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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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October 2023
Samuel N. Heyman MD, Yuri Gorelik MD, Mogher Khamaisi MD PhD, Zaid Abassi PhD

Recent studies using propensity score matching have clearly indicated that contrast nephropathy following computed tomography occurs in hospitalized patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and that this iatrogenic complication is likely underestimated because of concomitant renal functional recovery, unrelated to the imaging procedure. These findings should be considered regarding contrast-enhanced studies in such patients.

August 2018
Amichai Perlman MD, Samuel N Heyman MD, Joshua Stokar MD, David Darmon MD, Mordechai Muszkat MD and Auryan Szalat MD

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) (such as canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and dapagliflozin) are widely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve glycemic, cardiovascular and renal outcomes. However, based on post-marketing data, a warning label was added regarding possible occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Objectives: To describe the clinical presentation of T2DM patients treated with SGLT2i who were evaluated for AKI at our institution and to discuss the potential pathophysiologic mechanisms.

Methods: A retrospective study of a computerized database was conducted of patients with T2DM who were hospitalized or evaluated for AKI while receiving SGLT2i, including descriptions of clinical and laboratory characteristics, at our institution.

Results: We identified seven patients in whom AKI occurred 7–365 days after initiation of SGLT2i. In all cases, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers had also been prescribed. In five patients, another concomitant nephrotoxic agent (injection of contrast-product, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or cox-2 inhibitors) or occurrence of an acute medical event potentially associated with AKI (diarrhea, sepsis) was identified. In two patients, only the initiation of SGLT2i was evident. The mechanisms by which AKI occurs under SGLT2i are discussed with regard to the associated potential triggers: altered trans-glomerular filtration or, alternatively, kidney medullary hypoxia.

Conclusions: SGLT2i are usually safe and provide multiple benefits for patients with T2DM. However, during particular medical circumstances, and in association with usual co-medications, particularly if baseline glomerular filtration rate is decreased, patients treated with SGLT2i may be at risk of AKI, thus warranting caution when prescribed.

May 2018
Arie Markel MD, Nayef Habashe MD, Ariel Aviv MD, Olga Monich MD, Irit Elmalah MD, Nadeem Marei MD and David Tovbin MD
November 2017
Relu Cernes MD, Zvi Barnea MD, Alexander Biro MD, Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD and Ze'ev Katzir MD
May 2017
Shlomit Koren MD, Shani Zilberman-Itskovich MD, Ronit Koren MD, Keren Doenyas-Barak MD and Ahuva Golik MD

Background: Concerns about metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) prohibit the use of metformin in a large subset of diabetic patients, mostly in patients with chronic kidney disease. Increasing evidence suggests that the current safety regulations may be overly restrictive.

Objectives: To examine the association between chronic metformin treatment and lactate level in acute illness on the first day of admission to an internal medicine ward.

Methods: We compared diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients treated or not treated with metformin in different sets of kidney function.

Results: A total of 140 patients participated in the study, 54 diabetic patients on chronic metformin treatment, 33 diabetic patients without metformin and 53 patients with no diabetes. Most participants were admitted for conditions that prohibit metformin use, such as heart failure, hypoxia and sepsis. Average lactate level was significantly higher in the diabetes + metformin group compared to the diabetes non-metformin group. Metformin treatment was not associated with higher than normal lactate level (hyperlactatemia) or low pH. No patient was hospitalized for lactic acidosis as the main diagnosis.

Conclusions: Chronic metformin treatment mildly increases lactate level, but does not induce hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis in acute illness on the first day of admission to an internal medicine ward. These data support the expansion of metformin use.

December 2015
Eleonora Plotkin MD, Sydney Benchetrit MD, Tanya Zahavi MD, Oded Kimhi MD and Ze'ev Korzets MBBS
December 2013
Daniel Silverberg, Tal Yalon, Uri Rimon, Emanuel R. Reinitz, Dmitry Yakubovitch, Jacob Schneiderman and Moshe Halak
 Background: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is common in patients with chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. Despite the increasing use of endovascular revascularization for lower extremity ischemia, the success rates of treating lower extremity ischemia in this challenging population remain obscure. 

Objectives: To assess the results of endovascular revascularization for lower extremity ischemia in dialysis patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all dialysis patients who underwent endovascular treatment for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in our institution between 2007 and 2011. Data collected included comorbidities, clinical presentation, anatomic distribution of vascular lesions, amputation and survival rates.

Results: We identified 50 limbs (41 patients). Indications included: gangrene in 22%, non-healing wounds in 45%, rest pain in 31%, and debilitating claudication in 4%. Mean follow-up was 12 months (1–51 months). Nineteen patients required amputations. Freedom from amputation at 5 years was 40%. Factors associated with amputation included non-healing wounds or gangrene (68% and 36% respectively) and diabetes (P < 0.05). The survival rate was 80% after 5 years.

Conclusions:  Despite improvement in endovascular techniques for lower extremity revascularization, the incidence of limb salvage among dialysis patients remains poor, resulting in a high rate of major amputations. 

September 2012
J. Ben-Shoshan, M. Entin-Meer, H. Guzner-Gur and G. Keren

Heart failure (HF) accompanied by renal failure, termed cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), encompasses both the development and worsening of renal insufficiency secondary to HF as well as the harmful effects of impaired renal function on the cardiovascular system, and remains a universal clinical challenge. CRS was recently classified into subtypes depending on the etiologic and chronologic interactions between cardiac and renal dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying the CRS are multifactorial, including hemodynamic alterations, neurohormonal effects, and inflammatory components. However, despite enhanced understanding and awareness of CRS, further elucidation of the mechanisms involved and the appropriate treatment approaches are clearly warranted. CRS is a difficult condition to manage, as treatment to relieve congestive symptoms of HF is limited by a further decline in renal functions, itself a major independent predictor of long-term cardiac morbidity. In order to perform a proper clinical investigation and implement appropriate treatment that will minimize subsequent progression of heart and kidney injury, a comprehensive approach to these two pathologies is crucial. In the present review we discuss current theories behind the mechanistic evolution of the CRS as well as therapeutic issues regarding this multifaceted condition.

August 2012
A.Gefen, M. Weyl Ben Arush, I. Eisenstein, E. Vlodavsky, R. Abdah-Bortnyak and S. Postovsky
July 2011
K. Machol, A. Vivante, M. Rubinsthein, B. Dekel, Joseph Danieli and G. Paret
April 2011
V. Feldman, Z. Dovrish, N. Weisenberg, Y. Neuman and H. Amital
March 2011
I. Krause, N. Herman, R. Cleper, A. Fraser and M. Davidovits

Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common complication in critically ill children. It is known as an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in this population. Data on the factors affecting the choice of renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality and its impact on mortality of children with ARF[1] are limited.

Objectives: We retrospectively studied 115 children with ARF necessitating RRT[2] during the period 1995–2005 to evaluate the effect of several prognostic factors as well as RRT type on their immediate outcome.

Methods: The data collected from charts included demographics, primary disease, accompanying medical conditions, use of vasopressor support, indications for dialysis, RRT modality, and complications of dialysis. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Variables associated with mortality (P < 0.1) at the univariable level were studied by a multivariable logistic regression model.

Results: The most common cause of ARF was congenital heart disease (n=75). RRT modalities included peritoneal dialysis (PD) (n=81), hemodialfiltration (HDF) (n=31) and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) (n=18). Median RRT duration was 4 days (range 1–63 days). Overall mortality was 52.2%. IHD[3] was associated with the best survival rate (P < 0.01 vs. PD[4] and HDF[5]), while children treated with HDF had the worse outcome. Hemodynamic instability and systemic infections were associated with greater mortality, but the rate of these complications did not differ between the study groups.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that IHD[6] when applied to the right patient in an appropriate setting may be a safe and efficient RRT modality in children with ARF. Randomized prospective trials are needed to further evaluate the impact of different RRT modalities on outcome in children with ARF.

[1]               ARF = acute renal failure

[2]               RRT = renal replacement therapy

[3]               IHD = intermittent hemodialysis

[4]               PD = peritoneal dialysis

[5]               HDF = hemodialfiltration

[6]               IHD = renal replacement therapy

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