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עמוד בית
Tue, 21.05.24

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May 2023
Yaniv Zager MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Dan Assaf MD, Nadav Zilka MD, Roi Anteby MD, Yehonatan Nevo MD, Liran Barda MD, Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has demonstrated prognostic value in various malignant conditions, including gastric adenocarcinoma. However, chemotherapy may affect NLR.

Objectives: To evaluate the prognostic value of NLR as an accessory decision-making tool in terms of operating patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resectable gastric cancer.

Methods: We collected oncologic, perioperative, and survival data of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent curative intent gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy between 2009 and 2016. The NLR was calculated from preoperative laboratory tests and classified as high (> 4) and low (≤ 4). The t-test, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess associations of clinical, histologic, and hematological variables with survival.

Results: For 124 patients the median follow-up was 23 months (range 1–88). High NLR was associated with greater rate of local complication (r=0.268, P < 0.01). The rate of major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 3) was higher in the high NLR group (28% vs. 9%, P = 0.022). Among the 53 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, those with low NLR had significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS) (49.7 vs. 27.7 months, P = 0.025). Low NLR was not significantly associated with overall survival (mean survival, 51.2 vs. 42.3 months, P = 0.19). Multivariate regression identified NLR group (P = 0.013), male gender (P = 0.04), and body mass index (P = 0.026) as independently associated with DFS.

Conclusions: Among gastric cancer patients planned for curative intent surgery who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, NLR may have prognostic value, particularly regarding DFS and postoperative complications.

February 2023
Daniel Solomon MD, Itzhak Greemland MD, Nikolai Menasherov MD, Vyacheslav Bard MD

Background: Surgical resection is the only curative option for gastric carcinoma (GC). Minimally invasive techniques are gaining popularity.

Objectives: To present a single-surgeon's experience in transitioning from an open to a minimally invasive approach, focusing on surgical and oncological outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis including distal gastrectomy patients 2012–2020 operated by a single surgeon. Two cohorts were compared: open (ODG) and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (LDG).

Results: Overall, 173 patients were referred for gastrectomy during the study years. We excluded 80 patients because they presented with non-GC tumors, underwent proximal or total gastrectomy, or underwent palliative surgery. Neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 62 patients (33.3%). Billroth 1 was the preferred method of reconstruction (n=77, 82.8%), followed by Roux-en-Y (n=12, 13%). Fifty-one patients (54.8%) underwent LDG, 42 (45.2%) underwent ODG. The LDG group had significantly shorter lengths of stay (6 days, interquartile range [IQR] 1–3 5–8 vs. 5 days, IQR 1–3 4–6, P = 0.001, respectively), earlier return to oral feeding (1 day, IQR 1–3 1–3 vs. 2 days, IQR 1–3 1–3.2, P < 0.001), and earlier removal of drains (4 days, IQR 1–3 3–5.2 vs. 5 days, IQR 1–3 3.5–6.7, P < 0.001). Overall lymph node yield was 30 (IQR 1–3 24–39) and was similar among groups (P = 0.647).

Conclusions: Laparoscopic techniques for resection of distal GC are feasible and safe, leading to good perioperative outcomes and adequate lymph node yield.

February 2022
Viacheslav Bard MD, Baruch Brenner MD, and Hanoch Kashtan MD

There has been a general reduction over the last 20 years in the incidence within Israel of gastric cancer (GC). This has particularly been noted in the Jewish population with a slight increase in the incidence of cancer of the gastroesophageal junction among Jews of Sephardi origin. Given the diversity of individual ethnic subpopulations, the effects of GC incidence in second-generation immigrant Jews, particularly from high prevalence regions (e.g., the former Soviet Union, Iraq, and Iran), awaits determination. There are currently no national data on GC-specific mortality. The most recent available cross-correlated Israeli National Cancer Registry (INCR) and International Association for Cancer Research (IARC) incidence data for GC of the body and antrum in Israel are presented. Some of the challenges associated with GC monitoring in the changing Israeli population are discussed. We propose the establishment of a national GC management committee designed to collect demographic and oncological data in operable cases with the aim of recording and improving GC-specific outcomes. We believe that there is value in the development of a national surgical planning program, which oversees training and accreditation in a dynamic environment that favors the wider use of neoadjuvant therapies, minimally invasive surgery and routine extended (D2) lymphadenectomy. These changes should be supported by assessable enhanced recovery programs

May 2018
Yehonatan Nevo MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Liran Barda MD, Roy Nadler MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: Recent studies have analyzed risk factors associated with complications after gastric cancer surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification (CD). However, they have been based on Asian population cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, Korean).

