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עמוד בית
Wed, 29.05.24

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May 2024
Elena Korytnikova MD, Maayan Elnir Katz MD, Itzhak Gabizon MD, Tamar Eshkoli MD

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects glycogen metabolism and manifests as a multisystem disease. Most patients present with oropharyngeal malformations, cardiomyopathies, elevated liver enzymes, and hypoglycemia. Treatment with D-galactose has been shown to improve symptoms. Our patient presented with PGM1 deficiency. She conceived spontaneously. Throughout her pregnancies, our patient was monitored by a multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, endocrinologists, and physicians with experience in high-risk pregnancy. She delivered twice by cesarean section. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and individualized management of prenatal and postpartum care of a patient with a PGM1 deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports about a PGM1-deficient patient who conceived and delivered.

January 2024
Ravit Peretz-Machluf MD, Mayan Gilboa MD, Shiran Bookstein-Peretz MD, Omri Segal MD, Noam Regev MD, Raanan Meyer MD, Gili Regev-Yochay MD, Yoav Yinon MD, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen MD

Background: Pregnant women are at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since the release of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine (Pfizer/BioNTech), there has been accumulated data about the three vaccine doses. However, information regarding obstetric and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated with the third (booster) vaccine is limited and primarily retrospective.

Objectives: To evaluate the obstetric and early neonatal outcomes of pregnant women vaccinated during pregnancy with the COVID-19 booster vaccine compared to pregnant women vaccinated only by the first two doses.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women who received the BNT162b2 vaccine during pregnancy. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women who received only the first two doses of the vaccine to those who also received the booster dose.

Results: Overall, 139 pregnant women were vaccinated during pregnancy with the first two doses of the vaccine and 84 with the third dose. The third dose group received the vaccine earlier during their pregnancy compared to the two doses group (212 vs. 315 weeks, respectively, P < 0.001). No differences in obstetric and early neonatal outcomes between the groups were found except for lower rates of urgent cesarean delivery in the third dose group (adjusted odds ratio 0.21; 95% confidence interval 0.048–0.926, P = 0.039).

Conclusions: Compared to the first two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine given in pregnancy, the booster vaccination is safe and not associated with an increased rate of adverse obstetric and early neonatal outcomes.

December 2023
Nadav Cohen MD, Bracha Cohen MD, Debjyoti Karmakar MD, Ofer Lavie MD, Ariel Zilberlicht MD

Background: Cases of second trimester pregnancy loss can be treated either pharmacologically or by surgical evacuation. Misoprostol, an E1-prostaglandin analog, is used to facilitate the evacuation of the uterus.

Objectives: To determine the risk factors associated with patients who were treated with five or more repeated doses of misoprostol.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients treated with vaginal misoprostol at our institution between December 2016 and October 2021 for second trimester pregnancy loss.

Results: In total, 114 patients were eligible for analysis; 83 were treated with < 5 doses and 31 with ≥ 5. We recorded each case in which repeated doses were administered, irrespective of predetermined conditions such as gravidity, parity, maternal age, or gestational age. Moreover, cases of five or more misoprostol dosing were not associated with an increased complications rate, except for the increased duration of hospitalization (3.1 vs. 2.2 days, P-value < 0.01).

Conclusions: Repeated dosing could not be predicted before treatment among those treated with vaginally administered misoprostol for second trimester pregnancy loss. However, low complication rates of repeated dosing may reassure both physicians and patients regarding safety, efficacy, and future fertility.

Ehud Galron MD, Rayna Boyarsky MD, Ido Solt MD, Chen Ben David MD, Eyal Gal MD

Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-based reaction to dietary gluten. CD can present with a diverse array of symptoms. Many CD patients have no symptoms at all. Thus, a great number of atypical cases of CD remain undiagnosed, leading to a risk of long-term complications. Some atypical symptoms of CD such as pregnancy complications, infertility, recurrent abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia have been investigated in undiagnosed and diagnosed pregnant women with CD. Nutrient deficiency and autoimmune pathogenic mechanisms have been hypothesized to be the explanation of these adverse pregnancy outcomes. Recently, an association between obstetric complications and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies titers in women with CD has been reported. While the adverse effects of CD on the reproductive system are well investigated, there are only a few reports in the literature on the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on CD. We reviewed the published literature on the adverse effects and pathophysiology of CD in reproductive disorders and the effect of pregnancy and puerperium on the manifestation of CD.

