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עמוד בית
Thu, 07.12.23

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July 2011
Y. Folman and S. Shabat

Background: Cement vertebroplasty has been performed for over a decade to treat painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Kyphoplasty is considered a further step in the evolution of vertebral augmentation.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of the Confidence Vertebroplasty (CV) system in comparison with the Sky Kyphoplasty (SK) system in treating OVCF.

Methods: This prospective study included 45 patients with OVCF. Fourteen were treated with CV[1] and 31 with SK[2]. An imaging evaluation using a compression ratio (height of anterior vs. posterior wall) and local kyphotic deformity (Cobb angle) was performed prior to the procedure and 12 months later. Evaluation of pain was carried out using a visual analogue scale.

Results: The mean compression repair was 12% in the CV group compared to 25% in the SK group.

Mean kyphotic deformity restoration achieved using CV was 41% compared to 67% using SK. In both groups the pain severity was equally reduced by a mean of 43%.

Conclusions: The SK system has a technical superiority in restoring the vertebral height and repairing the kyphotic deformity, an advantage that was not manifested in pain relief – the most important variable. Both systems have a high level of safety. The cost-benefit balance clearly favors the CV system.

[1] CV = Confidence Vertebroplasty

[2] SK = Sky Kyphoplasty

February 2010
G. Akler, P. Rotman Pikielny, E. Kots, S. Ish-Shalom and Y. Uziel
August 2009
M. García-Carrasco, C. Mendoza-Pinto, R.O. Escárcega, M. Jiménez-Hernández, I. Etchegaray Morales, P. Munguía Realpozo, J. Rebollo-Vázquez, E. Soto-Vega, M. Delezé and R. Cervera

In recent years the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has increased markedly. Consequently, long-term complications, such as osteoporosis, are currently of paramount importance. SLE[1] is known to increase the risk of bone fractures, and numerous studies have found that SLE patients have osteoporosis. Of the various risk factors associated with osteoporosis in SLE, disease duration, the use of corticosteroids and chronic disease-related damage are consistently reported, with differences between studies probably due to the different populations studied. The role of chronic inflammation in osteoporosis is also important. On the other hand, little attention has been paid to osteoporotic fractures, especially of the vertebra, which are associated with reduced quality of life, increased mortality rates and increased risk of new vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in the general population.

[1] SLE = systemic lupus erythematosus

March 2008
J. Kertes, M. Dushenat, J. Landes Vesterman, J. Lemberger, J. Bregman and N. Friedman

Background: Bisphosphonates are effective in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, yet their use is suboptimal.

Objectives: To measure bisphosphonate compliance among first-time users and identify factors associated with compliance.

Methods: We conducted a prospective follow-up of all women aged 45+ in the second largest health management organization in Israel who were prescribed bisphosphonates for the first time. The 4448 women were classified by drug dosage. Persistence and adherence measures of compliance were calculated for each woman over a 1 year period.

Results: Mean bisphosphonate persistence over a year was 216 days, with a mean medication possession ratio of 66%. Women whose medication was changed, whether from weekly to daily or daily to weekly, always had better persistence rates than those who consistently took the original dose. Persistence rates were as follows: 264 days for women who switched back and forth between daily and weekly doses, 229 days for those who switched from daily to weekly, 222 days for those who took the dosage weekly only, 191 days for those who switched to daily dosage, and 167 days for those who took the dosage daily only (P < 0.001). Switchers were also more likely to have adequate adherence rates (MPR[1] ≥ 80%): 81.3%, 76.6%, 67.5%, 61.3% and 52.2% respectively (P < 0.001). More than 20% of women stopped taking their medication within the first month. Women with higher supplemental insurance (offering significant discounts for weekly dose medications) had better persistence rates: 221 vs. 208 days (P = 0.03). Younger women and women on national pension insurance had the lowest persistence rates: 204 and 209 days respectively.

