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עמוד בית
Thu, 13.06.24

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March 2020
Yigal Helviz MD, Tehila Hajaj MD, Ayala Burger PhD, Phillip D. Levin MD BChir and Sharon Einav MD MSc

Background: The use of a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) was examined for different clinical indications in the critically ill.

Objectives: To describe a single center experience with HFNC in post-extubation critical care patients by using clinical indices.

Methods: In this single center study, the authors retrospectively evaluated the outcome of patients who were connected to the HFNC after their extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU). At 48 hours after the extubation, the patients were divided into three groups: the group weaned from HFNC, the ongoing HFNC group, and the already intubated group.

Results: Of the 80 patients who were included, 42 patients were without HFNC support at 48 hours after extubation, 22 and 16 patients were with ongoing HFNC support and already intubated by this time frame, respectively. The mean ROX index (the ratio of SpO2 divided by fraction of inspired oxygen to respiratory rate) at 6 hours of the weaned group was 12.3 versus 9.3 in the ongoing HFNC group, and 8.5 in the reintubated group (P = 0.02). The groups were significantly different by the ICU length of stay, tracheostomy rate, and mortality.

Conclusions: Among patients treated with HFNC post-extubation of those who had a higher ROX index were less likely to undergo reintubation.

December 2018
Ori Samuel Duek MD BSBME, Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Yaron Bar-Lavie MD, Hany Bahouth MD and Yehuda Ullmann MD

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients with inhalation injuries. An increased risk of pneumonia has been demonstrated in trauma and burn patients urgently intubated in the field vs. emergency departments (EDs).

Objectives: To compare intubation setting (field vs. ED) and subsequent development of pneumonia in burn patients and to evaluate the indication for urgent intubation outside the hospital setting.

Methods: A retrospective medical records review was conducted on all intubated patients presenting with thermal (study group, 118 patients) or trauma (control group A, 74 patients) injuries and admitted to the intensive care unit of a level I trauma and burn center at a single institution during a 15 year period. Control group B (50 patients) included non-intubated facial burn patients hospitalized in the plastic surgery department.

Results: Field intubation was less frequent (37% field vs. 63% ED), although it was more frequent in larger burns (total body surface area > 50%; 43% field vs. 27% ED). More field intubated patients developed pneumonia during hospitalization (65% field vs. 36% ED [burns]; 81% field vs. 45% ED [multi-trauma]; 2% non-intubated, P < 0.05), with a significantly higher all-cause mortality (49% field vs. 24% ED, P < 0.05) and dramatically lower rates of extubation within 3 days (7% field vs. 27% ED, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Field intubation is associated with a higher risk of subsequent development of pneumonia in burn and multi-trauma patients and should be applied with caution, only when airway patency is at immediate risk.

October 2011
D. Shaham, N.R. Bogot, G. Aviram, L. Guralnik, S. Lieberman, L. Copel, J. Sosna, A.E. Moses, I. Grotto and D. Engelhard

An outbreak of respiratory illness caused by a novel swine-origin influenza virus (influenza A/H1N1 2009) that began in Mexico was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in June 2009. The pandemic affected many countries, including Israel.

Objectives: To compare the course of chest radiographic and computed tomography findings in patients who survived and those who died following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) or intubation due to severe laboratory-confirmed swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 2009.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patient records (267 radiographs, 8 CTs) of 22 patients (10 males, 12 females) aged 3.5–66 years (median 34) with confirmed influenza A/H1N1 2009, admitted to the ICU and/or intubated in five major Israeli medical centers during the period July–November 2009. We recorded demographic, clinical, and imaging findings –including pattern of opacification, extent, laterality, distribution, zone of findings, and presence/absence of nodular opacities– at initial radiography and during the course of disease, and compared the findings of survivors and non-survivors. Statistical significance was calculated using the Wilcoxon (continuous variables) and Fisher's exact tests (categorical variables).

Results: The most common findings on the initial chest radiography were airspace opacities, which were multifocal in 17patients (77%) and bilateral in 16 (73%), in the lower or lower and middle lung zones in 19 patients (86%). Large airspace nodules with indistinct margins were seen in 8 patients (36%). Twelve patients survived, 10 died. Patients who died had multiple background illnesses and were significantly older than survivors (P = 0.006). Radiologic findings for the two groups were not significantly different.

Conclusion: Airspace opacities, often with nodular appearance, were the most common findings among patients with severeinfluenza A/H1N1 2009. The course of radiologic findings was similar in patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 2009 whosurvived and those who died.

April 2004
G.M. Gurman, N. Weksler, M. Klein, D. Weksler, M. Klimek and J. Klein
September 2001
Carin Hagberg, MD, Tiberiu Ezri, MD and Ezzat Abouleish, MD

Background: The incidence of spinal failure necessitating general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section is extremely low. Aspiration prophylaxis prior to spinal anesthesia is often recommended in case of spinal failure or excessive spinal block requiring the emergency administration of general anesthesia.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of endotracheal intubation following spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the pen-operative course of parturients undergoing cesarean section under spinal anesthesia at our institution from February 1991 to December 1993. If spinal failure occurred, 10 ml of sodium bicarbonate was administered by mouth prior to induction of general anesthesia.

Results: Among the 743 cases that we reviewed, spinal failure occurred in 15 patients (2%) because of inadequate analgesia in 14 patients (1.9%) and unexpected prolonged surgery for hysterectomy in one patient (0.1%). No patient required intubation due to excessive spinal block. In none of the patients was a record of pulmonary aspiration identified.

Conclusions: The extremely low incidence of spinal failure or excessive block necessitating endotracheal intuba­tion suggests that routine aspiration prophylaxis may not be necessary prior to spinal anesthesia. However, these results should be confirmed by a prospective, controlled study on larger populations. An antacid should be readily available and administered whenever general anesthesia is required.

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