October 2023
Marina Pekar-Zlotin MD, Natali Zilberman Sharon MD, Yaakov Melcer MD, Yael Tal-Bliman MD, Jodi Ezratty MD, Michal Feingold-Zadok MD, Ran Svirsky MD, Ron Maymon MD

Background: Fetal facial clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies detected prenatally. This finding may lead to termination of pregnancy in some cases.

Objectives: To compare a cohort of fetuses with facial clefts in which the pregnancy was terminated to the cohort of cases that were born with facial clefts. To investigate risk factors for facial clefts.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all women with prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of facial cleft that were managed in our institute. A telephone questionnaire was conducted regarding a positive family history and/or genetic predisposition for facial clefts abnormalities.

Results: The final cohort consisted of two group. One group included 54 cases of termination of pregnancy (TOP) that were performed due to cleft lip (CL) or cleft palate (CLP); 27 women answered the telephone questionnaire. The second group comprised 99 women who delivered children with facial cleft during the same period; 60 answered the questionnaire. Only seven cases were diagnosed prenatal. Among the two groups, no correlation to family history was discovered. Of note, there was one case of three consecutive fetuses with CL in one woman, without any significant genetic findings.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe an anatomical malformation posing an ethical dilemma before TOP. Primary prevention with folic acid and early sonographic detection of CL/CLP with multidisciplinary consultation should be considered.

June 2023
Jonathan Abraham Demma MD, Lisandro Luques MD PhD, Lior Cohen MD, Uri P. Dior MD, Gad Marom MD, Asaf Kedar MD, Naama Lev Cohain MD, Alon Pikarsky MD, Gidon Almogy MD, Liat Appelbaum MD

Background: Abdominal pathology in pregnant patients is a frequent challenge for emergency department physicians. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice but is inconclusive in approximately one-third of cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming increasingly available, even in acute settings. Multiple studies have defined the sensitivity and specificity of MRI in this population.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of MRI findings in pregnant patients presenting with acute abdominal complaints to the emergency department.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution. Data were collected on pregnant patients who underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints between 2010 and 2019 at a university center. Patient demographics, diagnosis at admission, ultrasound and MRI findings, and discharge diagnosis were recorded and evaluated.

Results: In total, 203 pregnant patients underwent an MRI for acute abdominal complaints during the study period. MRI was found without pathology in 138 cases (68%). In 65 cases (32%), the MRI showed findings that could explain the patient's clinical presentation. Patients presenting with long-standing abdominal pain (> 24 hours), fever, leukocytosis, or elevated C-reactive protein values were at a significantly increased risk of having an acute pathology. In 46 patients (22.6%), MRI findings changed the primary diagnosis and management while in 45 patients (22.1%) MRI findings improved characterization of the suspected pathology.

Conclusions: MRI is helpful when clinical and sonographic findings are inconclusive, leading to changes in patient management in more than one-fifth of patients.

May 2023
Noa Leybovitz-Haleluya MD, Reli Hershkovitz MD PhD

A 26-year-old female at 28 weeks of gestation with her fourth pregnancy presented with a 24-hour history of diffuse abdominal pain and distension. In addition, she had nausea, vomiting, and constipation. The pain did not respond to analgesics. She had poor prenatal care during her pregnancy. She had previously had three cesarean deliveries. The first cesarean delivery was due to non-progressive second stage of labor, the second was preterm due to abdominal pain and suspected uterine rupture, and the last was due to the previous cesarean deliveries. In her last previous pregnancy, she presented with recurrent milder abdominal pain, which resolved spontaneously.

On examination, she was afebrile, with normal blood pressure and heart rate. Her abdomen was distended, tympanic, and mildly tender to palpation with no tenderness on the cesarean scar and no peritoneal signs. Her laboratory testing was normal except for mild hypokalemia.

March 2023
Yoav Siegler MD, Chen Ben David MD, Zeev Weiner MD, Ido Solt MD

Late, preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) presents a major obstetrical challenge balancing between iatrogenic prematurity and risk of prolonged rupture of membranes. In recent years, the pendulum has been shifting toward expectant management until gestation week 37 + 0. We examined the latest guidelines and major trials and summarized optimal management. We addressed the major dilemmas of women with PPROM during gestation weeks 34 + 0 to 36 + 6.

February 2023
Shivtia Trop-Steinberg PhD, Eliyahu M. Heifetz PhD, Yehudit Azar PhD, Irit Kafka MD, Amir Weintraub MD, Michael Gal MD PhD

Background: Omega-3 fatty acids promote fertility in males and females and constitute an important factor in the normal development of the fetus.

