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עמוד בית
Thu, 22.02.24

Search results

December 2023
Rotem Liran MD, Wakar Garra MD, Or Carmi MD, Yair Levy MD, Yael Einbinder MD

Higher potency bisphosphonates, typically intravenous formulations, are given at lower doses for postmenopausal women. The treatment has improved compliance compared to daily oral therapy. Since bisphosphonates are exclusively excreted via the kidneys, intravenous formulation has been associated with deterioration of renal function, specifically in the setting of preexisting renal disease or concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents [1].

November 2022
Adi Lichtenstein MD, Shmuel Tiosano MD, Doron Comaneshter MD, Arnon D. Cohen MD, Howard Amital MD

Background: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness with associated neuropsychological symptoms such as fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction of bone density. Previous studies to determine an association of FMS with osteoporosis showed mixed results, partially due to small sample sizes and lack of statistical power.

Objectives: To evaluate the association of FMS with osteoporosis.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study utilizing the database from Israel’s largest health maintenance organization. FMS patients were compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association between osteoporosis and FMS. Spearman’s rho test was used for correlation.

Results: We utilized data from 14,296 FMS patients and 71,324 age- and sex-matched controls. Spearman's rho test showed a significant correlation between FMS and osteoporosis (correlation coefficient 0.55, P < 0.001). A logistic regression for osteoporosis showed an odds ratio [OR] of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.83–2.06, P < 0.001) for FMS compared to controls and found higher body mass index to be slight protective (OR 0.926, 95%CI 0.92–0.93, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between FMS and osteoporosis. Early detection of predisposing factors for osteoporosis in FMS patients and implementation of suitable treatments and prevention measures (such as dietary supplements, resistance or weight bearing exercise, and bone-mineral enhancing pharmacological therapy) may reduce both occurrence rate and severity of osteoporosis and its complications, such as fractures.

January 2022
Nariman Saba Khazen MD, Andrew Brash MD, Miri Steier MD, Dennis Kunichoff MsC, and Ronit Wollstein MD

Background: Identifying and treating patients with fragility fractures may be effective in prevention of subsequent fractures because a first fragility fracture often predicts a second fracture.

Objectives: To evaluate a multidisciplinary anti-osteoporotic clinic for patients with prior distal radius fragility fractures (DRFF). To assess whether addressing this early fracture may prevent a second fracture.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed. Cases included patients treated surgically for DRFF who were assessed at a tertiary, multidisciplinary, fracture-prevention clinic. Controls were a series of similarly treated patients who did not attend the clinic. The primary outcome measure was a second fracture.

Results: Average follow-up was 42 months for the treated group and 85 months for the untreated group. The treated group received more treatment for osteoporosis than controls; however, despite one new fracture in the treated group and six new fractures in the control group, there was no significant difference in fracture occurrence.

Conclusions: This pilot study supports the effectiveness of our multidisciplinary anti-osteoporotic clinic in treating osteoporosis but not in reducing subsequent fractures. Further study with larger cohorts and longer follow-up is needed to improve our ability to implement effective prevention of fragility fractures.

August 2021
Omer Or MD, Tamar Fisher Negev PharmD, Vered Hadad MD, Ran Shabtai MD, Alona Katzir MD, Yoram Weil MD, and Meir Liebergall MD

Background: Osteoporosis is a common medical condition in older ages. A devastating result of osteoporosis may be a hip fracture with up to 30% mortality rate in one year. The compliance rate of osteoporotic medication following a hip fracture is 20% in the western world.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the fracture liaison service (FLS) model in the orthopedic department on patient compliance following hip fracture

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with hip fracture who were involved with FLS. We collected data regarding kidney function, calcium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and vitamin D levels at admission. We educated the patient and family, started vitamin D and calcium supplementation and recommended osteoporotic medical treatment. We phoned the patient 6–12 weeks following the fracture to ensure treatment initiation.

Results: From June 2018 to June 2019 we identified 166 patients with hip fracture who completed at least one year of follow-up. Over 75% of the patients had low vitamin D levels and 22% had low calcium levels at admission. Nine patients (5%) died at median of 109 days. Following our intervention, 161 patients (96%) were discharged with a specific osteoporotic treatment recommendation; 121 (73%) received medication for osteoporosis on average of < 3 months after surgery. We recommended on injectable medications; however, 51 (42%) were treated with oral biphsophonate.

Conclusions: FLS improved the compliance rate of osteoporotic medical treatment and should be a clinical routine in every medical center

Eyal Yaacobi MD, Pnina Rotman Pikielny MD, Binyamin Kish MD, Dafna Shilo Yaacobi MD, Yaron Brin MD, and Nissim Ohana MD

Background: The incidence of fragility hip fractures, intracapsular and extracapsular, has been increasing worldwide. Fracture stability is important for treatment decision-making and is related to the expected rate of complications. It is unclear whether metabolic therapy explains the increased incidence of unstable fractures.