Conclusions: While weekly bisphosphonate takers had better compliance rates, persistence and adherence rates were inadequate for all groups. Changing medication to meet the needs of the patient, discounting weekly medications, and providing follow-up within the first months of prescription may promote compliance. 

[1] MPR = medication possession ratio

November 2005
Y. Liel, H. Castel and D. Alkalay
 Background: For the last 35 years, our medical center has been the only referral center and provider of emergency medical services for a well-defined geographic area in southern Israel.

Objectives: To evaluate trends in the incidence of hip fractures in this population.

Methods: The study was based on two surveys done approximately 20 years apart. It included women and men 50 years and older with radiographic evidence of a new hip fracture caused by low impact trauma. Only fractures that resulted from low or moderate trauma were considered for the current study. Incidence rates were calculated based on population data obtained from the official Central Bureau of Statistics.

Results: There was an overall twofold increase in the incidence rate of hip fractures. However, this increase occurred almost exclusively in the over-75 year old age groups (2.5-fold increase, both in women and men). The mean (and median) age of patients with hip fractures increased significantly over the study period, corresponding with the increase in longevity between the two periods.

Conclusions: There was a marked secular increase in the incidence of proximal hip fractures in both genders, primarily because of an increase in the fracture rate in the very old. The increase in median age of fracture patients suggests that the observed increase in fracture rate can be attributed mainly to aging of the population rather than to deterioration in bone quality over the generations.

December 2003
E. Segal, A. Tamir and S. Ish-Shalom

Background: The treatment of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women represents a major public health challenge since long-term therapy is needed to prevent fractures and chronic disability.

Objectives: To assess compliance with osteoporosis drug therapy among Israeli postmenopausal women treated with either a bisphosphonate (alendronate) or a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene); to identify factors affecting compliance among these patients; and to compare adherence to the treatment in these two groups.

Methods: Our study included 178 consecutive patients aged 67.41 ± 8.52 years who were treated for osteoporosis with alendronate or raloxifene in the Metabolic Bone Diseases Unit. All the patients received supplement with calcium carbonate 1,500 mg and 600 IU vitamin D daily. Compliance was assessed at a clinic visit 6 months after starting therapy.

Results: The dropout rate was 23% (41 patients): 20 patients (31%) in the raloxifene group and 21 (18%) in the alendronate group (P = 0.0041). The main reasons for dropout were side effects and/or non-compliance, 16 and 24 patients (39% and 58.53%), respectively. The most frequent side effect was abdominal pain in 9 patients (42.8%) who discontinued alendronate use. The reasons for non-compliance were a fear of side effects and high drug price in 6 (30%) and 4 (20%) patients respectively in the raloxifene group, and inconvenience caused by medication use in 3 (14.3%) patients in the alendronate group. Logistic regression analysis of factors that may influence compliance included age, previous fractures, family history of osteoporosis, bone density T-score less than -2.5, and presence and number of concomitant diseases. Age was the only statistically significant parameter in this model: 67.8 ± 8.8 in non-compliant versus 64.11 ± 7.4 in compliant patients (P = 0.029).

Conclusion: At least 20% of the patients discontinued chronic treatment for osteoporosis during the initial 6 months of therapy. The main reasons were gastrointestinal side effects in the alendronate group, and fear of side effects and high drug price in the raloxifene group. Older age was the only statistically significant factor influencing compliance.

July 2003
C. Hartman, Z. Hochberg and R. Shamir
June 2003
D. Lev, I. Binson, A.J.H. Foldes, N. Waternberg and T. Lerman-Sagie

Background: The osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe juvenile-onset osteoporosis and congenital or early-onset blindness. Other manifestations include muscular hypotonia, ligamentous laxity, mild mental retardation and seizures. The gene responsible was recently identified to be the low density lipoprotein receptor-related family member LRP5 on chromosome 11q11-12.

Objective: To measure bone density in two siblings with the OPPG[1] syndrome as well as in their family members (parents and siblings).

