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עמוד בית
Sun, 23.06.24

ORIGINAL ARTICLES

IMAJ | volume 25

Journal 7, July 2023
pages: 479-484

The Prevalence of Dementia among Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

1 Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel 2 Department of Internal Medicine B, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel 3 Department of Gastroenterology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel 4 Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 5 Department of Musculoskeletal Disease, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

Summary

Background

: Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are inflammatory mediated myopathies characterized by progressive symmetric proximal muscle weakness and associated with extra-muscular involvement. Central nervous system complications are rarely reported with these diseases.

Objectives:

To investigate the association between dementia and PM/DM.

Methods:

A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a database from Clalit Health Care, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. Patients with a first recorded diagnosis of PM/DM were included and were compared with age- and sex-matched controls by a ratio of 1:5. The prevalence of dementia among PM/DM patients compared to controls was assessed using a univariate and a multivariable model. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association of different factors with dementia within the PM/DM cohort.

Results:

The study included 2085 PM/DM cases (17.0%) and 10,193 age- and sex-matched controls (83.0%). During the follow-up time, 36 PM/DM patients were diagnosed with dementia compared to 160 controls, with a univariate hazard ratio (HR) of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.77–1.58). Within the PM/DM cohort, significant predictors for the development of dementia included increased age at diagnosis (5 years increment; OR 1.86, 95%CI 1.57–2.21, P < 0.001) and treatment with glucocorticoids (OR 5.40, 95%CI 1.67–17.67, P = 0.005).

Conclusions:

In our cohort, inflammatory myopathies were not associated with dementia. Age and treatment with glucocorticoids were associated with dementia. If dementia is diagnosed in patients with inflammatory myopathies, other systemic causes should be investigated.

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