Objectives: To investigate the possible association between treatment with bisphosphonates and the various patterns encountered with intertrochanteric hip fractures.

Methods: Patients with fragility hip fractures who were treated in our department between 2013 and 2014 were included in this study. They were classified into three groups: group 1 had a stable extracapsular fracture, group 2 had an unstable extracapsular fracture, and group 3 had an intracapsular fracture. Collated data included: osteoporosis preventive therapy and duration, fracture-type, history of previous fractures, and vitamin D levels.

Results: Of 370 patients, 87 were previously treated with bisphosphonates (18.3% prior to fracture in group 1, 38.3% in group 2, and 13.8% in group 3). Of those treated with bisphosphonates, 56.3% had an unstable fracture, 21.8% had a stable fracture, and the rest an intracapsular fracture. In contrast, only 27.9% of patients who were not treated with bisphosphonates had an unstable fracture and 30.0% had stable fractures.

Conclusions: Our findings show a higher proportion of complex and unstable fractures among patients with fragility hip-fractures who were treated with bisphosphonates than among those who did not receive this treatment. The risk for complex and unstable fracture may affect the preferred surgical treatment, its complexity, length of surgery, and rehabilitation.

April 2019
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA

Throughout history, studies on episodes of famine have led to the discovery of metabolic abnormalities and hormonal aberrations as well as an increased incidence of cancer and mental health conditions. Starvation during early life is thought to nfluence the programming of childhood and adult bone metabolism, which may result in poor bone health in later life. This observational case series includes a small group (with no control group) of famine-exposed Holocaust survivors and their descendants. We proposed an investigational mechanism to determine any association between starvation and osteoporosis, both in the individual survivors and in their descendants.

December 2018
Raviv Allon BsC, Yahav Levy MD, Idit Lavi MA, Aviv Kramer MD, Menashe Barzilai MD and Ronit Wollstein MD

Because fragility fractures have an enormous impact on the practice of medicine and global health systems, effective screening is imperative. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which has limited ability to predict fractures, is being used. We evaluated the current literature for a method that may constitute a better screening method to predict fragility fractures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to evaluate screening methods to predict fragility fractures. We found that ultrasound had sufficient data on fracture prediction to perform meta-analysis; therefore, we analyzed prospective ultrasound cohort studies. Six study populations, consisting of 29,299 individuals (87,296 person-years of observation) and including 992 fractures, were analyzed. MRI was found to be sensitive and specific for osteoporosis, but its use for screening has not been sufficiently evaluated and more research is needed on cost, accessibility, technical challenges, and sensitivity and specificity. CT could predict fracture occurrence; however, it may be problematic for screening due to cost, exposure to radiation, and availability. Ultrasound was found to predict fracture occurrence with an increased risk of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.73) to fracture. Ultrasound has not replaced DXA as a screening tool for osteoporosis, perhaps due to operator-dependency and difficulty in standardization of testing.

November 2017
Relu Cernes MD, Zvi Barnea MD, Alexander Biro MD, Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD and Ze'ev Katzir MD
April 2017
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA

Starvation in early life can lead to premature metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization. Osteoporosis in the Jewish population may not yet be a recognized syndrome, but the harsh conditions to which Holocaust survivors were exposed may have increased the incidence of the condition. Immigrants and refugees who came to Israel from East Africa and Yemen – whether decades ago or more recently – may have been at increased risk of under-nutrition during pregnancy, affecting both the mother and consequently the offspring. This malnutrition may be further exacerbated by rapid overfeeding in the adopted developed country. This problem was also recognized at the turn of the 21st century in poor and underdeveloped countries and is becoming a global public health issue. In this review, the risks for premature metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization are enumerated and preventive measures outlined. 

September 2015
Liana Tripto-Shkolnik MD, Elena Segal MD, Anat Jaffe MD, Sophia Ish-Shalom MD, Rakefet Bachrach MD, Alicia Nachtigal MD and Daniela Militianu MD

Background: Evidence suggests that prolonged bisphosphonate (BP) treatment predisposes to atypical fractures (AF), but the etiology has yet to be determined. Addressing causality begins with case identification, which requires radiological adjudication. However, many trials based their case findings on coded diagnoses. 

Objectives: To investigate the feasibility of case findings by the coding system and the reproducibility of radiological evaluations in two hospitals in Israel, and to compare BP exposure of AF patients to a control group with typical (intertrochanteric of femoral neck) fractures. 