Objectives: To prospectively analyze all post-gastrectomy complications according to severity using CD classification and identify postoperative risk factors and complications.

Methods: We analyzed all gastrectomies for gastric cancer performed 2009–2014. Recorded parameters included demographic data, existing co-morbidities, neo-adjuvant treatment, intra-operative findings, postoperative course, and histologic findings. Postoperative complications were graded using CD classification.

Results: The study comprised 112 patients who underwent gastrectomy. Mean age was 64.8 ± 12.8 years; 53 patients (47%) underwent gastrectomy, 37 (34%) total gastrectomy, and 22 (19%) total extended gastrectomy. All patients had D2 lymphadenectomy. The average number of retrieved lymph nodes was 35 ± 17. Severe complication rate (≥ IIIa) was 14% and mortality rate was 1.8%. In a univariate analysis, age > 65 years; ASA 3 or higher; chronic renal failure; multi-organ resection; and tumor, node, and metastases (TNM) stage ≥ IIIc were found to be significantly associated with CD complication grade > III (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, and P = 0.01, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed advanced stage (≥ IIIc) and age > 65 years to be significant independent risk factors (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Age > 65 and advanced stage (≥ IIIc) were the primary risk factors for complications of grade > III according to the CD classification following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

December 2015
Ron Lavy MD, Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Bar Chikman MD, Zahar Shapira MD, Natan Poluksht MD, Nirit Yarom MD, Judth Sandbank MD and Ariel Halevy MD
 

Background: Despite the ongoing decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer, this disease is still a major cause of death. It is still debatable whether D2 lymphadenectomy improves survival and whether this procedure should be performed routinely or selectively.


Objectives: To compare the pathological and short-term results following radical D2-type gastric resection and lymphadenectomy versus the more limited D1 type resection and lymphadenectomy.


Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on 4 years experience treating 164 patients suffering from gastric cancer. We compared the results between the group of patients who underwent a radical D2 type gastric resection and lymphadenectomy (n=100) and those of a relatively small group of patients who intentionally underwent the more limited D1 type (n=34). 


Results: The overall number of harvested lymph nodes was 9 ± 4 in the D1 group compared to 30 ± 12 (range 16–69) in the D2 group (P = 0.001). Of the 100 patients undergoing a D2 lymphadenectomy, 57% had positive nodes compared to 38% of the 34 patients in the D1 group (P = 0.045).


Conclusions: We showed statistically significant differences between D1 and D2 procedures in the overall number of harvested lymph nodes and the proportion of positive nodes to the overall number. Our results support the fact that D2 resection should be recommended as the standard approach of treatment for gastric cancer patients, ensuring a larger number of retrieved lymph nodes and a comparable rate of complications and mortality. 


 
Shmuel Avital MD and Baruch Shpitz MD
October 2015
Jonathan E. Cohen MD PhD, Yasmin Cohen MD, Tamar Peretz MD and Ayala Hubert MD

Background: Predictive biomarkers for personalized treatment of neoplasms are suggested to be a major advancement in oncology and are increasingly used in clinical practice, albeit based on level II evidence. Target Now® (TN) employs immunostaining and RNA expression on tumor samples to identify potentially beneficial or ineffective drugs. 

Objectives: To explore retrospectively the predictive value of TN for patients with colorectal and gastric carcinomas. 

Methods: The study group comprised colorectal and gastric carcinoma patients with TN test reports. We identified chemotherapy regimens given for stage IV disease for which TN reports indicated prediction. Protocols were classified as having clinical benefit (CB; i.e., stable disease or any objective response) or progressive disease, and this was compared with the TN prediction. 

