epigastric pain and a paravertebral inflammatory mass.

Results: The patients were treated successfully with rituximab.

Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of this presentation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which is known as Tumefaction Wegener’s granulomatosis

January 2021
Natav Hendin BSc, Gabriel Levin MD, Abraham Tsur MD, Hadas Ilan MD, Amihai Rottenstreich MD, and Raanan Meyer MD

Background: The sonographic assessment of estimated fetal weight (EFW) is essential for identification of fetuses in weight extremes and aids in peripartum management. However, there are inconsistent reports regarding EFW accuracy.

Objective: To examine maternal and fetal determinants associated with unreliable EFW.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at a single, tertiary medical center between 2011 and 2019. All term, singleton deliveries with a sonographic EFW within 2 weeks of delivery were included. Unreliable EFW was defined as > 500 grams discordance between it and the actual birth weight. We allocated the study cohort into two groups: unreliable EFW (cases) and accurate EFW (controls).

Results: Overall, 41,261 deliveries met inclusion criteria. Of these, 1721 (4.17%) had unreliable EFW. The factors positively associated with unreliable EFW included body mass index > 30 kg/m2, weight gain > 20 kg, higher amniotic fluid index, pregestational diabetes, gestational age > 410/7, and birth weight ≥ 4000 grams. On multiple regression analysis, pregestational diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.56–3.17, P < 0.001) and a higher birth weight (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.79–2.04, P < 0.001) were independently associated with unreliable EFW. On analysis of different weight categories, pregestational diabetes was associated with unreliable EFW only among birth weights ≥ 3500 grams (OR 3.28, 95%CI 1.98–5.44, P< 0.001) and ≥ 4000 grams (OR 4.27, 95%CI 2.31–7.90, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Pregestational diabetes and increased birth weight are independent risk factors for unreliable EFW and should be considered when planning delivery management.

September 2019
Atzmon Tsur MD, Nael Shakeer MD and Ronit Geron MD

Background: The potential for full rehabilitation following amputation among end-stage renal disease patients is poor.

Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcomes and survival among amputees treated with hemodialysis at the end of the rehabilitation procedure.

Methods: We recruited 46 patients after lower limb amputation. Of these individuals, 19 (41.3%) were treated with dialysis and 27 (58.7%) were non-dialysis-dependent patients (NDDP). Both groups were divided into three sub-groups according to their independence with regard to activities of daily living (ADL) and their ability to walk with prostheses.

Results: The survival of lower limb amputees treated with dialysis was shorter compared to NDDP. Survival after amputation among the NDDP who were fully or partially independent in ADL and with regard to mobility, was longer compared to the non-mobile amputees as with the patients treated with dialysis.

Conclusions: Survival was significantly longer in lower limb amputees NDDP and shorter in patients who did not achieve a certain level of functioning.

November 2018
Eliyahu Zaig MD, Odile Cohen-Ouaknine MD, Anat Tsur MD, Sheila Nagar MD, Gherta Bril MD, Lior Tolkin MD, Avivit Cahn MD, Mozhgan Heyman and Benjamin Glaser MD

Background: Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (RSTH) syndrome describes a group of rare heterogeneous genetic disorders. Precise diagnosis is essential to avoid unnecessary treatment.

Objectives: To identify and characterize previously undiagnosed patients with RSTH in Israel.

Methods: Patients with suspected RSTH throughout Israel were referred for study. After clinical evaluation, genomic DNA was obtained and all coding exons of the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene were sequenced. If mutations were found, all available blood relatives were evaluated. The common polymorphism rs2596623, a putative intronic regulatory variant, was also genotyped. Genotype/phenotype correlations were sought, and the effect of mutation status on pregnancy outcome was determined.

Results: Eight mutations (one novel; two de-novo, six dominant) were identified in eight probands and 13 family members. Clinical and genetic features were similar to those reported in other populations. Previous suggestions that rs2596623 predicts clinical features were not confirmed. There was no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage or fetal viability. Mothers carrying a THRB mutation tended to have increased gestational hypertension and low weight gain during pregnancy. Their affected offspring had increased risk of small-for-gestational age and poor postnatal weight gain.

Conclusions: Clinical heterogeneity due to THRB mutations cannot be explained by the variant rs2596623. Mothers and newborns with THRB mutations seem to be at increased risk of certain complications, such as gestational hypertension and poor intrauterine and postnatal growth. However, these issues are usually mild, suggesting that routine intervention to regulate thyroid hormone levels may not be warranted in these patients.

February 2018
Marina Deeb MD, Norman Loberant MD and Atzmon Tsur MD
December 2017
Atzmon Tsur, Marina Deeb, Nael Shakeer, Hossein Zangaria and Michal Agra
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