Methods: Diagnostic databases from 2007–2010 were reviewed and admission X-rays of patients were examined in two steps by two radiologists. Fractures were classified as atypical or not atypical according to published criteria. A 2:1 control group was created. Ambulatory drug acquisition was reviewed. 

Results: Of the 198 patients who fulfilled the search criteria, 38 were classified by initial radiological opinion as AF. Subsequent radiological opinion judged 16 as not atypical. Of the AF patients, 80% were exposed to BP. Of those, 81% continued to receive BP treatment for 2.4 years after AF. Only one AF patient was discharged with suspected AF diagnosis. In the control group, 27% were exposed to BP prior to fracture (P < 0.001). 

Conclusions: Thorough radiological revision is mandatory for proper classification of AF, and even when performed there is significant inconsistency in interpretation. Conclusions drawn from trials based solely on coded diagnoses lead to significant bias. BP exposure was significantly higher in the AF group. Caregiver unawareness of AF leads to improper management. 


February 2014
Yoav Rosenthal, Amir Arami, Yona Kosashvili, Nir Cohen, Eli Sidon and Steven Velkes
Background: Bisphosphonates reduce the overall risk of fractures among patients with osteoporosis, and this beneficial effect is long-lasting. However, since bisphosphonates inhibit bone remodeling, they may enhance the formation and propagation of micro-cracks over time and patients may therefore be prone to atypical fatigue fractures, mainly in the subtrochanteric region and femoral shaft.

Objectives: To present two cases of subtrochanteric fractures related to bisphosphonate treatment and review of the current literature.

Conclusions: Despite the overall beneficial effect of bisphosphonates, further research is required to prevent this significant complication. 

Noam Rosen, Roy Gigi, Amir Haim, Moshe Salai and Ofir Chechik
Background: Above-the-knee amputations (AKA) and below-the-knee amputations (BKA) are commonly indicated in patients with ischemia, extensive tissue loss, or infection. AKA were previously reported to have better wound-healing rates but poorer rehabilitation rates than BKA.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of AKA and BKA and to identify risk factors for poor outcome following leg amputation.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study comprised 188 consecutive patients (mean age 72 years, range 25–103, 71% males) who underwent 198 amputations (91 AKA, 107 BKA, 10 bilateral procedures) between February 2007 and May 2010. Included were male and female adults who underwent amputations for ischemic, infected or gangrenotic foot. Excluded were patients whose surgery was performed for other indications (trauma, tumors). Mortality and reoperations (wound debridement or need for conversion to a higher level of amputation) were evaluated as outcomes. Patient- and surgery-related risk factors were studied in relation to these primary outcomes.

Results: The risk factors for mortality were dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.769], non-ambulatory status preoperatively (HR 2.281), heart failure (HR 2.013) and renal failure (HR 1.87). Resistant bacterial infection (HR 3.083) emerged as a risk factor for reoperation. Neither AKA nor BKA was found to be an independent predictor of mortality or reoperation.

Conclusions: Both AKA and BKA are associated with very high mortality rates. Mortality is most probably related to serious comorbidities (renal and heart disease) and to reduced functional status and dementia. Resistant bacterial infections are associated with high rates of reoperation. The risk factors identified can aid surgeons and patients to better anticipate and possibly prevent severe complications.

October 2013
R. Blecher, Z. Wasrbrout, Y. Arama, R. Kardosh, G. Agar and Y. Mirovsky
 Background: Osteoporosis is considered the most common bone disease in humans and the most common cause of fractures.

Objectives: To identify possible risk factors associated with a decreased level of care for osteoporosis among patients presenting acutely with the major types of fragility fractures, but also among patients who remain undertreated following their discharge.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective questionnaire-based cohort study. We searched our databases for patients admitted acutely with proximal humerus, distal forearm, thoracolumbar spine, and proximal femur fractures. A questionnaire was used to evaluate osteoporotic care including a referral to DEXA and any associated prescribed medication.

Results: The study group included 114 patients or their caregivers. The osteoporosis care rate rose from 56.1% (n=64) before admission to 71% (n=81) at follow-up. Significant risk factors associated with a decreased care rate prior to admission were the presence of fewer than three comorbidities, and a combination of male gender and young age. Continued neglect at follow-up was associated with the opposite risk factors, such as older age, multiple comorbidities, and polypharmacy. An additional finding was that treated patients had a significantly increased likelihood of presenting with vertebral fractures.

Conclusions: While the association of osteoporosis with the elderly may decrease its screening rates among younger and healthier patients, fragility fractures may be viewed as “end-stage” bone disease, rendering osteoporotic care inefficient.


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