Objectives: We investigated the effect of omega-3 supplements during ovulation induction treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-related infertility.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind study was conducted for 60 treatment cycles in 34 women with PCOS-related oligo/anovulation referred to the fertility clinic at the Bikur Cholim/Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, who underwent ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (50 mg). Seventeen women (mean age 33.9 ± 0.9 years) received omega-3 supplements (3 × 600 mg/day) and 17 received placebo capsules (mean age 32.7 ± 0.9 years) for a maximum of two cycles. We recorded their characteristics and data from their serial hormonal blood tests and ultrasound examinations. We also conducted both univariate and multivariate analyses. The primary endpoint was conception.

Results: There were clinical pregnancies in 8/30 (26.7%) treatment cycles for women receiving omega-3 supplements versus 4/30 (13.3%) cycles with placebo. Among overweight/obese women (body mass index [BMI] 25–35), there were clinical pregnancies in 8/27 cycles (29.6%) versus 1/19 (5.3%) with placebo (P < 0.04). For overweight/obese PCOS women, omega-3, lower BMI rates, and higher values of the endometrium’s thickness increased the odds of becoming pregnant. No harmful side effects from the omega-3 treatment were reported.

Conclusions: Omega-3 supplements demonstrated beneficial effects for fertility in women diagnosed with PCOS. Among the overweight/obese participants, the increased clinical pregnancy rate was significant.

July 2021
Jacob Weinstein MD, Amichai Shinfeld MD, Michal Simchen MD, Tal Cahan MD, Jonathan Frogel MD, Michael Arad MD, Haim Berkenstadt MD, and Rafael Kuperstein MD

Background: Pregnant women with Marfan syndrome (MS) have a high risk of aortic dissection around delivery and their optimal management requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including proper cardio-obstetric care and adequate pain management during labor, which may be difficult due to the high prevalence of dural ectasia (DE) in these patients.

Objectives: To evaluate the multidisciplinary management of MS patients during labor.

Methods: Nineteen pregnant women (31 pregnancies) with MS were followed by a multi-disciplinary team (cardiologist, obstetrician, anesthesiologist) prior to delivery.

Results:. Two patients had kyphoscoliosis; none had previous spine surgery nor complaints compatible with DE. In eight pregnancies (7 patients), aortic root diameter (ARd) before pregnancy was 40 to 46 mm. In this high-risk group, one patient underwent elective termination, two underwent an urgent cesarean section (CS) under general anesthesia, and five had elective CS; two under general anesthesia (GA), and three under spinal anesthesia. In 23 pregnancies (12 patients), ARd was < 40 mm. In this non-high-risk group three pregnancies (1 patient) were electively terminated. Of the remaining 20 deliveries (11 patients), 14 were vaginal deliveries, 9 with epidural analgesia and 5 without. Six patients had a CS; four under GA and two2 under spinal anesthesia. There were no epidural placement failures and no failed responses. There were 2 cases of aortic dissection, unrelated to the anesthetic management.

Conclusions: The optimal anesthetic strategy during labor in MS patients should be decided by a multi-disciplinary team. Anesthetic complications due to DE were not encountered during neuraxial block

January 2021
Yaakov Melcer MD, Shira Dvash MD, Ron Maymon MD, Marina Pekar-Zlotin MD, Zvi Vaknin MD, Tamar Tzur MD, and Noam Smorgick MD

Background: Adnexal torsion in pregnancy is often associated with functional adnexal cysts, especially in pregnancies conceived by ovulation induction (OI) or in-vitro fertilization (IVF). During laparoscopy for adnexal de-torsion, drainage of the functional cysts can be attempted, although this procedure may cause bleeding.

Objectives: To investigate the characteristics of ovarian torsion in pregnancy associated with functional cysts and to compare the rate of torsion recurrence following de-torsion alone versus cyst drainage.

Methods: All cases of surgically diagnosed adnexal torsion occurring during pregnancy between January 2007 and April 2019 in our department were retrospectively analyzed. The cases of torsion associated with presumed functional ovarian cysts were selected. The rate of recurrent torsion during the same pregnancy was compared for de-torsion alone versus de-torsion and cyst aspiration.