Methods: Bone mineral density was determined in the lumbar spine (antero-posterior), femoral neck, two-thirds distal forearm (>95% cortical bone) and ultradistal forearm (predominantly trabecular bone) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: The studies revealed osteoporotic changes both in the patients and the carriers.

Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that OPPG carriers have reduced bone mass, which is a risk factor for development of early osteoporotic changes.


[1] OPPG = osteoporosis-pseudoglioma

May 2002
Michael Eckstein, MSc, Iris Vered, MD, Sophia Ish-Shalom, MD, Anat Ben Shlomo, MD, Avraham Shtriker, MD, Nira Koren-Morag, PhD and Eitan Friedman, MD, PhD

Background: Genetic factors have been shown to play a major role in the development of peak bone mass, with hereditability accounting for about 50-85% of the variance in bone mass. Numerous candidate genes were proposed to be involved in osteoporosis, but the precise genes and their relative contribution remain unknown.

Objectives: To gain insight into the genetic basis of idiopathic low bone mineral density in Israeli patients by analyzing the impact of two candidate genes: polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene and polymorphism A986s in the calcium-sensing receptor gene.

Methods: We analyzed 86 Jewish Israeli patients with LBMD[1]: 38 premenopausal women and 48 men, and compared the allelic pattern distribution with that of the general population (126 men and 112 women). Genotyping of the VDR[2] gene was performed in three polymorphic sites using restriction enzymes, and allelic analysis of A986s polymorphism in the CaSR[3] gene was performed using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique.  

Reaults: In LBMD women the distributions of VDR alleres in Apal polymorphism were AA=7/28, Aa=16/28 and aa=5/28; in TaqI polymorphism TT=10/31, Tt=16/31 and tt=5/31; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=7/32, Bb=14/32 and 11/32. In LBMD men the distributions were AA=17/39, Aa=21/39 and aa=1/39; in TaqI polymorphism TT=12/42, Tt=23/42 and tt=7/42; and in BsmI polymorphism BB=12/41 Bb=18/41 and bb=11/41. The distributions of all these polymorphisms in the control groups were not significantly different. Adjusting for the independent age and gender parameters confirmed that these three polymorphisms of the VDR gene did not have a significant effect on bone mineral density. Thirty percent (24/79) of LBMD patients of either sex displayed heterozygosity of the CaSR A986s polymorphism, compared with 40 of 203 controls (19.7%) (P=0.059). Adjusting for age and gender in these patients revealed a significant difference in the femoral neck BMD[4] between homozygotes and heterozygotes (P=0.002). The age at menarche of the LBMD women was found to predict 61% of the variance of femoral neck BMD.

Conclusions: In Israeli Jewish men and premenopausal women VDR gene alleles do not seem to be associated with lower lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD. A trend towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism missense mutation was noted in the LBMD patients. Age at menarche in the LBMD women was found to be an important predictor of BMD. A significant difference was found between LBMD women and healthy control women towards heterozygosity for a CaSR polymorphism, as well between homozygotes and heterozygotes for a CaSR polymorphism in BMD. The significance of these findings and their applicability to a larger population awaits further studies.


[1] LBMD = low bone mineral density

[2] VDR = vitamin D receptor

[3] CaSR = calcium-sensing receptor

[4] BMD = bone mineral density

May 2000
Perla Werner PhD and Iris Vered MD

Background: Osteoporosis is the most common human bone disease. It affects millions of persons throughout the world and its prevalence will increase as the population ages worldwide.

Objective: To assess Israeli physicians' attitudes and knowledge with regard to management of osteoporosis.

Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to 1,900 Israeli physicians concerning their attitudes to the management of osteoporosis, their prescribing habits, and their knowledge on the pharmacological treatment of the disease.

Results: Replies were received from 19% of the physicians. The respondents encouraged physical activity and cessation of smoking for all women, and prescribed estrogen replacement as the main treatment for 50-year-old women. A relatively low level of knowledge was found regarding the adequate dosage of several of the pharmacological treatments.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study stress the need to provide clear guidelines and to extend physicians' knowledge regarding the management of osteoporosis.

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