• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Tue, 18.06.24

Search results


October 2012
T. Friedman, D.J. Lurie and A. Shalom

The Dutch painter Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669) left behind the largest collection of self-portraits in the history of art. Although about 40 of his oil paintings could be considered “self-portraits,” controversy still exists regarding 14 of them. We undertook to determine the identity of the painter or the subject. Our work was based on the generally accepted premise that these portraits represent a “realistic” rendering of the subject. Self-portraits on which there is consensus regarding the authenticity were chosen as the basis for our measurements. Using a computerized technique we measured the brow ptosis. We also subjectively analyzed Rembrandt's facial aging and the unique asymmetrical elements in his face. We could not add any useful information on 6 of the 14 portraits and suggest that 8 should be considered authentic. Facial aging analysis and the unique surface anatomy allowed us to confirm Rembrandt as the painter in four of six self-portraits. We confirmed Rembrandt as the subject and painter in three more paintings. Of the two paintings in which the subject’s identity was controversial, we determined Rembrandt as the subject in one. We were able to date Rembrandt’s age in two other works and considered another portrait to be a copy. Our methodology may serve as an additional tool for the authentication of self-portraits.
 

August 2009
T. Friedman, J. Golan, A. Shalom and M. Westreich

Background: Due to the absence of accurate tools and appropriate photographic material there is a paucity of objective studies on facial aging in the modern literature.

Objectives: To measure changes in two elements of the face: brow ptosis and cheek mass migration, using an objective tool that we developed, which we then used to evaluate facial aging in two subjects, studying serial professional photographs over a 25 year period.

Methods: We studied the photographic atlas of the "Brown Sisters," a record of the yearly group photograph of four sisters, taken by the photographer Nicolas Nixon. For technical reasons, only two of the sisters fulfilled the criteria we set for the study. We used the interpupillary distance of each photograph studied to standardize the brow height and cheek mass distance from the interpupillary line.

Results: We observed progressive medial brow descent occurring at about the age of 30, with apparent stabilization thereafter. In contrast, there was a continuous process of lateral brow descent through the years. A process of gradual cheek mass descent was noted in the second half of the third decade.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the dynamic brow changes start in the second half of the third decade, with more significant lateral brow descent than medial brow descent. The cheek mass reflective point moves in an inferior-lateral direction. The tool we developed can be used to follow aging changes and postoperative results, thereby helping the surgeon achieve true rejuvenation surgery.

July 2009
A. Afek, T. Friedman, C. Kugel, I. Barshack and D.J. Lurie
An autopsy was an important event in 17th century Holland. Autopsies were held in an ‘anatomy theater’ and performed according to a fixed protocol that often took up to 3 days to complete. Of the five group portraits painted by Rembrandt over the course of his career, two were anatomy lessons given by Dr. Tulp and Dr. Deyman. An examination of Rembrandt’s painting of Dr. Tulp’s anatomy lesson (1632) and an X-ray image of the painting, as compared to other paintings of anatomy lessons from the same period, reveal interesting differences, such as positioning, and light and shadow. Not only was the autopsy not performed according to the usual protocol, but in this painting Rembrandt created a unique dramatic scene in his effort to tell a story. We suggest that Dr. Tulp and Rembrandt “modified” the painting of Dr. Tulp's anatomy lesson to emphasize Dr. Tulp's position as the greatest anatomist of his era – 'Vesalius of Amsterdam, and as a way of demonstrating God’s greatness by highlighting the hand as a symbol of the most glorious of God’s creations.
 
September 2008
A. Shalom, H. Eran, M. Westreich and T. Friedman

Background: Negative-pressure therapy for the closure of wounds, a technique to accelerate secondary wound healing, is clinically available as the V.A.C.™ system (KCI Inc, San Antonio, TX, USA). Budgetary considerations in our institution precluded widespread use of the expensive V.A.C.™ system in routine cases.

Objectives: To develop a less expensive comparably effective dressing, based on the same principles.

Methods: We used our “homemade” system to treat 15 patients with appropriate complex wounds. Their hospital charts were reviewed and assessed retrospectively. Cost analysis was performed comparing our dressing with the V.A.C.™ system.

Results: Our homemade negative-pressure wound treatment system obtained results similar to what one could expect with the V.A.C.™ System in all parameters. Complications encountered were few and minor. Cost per day using our negative-pressure system for a 10 cm² wound is about US$1, as compared to US$22, utilizing the V.A.C.™ System.

Conclusions: Our homemade negative-pressure system proved to be a good cost-effective treatment for wound closure in hospitalized patients, yielding results comparable to those of the more expensive V.A.C.™ system.
 

May 2007
R. Lev-Tzion, T. Friedman, T. Shochat, E. Gazala and Y. Wohl

Background: Numerous studies have shown an association between asthma and mental disorders. While elevated rates of asthma have been noted among psychiatric patients with anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, several studies have found elevated rates of mental disorders among asthma patients. Such studies, however, have generally relied upon questionnaires and assessment by non-specialist physicians to diagnose mental disorders and asthma.

