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עמוד בית
Mon, 15.07.24

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May 2023
Larisa Gorenstein MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Eyal Klang MD

Gallbladder metastasis is an extremely rare entity [1]. It is mainly secondary to melanoma but has also been reported as originating from breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and gastric cancer. Its diagnosis is often late in the advanced stage of the disease with the involvement of other organ systems [2].

We present a case of a patient who developed gastric cancer gallbladder metastasis. These findings are usually incidental on pathology of cholecystectomy specimens [1]. In our case, the metastatic lesion was demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to surgery. Of note, the lesion had a similar enhancement pattern to the primary tumor.

March 2018
Narin N. Carmel-Neiderman MD, Idan Goren MD, Yishay Wasserstrum MD, Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Irina Barbarova MD, Avigal Rapoport MD, Dor Lotan MD, Erez Ramaty MD, Naama Peltz-Sinvani MD, Adi Brom MD, Michael Kogan MD, Yulia Panina MD, Maya Rosman MD, Carmel Friedrich MD, Irina Gringauz MD, Amir Dagan MD, Iris Kliers MD, Tomer Ziv-Baran PhD and Gad Segal MD

Background: Accurate pulse oximetry reading at hospital admission is of utmost importance, mainly for patients presenting with hypoxemia. Nevertheless, there is no accepted or evidence-based protocol for such structured measuring.

Objectives: To devise and assess a structured protocol intended to increase the accuracy of pulse oximetry measurement at hospital admission.

Methods: The authors performed a prospective comparison of protocol-based pulse-oximetry measurement with non-protocol based readings in consecutive patients at hospital admission. They also calculated the relative percentage of improvement for each patient (before and after protocol implementation) as a fraction of the change in peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) from 100%.

Results: A total of 460 patients were recruited during a 6 month period. Implementation of a structured measurement protocol significantly changed saturation values. The SpO2 values of 24.7% of all study participants increased after protocol implementation (ranging from 1% to 21% increase in SpO2 values). Among hypoxemic patients (initial SpO2 < 90%), protocol implementation had a greater impact on final SpO2 measurements, increasing their median SpO2 readings by 4% (3–8% interquartile range; P < 0.05). Among this study population, 50% of the cohort improved by 17% of their overall potential and 25% improved by 50% of their overall improvement potential. As for patients presenting with hypoxemia, the median improvement was 31% of their overall SpO2 potential.

Conclusions: Structured, protocol based pulse-oximetry may improve measurement accuracy and reliability. The authors suggest that implementation of such protocols may improve the management of hypoxemic patients.

December 2013
Eduard Ling, Shachaf Ofer-Shiber, Or Goren and Yair Molad
 Background: Tight control of disease activity is the recommended target of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Objectives: To determine the outcome of RA with respect to disease activity and the rate of remission, as measured by the DAS-28, in a real-world inception cohort.

Methods: We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of a single-center real-world inception cohort of 101 consecutive patients being treated for RA in 2009–2010 in a rheumatology outpatient clinic. Patients were managed at the discretion of the attending rheumatologist with the goal of achieving remission. DAS-28 scores were calculated and analyzed by clinical and treatment variables derived from the medical files.

Results: Mean patient age was 58.6 ± 13.4 years and mean duration of disease 10.7 ± 7.9 years. Disease remission (DAS-28 < 2.6) was achieved in 26.7% of patients and low disease activity (> 2 .6 DAS-28 < 3.2) in 17%. Monotherapy with a conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (C-DMARD, 21% of patients at last follow-up) was associated with a significantly lower mean DAS-28 score and C-reactive protein level than combined C-DMARD treatment (79% of patients), and with shorter disease duration than combined treatment with C-DMARDs or C-DMARD(s)+biological DMARD (40% of patients). Rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity had no effect on DAS-28 scores. Time from diagnosis was inversely correlated with DAS-28 scores.

Conclusions: The achievement of low disease activity and remission in a significant portion of our inception cohort of patients with RA suggests that the treat-to-target strategy is feasible and effective in routine clinical practice. 

August 2009
G. Rajz, D. Simon, M. Bakon, O. Goren, J. Zauberman, Z. Zibly, E. Zimlichman and S. Harnof
December 2008
A. Reshef, I. Leibovich, A. Goren

Hereditary angioedema is a rare genetic disorder, manifested by recurrent edema leading to disfigurement, organ dysfunction and life-threatening respiratory impairment that may become fatal. The hallmark of HAE is a C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, but recent evidence points at bradykinin as the main mediator that causes hyperpermeability of small vasculature, leading to accumulation of edema fluid. Current therapeutic options for HAE[1] are limited, and consist of drugs, replacement therapy, and supportive treatment. In view of many disadvantages of the current therapeutic modalities new approaches to the treatment of HAE are now being offered. This review summarizes our experience with a new line of medications developed for the treatment of acute exacerbations and prophylaxis of HAE – icatibant: bradykinin receptor antagonist, ecallantide: kallikrein inhibitor, and two C1 INH[2] preparations: Berinert-P, human plasma-derived concentrate, and Rhucin: novel recombinant C1-INH produced in transgenic rabbits. Preliminary results of these studies are encouraging and may bring new hope to the patients with this distressing condition. The exact number of HAE patients in Israel is unknown and because patients are treated individually and comprehensive laboratory assessment is partial, many cases might be missed or not treated according to accepted guidelines. We offer a new specialty center for HAE patients, addressing the medical and psychosocial needs of patients and their families.


[1] HAE = hereditary angioedema

[2] C1-INH = C1 esterase inhibitor

April 2008
F. Serour, A. Gorenstein and M. Boaz

Background: Reports of burn injuries in children are usually made by highly specialized burn units. Our facility admits children with burns < 20% total body surface area, while those with major burns are transferred to burn units at tertiary care facilities.

Objectives: To review our experience with thermal burns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all thermal burns admitted to our hospital during a 5 year period.

Results: Among 266 patients (69.2% boys) aged 3.5 ± 3.6 years, children < 3 years old were the most frequently injured (64.7%). Scalds (71.4%) were the most common type of burn. Partial thickness burns were sustained by 96.6% of children and TBSA[1] burned was 4.2 ± 3.6%. The mean hospital stay was 3.8 ± 4.5 days, and was significantly prolonged in girls (4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 3.5 ± 4.3 days, P = 0.01). Percent TBSA burned was correlated with patient age (r = 0.12, P = 0.04) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001). Six patients (2.3%) (mean age 3.4 ± 2.3 years) were hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit due to toxin-mediated illness.

Conclusions: Children under the age of 3 years are at increased risk for burn injury, but older children sustain more extensive injuries. Prevention and awareness are needed for child safety.

[1] TBSA = total body surface area

April 2007
M. Gorenberg and A. Marmor

Background: Electrocardiography has a very low sensitivity in detecting dobutamine-induced myocardial ischemia.

Objectives: To assess the added diagnostic value of a new cardiac performance index (dP/dtejc) measurement, based on brachial artery flow changes, as compared to standard 12-lead ECG, for detecting dobutamine-nduced myocardial ischemia, using Tc99m-Sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography as the gold standard of comparison to assess the presence or absence of ischemia.

Methods: The study group comprised 40 patients undergoing Sestamibi-SPECT[1]/dobutamine stress test. Simultaneous measurements of ECG and brachial artery dP/dtejc were performed at each dobutamine level. In 19 of the 40 patients perfusion defects compatible with ischemia were detected on SPECT. The increase in dP/dtejc during infusion of dobutamine in this group was severely impaired as compared to the non-ischemic group. dP/dtejc outcome was combined with the ECG results, giving an ECG-enhanced value, and compared to ECG alone.

Results: The sensitivity improved dramatically from 16% to 79%, positive predictive value increased from 60% to 68% and negative predictive value from 54% to 78%, and specificity decreased from 90% to 67%.
Conclusions: If ECG alone is used for specificity, the combination with dP/dtejc improved the sensitivity of the test and could be a cost-savings alternative to cardiac imaging or perfusion studies to detect myocardial ischemia, especially in patients unable to exercise

[1] SPECT = single-photon emission computed tomography

August 2005
D. Leibovici, A. Cooper, A. Lindner, R. Ostrowsky, J. Kleinmann, S. Velikanov, H. Cipele, E. Goren and Y.I. Siegel
 Background: Stents offer a simple and effective drainage method for the upper urinary tract. However, ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects, including irritative voiding symptoms and hematuria.

Objectives: To determine the side effects associated with ureteral stents and their impact on sexual function and quality of life.

Methods: Symptom questionnaires were administered to 135 consecutive patients with unilateral ureteral stents. The questionnaire addressed irritative voiding symptoms, flank pain, hematuria, fever, loss of labor days, anxiety, sleep impairment, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dyspareunia, painful ejaculation, and a subjective overall impact on quality of life. The items were graded from 1 (minimal or no symptoms) to 5 (maximal symptoms). The patients were seen and questionnaires filled at 2 weekly intervals following stent insertion until stent extraction. Following removal of the stent, stent patency, impaction and migration rates were determined. Admissions to hospital and ancillary procedures to retreive stents were noted.

Results: The findings presented refer to questionnaire items scoring 3 or more. Dysuria, urinary frequency and urgency were reported by 40%, 50% and 55% of the patients, respectively. Flank pain, gross hematuria or fever was reported by 32%, 42% and 15% respectively. Among working patients, 45% lost at least 2 labor days during the first 14 days, and 32% were still absent from work by day 30. A total of 435 labor days were lost in the first month. Anxiety and sleep disturbance were reported by 24% and 20% respectively, and 45% of patients reported impairment in their quality of life. Decreased libido was reported by 45%, and sexual dysfunction by 42% of men and 86% of women. Stent removal necessitated ureteroscpoy in 14 patients (10.5%), due to upward migration in 11 (8.2%) and incrustration and impaction in 3. Spontaneous stent expulsion occurred in one patient. Forty-six (34%) stents were obstructed at the time of removal. Obstructed stents were associated with a longer mean dwell time as compared to the whole population, 75 versus 62 days respectively (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: Ureteral stents are associated with frequent side effects and significantly impact on patient quality of life. Our findings should be considered when deciding on ureteral stent insertion and dwell time.

August 2004
K. Stav, D. Leibovici, E. Goren, A. Livshitz, Y.I. Siegel, A. Lindner and A. Zisman

Background: Cystoscopy, the principal means of diagnosis and surveillance of bladder tumors, is invasive and associated with unpleasant side effects

Objectives: To determine the early complications of rigid cystoscopy and the impact on patients' quality of life and sexual performance.

Methods: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic rigid cystoscopy filled in questionnaires including anxiety and pain levels (0–5 visual analogue scale), adverse events, short-form health survey, International Prostate Symptom Score, and functional sexual performance. Questionnaires were administered before, immediately after, and 1, 2 days, 2 and 4 weeks following cystoscopy.

Results: The pre-cystoscopy anxiety level was 2.01. The average pain during the examination was 1.41. SF-36[1] score was not affected by cystoscopy. The subjective impact on patients' quality of life was 0.51. The mean IPSS[2] increased following cystoscopy (6.75 vs. 5.43, P = 0.001) and returned to baseline 2 weeks later. A decline in libido was reported by 55.6% (25/45) and 50% (3/6) of the sexually active men and women, respectively. Cystoscopy was associated with a decreased Erectile Dysfunction Intensity Score, from 15.6 to 9.26 during the first 2 weeks (P = 0.04). The overall complication rate was 15% and included urethrorrhagia and dysuria. None of the patients had fever or urinary retention and none was hospitalized. The complication rate was higher in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (24% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Rigid cystoscopy is well tolerated by most patients and has only a minor impact on quality of life. However, cystoscopy transiently impairs sexual performance and libido. The early complications are mild and correlate with a diagnosis of BPH[3].

[1] SF-36 = short-form health survey

[2] IPSS = International Prostate Symptom Score

[3] BPH = benign prostatic hyperplasia

December 2003
May 2001
Yuksel Cavusoglu, MD, Bulent Gorenek, MD, Bilgin Timuralp, MD, Ahmet Unalir, MD, Necmi Ata, MD and Mehmet Melek, MD

Background: Previous studies have documented that reduction in QT dispersion after thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction depends on reperfusion status as well as infarct site. Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty as compared with thrombolytic therapy has been shown to result in higher patency rates of the infarct vessel.

Objectives: To evaluate whether primary PTCA has a more favorable effect on reducing QT dispersion in patients with acute MI as compared to thrombolytic treatment.

Methods: The study population included 42 consecutive patients (33 men, mean age 58 ± 11 years) with acute Ml (24 anterior wall, 18 inferior wall) who were treated with primary PTCA (group A, n 21) or thrombolytic therapy (group B, n = 21) at 3.9+2 hours after symptom onset. QT intervals were measured before and 24 hours after treatment.

Results: On the admission electrocardiogram, patients with anterior Ml had higher values of QT and QTc dispersions than patients with inferior Ml (52±9 vs. 36±9 msec, R<0.05 and 61+4 vs. 56+4 msec, P=0.002, respectively). There was a significant reduction in QT and QTc dispersions from admission to 24 hours in all patients (from 50+9 to 37+9 msec, P<0.001 and from 59+5 to 42+5 msec, P<0.001. respectively), and also in group A (from 49±8 to 32±5 msec. P<0.001 and from 58+5 to 38+3 msec, P<0.001, respec­tively) and in group B patients (from 51+10 to 42+10 msec. P<0.01 and from 60±4 to 46±5 msec, P<0.001, respec­tively). QT and QTc dispersions were found to be shorter in group A at 24 hours after treatment than in group B (32 + 5 vs. 42+10 msec, P<0.001 and 38+3 vs. 46+5 msec, P<0.001. respectively).

Conclusions: Reperfusion therapy with primary PTCA or thrombolytic agents reduces QT and QTc dispersions in acute Ml. QT and QTc dispersions after reperfusion treatment are shorter with primary PTCA than with thrombolytic therapy.

January 2001
Yuksel Cavusoglu, MD, Bulent Gorenek, MD, Seref Alpsoy, MD, Ahmet Unalir, MD, Necmi Ata, MD and Bilgin Timuralp, MD

Background: inflammation is an important feature of atherosclerotic lesions and increased production of the actuephase reactant. The contribution of coagulation factor to the development of coronary artery disease has not yet been clearly established.

Objective: To test whether C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and antithrombin-III are associated with angiograpic CAD, history of myocardial infarction and extensive atherosclerotic involvement.

Methods: Blood samples were tested for CRP, fibrinogen and AT-III levels from 219 individuals undergoing coronary angiography.

Results: CRP was higher in patients with CAD (0.95 + 1.31, n=180, vs. 0.39 + 0.61 mg/dl, n=39, P<0.0001) and in those with a history of MI (1.07 + 1.64, n=96, vs. 0.65 + 0.72 mg/dl, n=84, P<0.05) than in control subjects. The patients who developed unstable angina had higher CRP levels than the patients with stable CAD (2.07 + 2/38, n=7, vs. 0.80 + 1.13 mg/dl, n=173, P<0.001).

Fibrinogen was significantly higher in patients with CAD (298 + 108 vs. 258 + 63 mg/dl, P<0.01). In patients with CAD, mean AT-III value was less than in patients without CAD, but this difference was found in CRP, fibrinogen and AT-III values among the patients with single, double or triple vessel disease.

Conclusion: CRP is elevated in patients with CAD and a history of MI. Elevated levels of CRP at the time of hospital admission is a predictive value for future ischemic events.

There is an association between higher levels of fibrinogen and CAD. The association of AT-III levels with CAD needs testing in further studies.

May 2000
Ami D. Sperber MD MSPH, Merav Goren-Lerer MD, Aya Peleg PhD and Michael Friger PhD

Background: Smoking is the most important preventable cause of chronic disease in the western world. Many smokers want to quit, but have difficulty overcoming the addictive effect of nicotine.

Objectives: To assess the quitting rate of smokers who participated in smoking cessation groups and to characterize predictors of success or failure over a 1-3 year follow-up period.

Methods: We studied 89 participants in 7 groups. Questionnaires were completed at baseline and after a follow-up period of 1 to 3 years. Smoking cessation was determined by self-report and a carbon monoxide breath test.

Results: Of the 89 participants in the support groups 76 (85%) were located. An intention-to-treat analysis was done for these participants. At follow-up 25 (33%) were non-smokers. There was a 95% agreement rate between self-report of smoking status and CO breath analysis. There were no differences between quitters and non-quitters in education level, gender, age at initiation of smoking, previous quit attempts, extent of participation in group meetings, concern about gaining weight, Fagerstrom index, or the number of close friends or relatives who smoke. Belief in one's ability to quit, satisfaction with group meetings, and spouse support were significantly associated with success (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The quit rate was 33%. Self-report is a reliable method for assessing smoking status. Smokers' belief in their ability to quit must be reinforced. Spouse participation in some group meetings may be beneficial, as may the involvement of a dietician and an expert on exercise. Follow-up "booster" meetings may also help.



CO= carbon monoxide

* In partial fulfilment of the requirements for an MD degree.

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