Results: Nineteen patients – 12 colorectal and 7 gastric carcinomas – met the inclusion criteria. There were 26 evaluable treatment protocols; of 18 with a CB 15 were predicted to have a CB while 3 were predicted to have a lack of CB. Of eight protocols that had no CB, seven were predicted to have a CB and one was predicted to have a lack of CB. A chi-square test was non-significant (P = 0.78). An exploratory analysis yielded a positive predictive value of 68% and a sensitivity of 83% for the TN test. 

Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for larger multicenter studies to validate the TN test before it is adopted into clinical practice. 

 

December 2010
A. Kapiev, I. Rabin, R. Lavy, B. Chikman, Z. Shapira, H. Kais, N. Poluksht, Y. Amsalam, Z. Halpern, I. Markon, I. Wassermann and A. Halevy

Background: Gastric cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer death. The treatment approach varies, and preoperative staging is therefore crucial since an exploratory laparotomy for unresectable gastric cancer will be followed by an unacceptably high morbidity and mortality rate.

Objectives: To assess the added value of diagnostic laparoscopy to conventional methods of diagnosis such as computed tomography in avoiding unnecessary laparotomies.

Methods: A retrospective study on 78 patients scheduled for curative gastrectomy based on CT staging was conducted. DL[1] was performed prior to exploratory laparotomy.

Results: In 23 of 78 patients (29.5%), unexpected peritoneal spread not detected on preoperative CT was found. Fifty-five patients underwent radical gastrectomy, 15 patients were referred for downstaging and 8 patients underwent a palliative procedure.

Conclusions: Based on our results, DL should be considered in all gastric cancer patients scheduled for curative gastrectomy.






[1] DL = diagnostic laparoscopy


December 2006
M. Tokar, D. Bobilev, S. Ariad and D.B. Geffen

Background: Disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with malignant bone marrow involvement has been described as a rare complication of gastric carcinoma and most patients die within 1–4 weeks. Effective chemotherapy of the underlying malignancy may be the only way to control acute DIC[1].

Objectives: To assess the benefit of infusional 5-fluorouracil as the primary treatment of metastatic gastric carcinoma and DIC at diagnosis.

Methods: From February 2001 to January 2005, six women (median age 48 years) with gastric carcinoma who presented with diffuse bone metastases and acute DIC were treated in our department. Diagnosis was based on primary gastric and bone marrow biopsies. DIC was confirmed by laboratory findings. Initial treatment consisted of infusional 5FU[2] 200 mg/m2/day. When the bleeding tendency stopped, cisplatin 60 mg/m2 and epirubicin 50 mg/m2 given every 3 weeks were added.

Results: Within one week of starting the treatment, the clinical and laboratory signs of acute DIC were resolved in five of six patients. Upon clinical improvement, five patients subsequently received epirubicin and cisplatin. Survival, however, was short (mean 15 weeks). All patients died with symptoms of bleeding, showing clinical and laboratory signs of DIC.

Conclusions: Based on our experience, infusional 5FU is an effective regimen with negligible myelosuppression; thus, it may be a good choice as initial therapy for this group of patients. The response induced by protracted 5FU was usually short and lasted for a few weeks only. Therefore, once DIC symptoms are controlled, the addition of newer cytotoxic drugs may be necessary to consolidate the remission.







[1] DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation

[2] 5FU = 5-fluorouracil





 

January 2006
I. Rabin, B. Chikman, Z. Halpern, I. Wassermann, R. Lavy, R. Gold-Deutch, J. Sandbank and A. Halevy

Background: Sentinel lymph node mapping is the standard of care for patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. Recently, SLN[1] mapping was introduced to the field of gastric cancer.

Objectives: To evaluate SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer.

Methods: In 43 patients with gastric cancer, open intraoperative subserosal dye injection in four opposing peritumoral points was used. Ten minutes following dye injection, stained LNs were located, marked and examined postoperatively from the surgical specimen.

Results: SLN mapping was performed in 43 with gastric cancer; 782 lymph nodes were harvested and evaluated. SLNs were stained in 34 of the patients (79.1%) with a mean of 2.85 SLNs per patient. The false negative rate was 20.9%, the positive predictive value 100%, the negative predictive value 78.6% and the sensitivity 86.9%.

Conclusions: SLN mapping in patients with gastric cancer is feasible and easy to perform. SLN mapping may mainly affect the extent of lymph node dissection, and to a lesser degree gastric resection. However, more data are needed.




 


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