Objectives: To examine a possible association between asthma and psychiatric diagnoses in Israeli military recruits and soldiers.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study we compared the prevalence of mental diagnoses in asthmatic recruits and soldiers to that in non-asthmatic recruits and soldiers. A total of 195,903 recruits and soldiers were examined by Israel Defense Forces recruiting offices and fitness boards. Diagnoses of asthma were based on a pulmonologist's diagnosis, including spirometry at rest and exercise testing as indicated; diagnoses of mental disorders were based on examination by a psychiatrist.

Results: The prevalence of asthma was found to be 7.8% (current) and 9.8% (lifetime). The prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4%. Current asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of any mental disorder (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15–1.26), and specifically with mood and anxiety disorders (1.31, 1.19–1.46), introvert personality disorders (1.20, 95% 1.12–1.28) and adjustment disorder (1.43, 1.26–1.62). Lifetime asthma was associated with an increased likelihood of the same disorders, but the association was not as powerful.

Conclusions: The results validate the previously documented association between asthma and mental disorders, using a sample of unprecedented size and improved methodology. A multidisciplinary approach to asthma that incorporates mental health professionals in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma and perhaps of asthma in general is recommended.
 

February 2007
T. Friedman, M. Westreich, D. Lurie, A. Golik

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669) left behind the largest collection of self-portraits in the history of art. These portraits were painted over a period of 41 years, using a realistic technique. To evaluate Rembrandt's aging process we studied 25 uncontested Rembrandt oil self-portraits by means of objective and descriptive techniques. By measuring brow position changes through the years, we demonstrated that brow descent started in the second half of the third decade and began to level out in the fourth decade. Based on Rembrandts' aging physiognomy, from age 22 to 63, we believe that Rembrandt did not suffer from temporal arteritis, hypothyroidism, rosacea, or rhynophima and that no other facial signs of systemic diseases are evident, contrary to the opinions expressed by other medical professionals. We suggest that Rembrandt suffered from melancholia or mild depression, and propose the possibility of chronic lead poisoning as a theoretical illness that he might have had.

June 2004
October 2003
A. Figer, T. Friedman, A.E. Manguoglu, D. Flex, A. Vazina, I. Novikov, A. Shtrieker, A.A. Sidi, T. Tichler, E. Even Sapir, J. Baniel and E. Friedman

Background: The precise genes involved in conferring prostate cancer risk in sporadic and familial cases are not fully known.

Objectives: To evlauate the genetic profile within several candidate genes of unselected prostate cancer cases and to correlate this profile with disease parameters.

Methods: Jewish Israeli prostate cancer patients (n=224) were genotyped for polymorphisms within candidate genes: p53, ER, VDR, GSTT1, CYP1A1, GSTP1, GSTM1, EPHX and HPC2/ELAC2, followed by analysis of the genotype with relevant clinical and pathologic parameters.

Results: The EPHX gene His113 allele was detected in 21.4% (33/154) of patients in whom disease was diagnosed above 61 years, compared with 5.7% (4/70) in earlier onset disease (P < 0.001). Within the group of late-onset disease, the same allele was noted in 5.5% (2/36) with grade I tumors compared with 18% (34/188) with grade II and up (P = 0.004). All other tested polymorphisms were not associated with a distinct clinical or pathologic feature in a statistically significant manner.

Conclusions: In Israeli prostate cancer patients, the EPHX His113 allele is seemingly associated with a more advanced, late-onset disease. These preliminary data need to be confirmed by a larger and more ethnically diverse study.

February 2003
I. Bar, T. Friedman, E. Rudis, Y. Shargal, M. Friedman and A. Elami

Background: Fractures of the stemum may be associated with major injuries to thoracic organs, with serious consequences.

Objective: To assess the hospital course of patients diagnosed with isolated sternal fracture.

Methods: We reviewed 55 medical records of patients who were admitted with isolated sternal fracture to the emergency department during the period from January 1990 through August 1999.

Results: Fifty-one patients were involved in motor vehicle accidents, and the remainder sustained the injury as a result of a fall. Lateral chest X-ray upon admission was diagnostic in the majority of these patients (n=53). Electrocardiography (n=52) was abnormal in four patients – old myocardial infarction (n=1), non-specific ST-T changes (n=3). Cardiac enzymes (creatine-kinase-MB, n=42) were pathologically elevated in five patients. Echocardiography, performed in patients with ECG[1] abnormalities and/or elevated myocardial enzymes (n=7), was normal in these patients as well as in another 18 patients. There were no intensive care unit admissions or arrhythmias during the hospital stay, which ranged from 6 hours to 6 days (mean 2.3 ± 1.3 days, median 2 days).

Conclusion: Our findings support the view that patients with isolated sternal fracture, who have no abnormality in ECG and cardiac enzymes during the early hours after injury, are expected to have a benign course and can be discharged home from the emergency room within the first 24 hours.






[1] ECG = electrocardiograph


Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel