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עמוד בית
Sat, 24.02.24

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November 2023
Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Ran Abuhasira MD PhD, Lior Fisher Med.Sc, Yoav Bichovsky MD, Alexander Zlotnik MD PhD, Victor Novack MD PhD, Moti Klein MD MPH

Background: Younger patient age and relatively good prognosis have been described as factors that may increase caregiver motivation in treating patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU).

Objectives: To examine whether clinical teams tended to achieve unnecessarily higher map arterial pressure (MAP) values in younger patients.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients presenting with septic shock who were treated with noradrenaline and hospitalized in a general ICU between 2006 and 2018. The patients were classified into four age groups: 18-45 (n=129), 46-60 (n=96), 61-75 (n=157), and older than 75 years (n=173). Adjusted linear mixed models and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) curves were used to assess associations and potential non-linear relationships, respectively, of age group with MAP and noradrenaline dosage.

Results: The cohort included 555 patients. An inverse relation was observed between average MAP value and age. Among patients aged 18–45 years, the average MAP was 4.7 mmHg higher (95% confidence interval 3.4–5.9) than among patients aged > 75 years (P-value <0.001) after adjustment for sex, death in the intensive care unit, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores.

Conclusions: Among patients with septic shock, the titration of noradrenaline by staff led to a higher average MAP for younger patients. Although the MAP target is equal for all age groups, staff may administer noradrenaline treatment according to a higher target of MAP due to attitudes toward patients of different ages, despite any evidence that such practice is beneficial.

July 2023
Yonatan Shneor Patt MD, Niv Ben-Shabat MD, Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Abdulla Watad MD, Kassem Sharif MD

Background: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are inflammatory mediated myopathies characterized by progressive symmetric proximal muscle weakness and associated with extra-muscular involvement. Central nervous system complications are rarely reported with these diseases.

Objectives: To investigate the association between dementia and PM/DM.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a database from Clalit Health Care, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Patients with a first recorded diagnosis of PM/DM were included and were compared with age- and sex-matched controls by a ratio of 1:5. The prevalence of dementia among PM/DM patients compared to controls was assessed using a univariate and a multivariable model. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association of different factors with dementia within the PM/DM cohort.

Results: The study included 2085 PM/DM cases (17.0%) and 10,193 age- and sex-matched controls (83.0%). During the follow-up time, 36 PM/DM patients were diagnosed with dementia compared to 160 controls, with a univariate hazard ratio (HR) of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.77–1.58). Within the PM/DM cohort, significant predictors for the development of dementia included increased age at diagnosis (5 years increment; OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.57–2.21, P < 0.001) and treatment with glucocorticoids (OR 5.40, 95%CI 1.67–17.67, P = 0.005).

Conclusions: In our cohort, inflammatory myopathies were not associated with dementia. Age and treatment with glucocorticoids were associated with dementia. If dementia is diagnosed in patients with inflammatory myopathies, other systemic causes should be investigated.

November 2022
Lior Fisher MD, Howard Amital MD MHA, Orly Goitein MD

Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) refers to acute, subacute, or chronic thrombosis and occlusion of the mesenteric veins. MVT is an uncommon disorder, with an estimated incidence of is 2.7 per 100,000 patient-years. It accounts for 1 in 5000 to 15,000 inpatient admissions [1,2].

August 2021
Omer Or MD, Tamar Fisher Negev PharmD, Vered Hadad MD, Ran Shabtai MD, Alona Katzir MD, Yoram Weil MD, and Meir Liebergall MD

Background: Osteoporosis is a common medical condition in older ages. A devastating result of osteoporosis may be a hip fracture with up to 30% mortality rate in one year. The compliance rate of osteoporotic medication following a hip fracture is 20% in the western world.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the fracture liaison service (FLS) model in the orthopedic department on patient compliance following hip fracture

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with hip fracture who were involved with FLS. We collected data regarding kidney function, calcium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and vitamin D levels at admission. We educated the patient and family, started vitamin D and calcium supplementation and recommended osteoporotic medical treatment. We phoned the patient 6–12 weeks following the fracture to ensure treatment initiation.

Results: From June 2018 to June 2019 we identified 166 patients with hip fracture who completed at least one year of follow-up. Over 75% of the patients had low vitamin D levels and 22% had low calcium levels at admission. Nine patients (5%) died at median of 109 days. Following our intervention, 161 patients (96%) were discharged with a specific osteoporotic treatment recommendation; 121 (73%) received medication for osteoporosis on average of < 3 months after surgery. We recommended on injectable medications; however, 51 (42%) were treated with oral biphsophonate.

Conclusions: FLS improved the compliance rate of osteoporotic medical treatment and should be a clinical routine in every medical center

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

May 2018
David Peleg MD, Yechiel Z. Burke MD, Ido Solt MD and Menachem Fisher MD

Cesarean section has undergone a transformation that has radically changed the prognosis of both the pregnant woman and her unborn child. The attributed mortality rate of Cesarean section during the 19th century was over 50% worldwide. Today, mortality from Cesarean delivery is rare. However, the technique of transversely incising the uterus in its lower uterine segment, although less than a century old, is passed on from instructor to apprentice, often without either of them being aware of its noble history. In this brief review, we discuss the reported history regarding this incision and the significant role played by John Munro Kerr.

December 2017
Miki Paker MD, Shani Fisher RN, Salim Mazzawi MD, Raul Colodner PhD and Dror Ashkenazi MD

Background: Direct aspiration from suspected pathological tissue and rapid parathyroid hormone analysis may offer a reliable, cost effective alternative to currently used “gold standard” tests.

Objectives: To validate the accuracy of intraoperative measurements of parathyroid hormone levels in parathyroid adenomas.

Methods: A prospective study included 22 patients diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent parathyroidectomy due to an adenoma or hyperplasia. Aspirations of tissues extracted from three adjacent areas (the pathological parathyroid, thyroid, and muscle tissues) were sent for rapid parathyroid hormone analysis. The assay values of these tissue aspirates were compared to the results of the pathology report based on frozen section analysis and the final pathology report.

Results: All assay results were significantly higher for parathyroid tissue 16,800 to 1,097,986 pmol/L (median 26,600), than for either thyroid 1.7 to 415 pmol/L (median 6.5), P < 0.001, or muscle tissue 1.1 to 1230 pmol/L, (median 11.3), P < 0.001. All tissues showing high parathyroid assay values were also verified by pathology examinations: 7 had adenomas and 15 had a differential diagnosis of adenoma or hyperplasia. The frozen section identified all but one (false negative). Rapid intraoperative parathyroid levels > 1500 predicted parathyroid tissue with a 99% level of confidence, while levels between 1000 and 1500 predicted it with 95% confidence. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay showed > 70% decrease in 15/21 cases.

Conclusions: Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone analysis is a reliable and precise technique, equally accurate for frozen section analysis in predicting with high certainty intraoperative parathyroid tissue.

February 2017
November 2015
Menachem Fisher MD, Izhar ben Shlomo MD, Ido Solt MD and Yechiel Z. Burke MD

We present an overview of the current sexual behavior of adolescents in Israel, including the related social and moral issues, and compare it to that in Western countries. An important factor is the existence of liberal versus conservative views regarding the use of contraception and termination of pregnancy in these young subjects. We describe the current situation where in most cases the medical providers do not provide adequate contraceptive advice to adolescent girls, resulting ultimately in a high rate of unintended pregnancy. In our opinion, it is essential to make effective contraception more accessible to this vulnerable group.

November 2008
S. Gweta et al.

Background: Due to extensive activity at sea, certain human populations, especially fishermen, are exposed to direct contact with the sea's inhabitants, including dangerous marine animals.

Objectives: To characterize and assess the extent of injuries caused by marine organisms along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, their type, severity and medical treatment given.

Methods: Data were obtained from a survey on injuries from marine organisms conducted among professional fishermen along the Mediterranean coast of Israel and from medical records reporting toxicological consultations provided by the Israel Poison Information Center.

Results: Injuries caused by marine organisms are not rare in Israel, but most cases are not severe. The most common injuries reported by fishermen were caused by stingrays (30%), weaver fish (22%), rabbit fish, (13%) and marine catfish (10%) – a new Red Sea immigrant. Most fishermen tend to treat such injuries themselves and sought medical help only when an unknown venomous fish was involved. Most cases of severe toxicity were due to secondary infection. Data from the IPIC[1] indicated that 64% of the calls were from the general public and the rest came from physicians in health care facilities. Four sources of injuries were identified: cleaning and preparing fish for consumption, during leisure water sport activities, handling marine aquaria, and fishing. Most cases from the IPIC were graded as minor severity (85%) and were treated symptomatically.
Conclusions: We recommend that medical facilities be installed at the fishing anchorages and that a separate category be established for injuries by marine organisms to facilitate epidemiological data collection from health care facilities







[1] IPIC = Israel Poison Information Center


June 2004
M. Carmon, L. Rivkin, R. Abu-Dalo, M. Goldberg, I. Hadas, I. Zagal, S. Strano, A. Fisher and O. Lernau

Background: Major efforts are being directed at the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The diagnosis rate of non-palpable tumors is steadily growing as a result of increased screening by mammography. In most patients with non-palpable lesions, percutaneous image-guided biopsies have replaced wire localization with surgical excision for obtaining tissue diagnosis. In recent years the Israel Ministry of Health initiated a mammograpy screening program. Percutaneous image-guided biopsies have also become widely available.

Objective: To assess the impact of these changes on breast cancer surgical treatment in our hospital.

Methods: The charts of 483 patients operated on in our department for primary breast carcinoma during the years 1997 to mid-2001 were reviewed. Data on the mode of diagnosis, tumor stage, resection margins, and number and types of operations were recorded and analyzed. The term non-palpable tumors relates to tumors necessitating wire localization for surgical excision.

Results: The percentage of patients diagnosed with non-palpable tumors rose from 16.2% in 1997 to 47.4% in 2001, with an average size of 2.6 cm for palpable and 1.7 cm for non-palpable tumors. The rate of preoperative diagnosis for non-palpable tumors rose from 6.2% in 1997 to 96.4% in 2001. The rate of involved or very close margins was reduced by 73% in the patient group diagnosed preoperatively as compared to those without a preoperative diagnosis (10.6% vs. 39.4%). Finally, the percentage of patients who had two operations fell from 56.2% in 1997 to 11.1% in 2001.

Conclusions: The mammography screening program in Jerusalem in 1997–2001 was effective in increasing the relative percentage of non-palpable breast cancers with reduced tumor size at diagnosis. The improved availability of preoperative tissue diagnosis in these patients reduced the number of surgical procedures needed.

March 2003
I. Hadas-Halpern, M. Patlas, M. Knizhnik, I. Zaghal and D. Fisher

Background: The mainstay of therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy, which has a mortality of 14–30% in high risk patients. An alternative approach in patients suffering from acute cholecystitis with contraindications to emergency surgery is percutaneous cholecystostomy.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous cholecystostomy as the initial treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (42 men, 38 women) underwent ultrasound-guided percutaneous cholecystostomy over a 5 year period. Sixty-five patients suffered from acute calculous cholecystitis, 4 patients had acalculous cholecystitis, and 11 patients had sepsis of unknown origin.

Results: Sixty-eight patients improved after the percutaneous gallbladder drainage, 10 patients died from co-morbid disease and 2 patients died from biliary peritonitis. During a 1 year follow-up, 32 of the patients underwent interval cholecystectomy, 4 additional patients died from a co-morbid disease, 18 patients did not suffer from any gallbladder symptoms, and 14 were lost to follow-up.

Conclusions: Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective contribution to the treatment of acute cholecystitis in high risk patients.

January 2003
M. Fisher, D. Yassour Borochowitz and E. Neter

Background: Domestic violence is considered a major risk factor in pregnancy.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of different kinds of abuse (physical, psychological, sexual) of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant women, and to identify demographic risk factors for physical abuse that characterize the woman and her partner.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 women seeking gynecologic care at women health centers in northern Israel. Information was collected by means of a standardized questionnaire administered via phone, and addressed demographic data, interaction with the partner, and reporting of physical abuse. All information was obtained from the respondents (including information about her partner).

Results: Four abuse scores were computed: severe physical attack, minor physical attack, psychological abuse, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse was found to be the most prevalent (24%), followed by minor and severe physical attack (17% and 8.1%, respectively), and sexual coercion (5.6%). Physical attacks related to pregnancy (directed at the abdomen) occurred in 5.4% of the pregnant women. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the different types of abuse between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Physical attack was associated with socioeconomic status, work status, and degree of religiosity.

Conclusion: Pregnant women were at a similar risk for abuse as non-pregnant women in all abuse categories. Predictors for abuse – socioeconomic status and religiosity – are reviewed primarily in a cultural context.

October 2000
Raana Shamir, MD, Aaron Lerner, MD, MHA and Edward A. Fisher, MD, PhD
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