Results: Of the 113 women who experienced adnexal torsion during pregnancy, 71 (67.0%) of torsion cases were caused by presumed functional ovarian cysts. Among women with torsion of functional ovarian cysts, the rate of torsion recurrence was significantly higher in patients who underwent de-torsion alone (n=28) compared to women who underwent aspiration and drainage of the ovarian cysts (n=43) (14.3% vs. 0, P = 0.021). There were no cases of intra- or post-operative bleeding in the study cohort.

Conclusions: Functional ovarian cysts are the most common adnexal pathology encountered in pregnant women with torsion. Intra-operative cyst aspiration and drainage may reduce the risk of recurrent torsion. Further multi-center studies are required to validate our data prospectively.

November 2020
Elias Toubi MD and Zahava Vadasz MD PhD

Innate and adaptive immune response dysregulations are equally involved in the induction of autoimmunity. Toll-like receptors play a leading role in the activation of innate immune cells, thus priming auto-reactive T cells. Th17 cells and related cytokines are widely involved in many immune-mediated diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the recent introduction of anti-IL-17  therapies should be further evaluated. Janus kinase inhibitors and Fc receptor-targeting drugs are some of the new therapeutic strategies that are being implemented when old classical therapies lack sufficient beneficial outcomes

September 2020
Naftali Justman MD, Gilad Shahak MD, Ola Gutzeit MD, Dikla Ben Zvi MD, Yuval Ginsberg MD, Ido Solt MD, Dana Vitner MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Zeev Weiner MD and Yaniv Zipori MD

Background: The World Health Organization classified coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) as a pandemic and recommends strict restrictions regarding most aspects of daily activities.

Objectives: To evaluate whether the pandemic has changed the prenatal care and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women without COVID-19.

Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to describe changes in outpatient clinic visits and to compare the rates of cesarean and instrumental deliveries between two periods of time: March–April 2020 (during the COVID-19 outbreak) with March–April of the preceding year, 2019.

Results: During the COVID-19 outbreak, visits to obstetric triage, gynecologic triage, high-risk clinic, and ultrasound units decreased by 36.4%, 34.7%, 32.8%, and 18.1%, respectively. The medical center experienced a 17.8% drop in the total number of births (610 births) compared with March and April 2019 (742 births). During the outbreak women were more likely to be nulliparous (33.3% vs. 27.6%, P = 0.02) and present with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (7.5% vs. 4%, P = 0.005) or gestational diabetes (13% vs. 10%, P = 0.03). More epidural analgesia was used (83.1% vs. 77.1%, P = 0.006). There were more operative vaginal deliveries during the outbreak (16.7% vs. 6.8%, P = 0.01). All other maternal and neonatal outcomes were comparable between the two periods.

Conclusions: The medical facility experienced a major decline in all aspects of the routine obstetrics activities during the time of the pandemic. The higher rate of operative vaginal deliveries among nulliparous may be associated with the pandemic effect on the rate of high-risk patients

Arieh Riskin MD PhD, Omer Itzchaki BSc, David Bader MD MHA, Adir Iofe MD, Arina Toropine MD and Shlomit Riskin-Mashiah MD MPH

Background: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in parallel to the worldwide obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic. Both GDM and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) are associated with short- and long-term consequences in the offspring. There are few recent studies addressing outcomes of newborns born to women diagnosed with GDM and PGDM in Israel.

Objectives: To assess perinatal complications in offspring of women with GDM and PGDM.

Methods: The authors conducted a single-center retrospective case-control study of outcomes of all newborns whose mothers had been diagnosed with diabetes in pregnancy compared to randomly assigned controls born on the same date, whose mothers had no diabetes.

Results: In the study period 2015–2017, 526 mothers diagnosed with GDM or PGDM and their newborn infants were identified. The authors randomly assigned 526 control infants. The rate of women with diabetes in pregnancy was 5.0%. Mothers with GDM and PGDM had higher rates of pre-eclampsia, multiple pregnancies, and preterm deliveries. Mothers with PGDM had significantly higher rates of intrauterine fetal demise (4.3%), congenital anomalies (12.8%), and small-for-gestational-age neonates (10.6%) compared to controls (0%, 3.2%, and 4.2%, respectively, P < 0.001). The risks for preterm or cesarean delivery, large-for-gestational-age neonate, respiratory morbidity, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia were increased in offspring of mothers with diabetes, especially PGDM.

Conclusions: Despite all the advancements in prenatal care, diabetes in pregnancy, both PGDM and GDM, is still associated with significant morbidities and complications in offspring. Better preconception and inter-pregnancy care might reduce these risks

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