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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.04.24

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December 2023
Moshe Salai MD, Yoram Sandhaus MD, Ahuva Golik MD, Naomi Rahimi-Levene MD, Hana Castel MD, Zachi Grossman MD, Avinoam Tzabari MD, Eitan Lunenfeld MD, Shai Ashkenazi MD, Talma Kushnir PhD

The ancient, Biblical, holy Ten Commandments were presented to humanity to serve as guidelines for relationships between individuals and the deity they worship as well as a benchmark for living in civilized communities, irrespective of religious affiliation. The commandments are also embedded in medical education taught to medical students and other health professions throughout the world. Thus, the Ten Commandments are embedded in the medical communications curriculum at Adelson School of Medicine, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel. Unfortunately, most of these commandments were desecrated during the violent, hostile, merciless, and ruthless attack inflicted by the Hamas terror organization on villages, rural communities, and cities in southern Israel on 7 October 2023. We define the Ten Commandments in terms of medical education and describe their desecration by Hamas terrorists before and during the Iron Swords war.

June 2023
Yael Laitman MSc, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Talia Golan MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Germline pathogenic variants (PVs) in the RET proto-oncogene (OMIM 164761) are associated with a diverse phenotype based on the type of PV. Gain-of-function (GOF) PVs are associated with the highly penetrant multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2-OMIM 171400), which are hallmarked by an increased risk for developing medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid adenomas. Loss-of-function (LOF) RET PVs are associated with incompletely penetrant Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR OMIM 142623), which are pathologically characterized by the absence of enteric ganglia affecting the distal colon and clinically manifest as neonatal intestinal obstruction. Despite anecdotal reports of familial clustering of neoplasms in HSCR families, mostly MEN2-associated tumors [1,2], HSCR is not considered to be associated with an increased risk for developing cancer [3]. We report on a family with an unusual multigenerational solid tumor phenotype and severe HSCR phenotype with a LOF RET PV.

May 2023
Yuval Cavari MD, Olga Yermiahu CCRN MHA, Orna Staretz Chacham MD, Guy Beck Rosen MD MHA, Eitan Neeman MD, Isaac Lazar MD

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1; MIM *608307; E.C. 6.3.4.16) is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the urea cycle, an essential metabolic pathway for ammonia detoxification. CPS1 deficiency (CPS1-D) is characterized by severe hyperammonemia during disease exacerbations. During a metabolic crisis, children with CPS1-D are admitted with vomiting, altered mental status, and high serum levels of ammonia. Rapid normalization of ammonia level ameliorates neurological outcome [1,2]. The first-line treatment for hyperammonemia in these patients is ammonia scavengers in combination with citrulline or arginine and high-calorie supplementation while controlling protein intake [1].

January 2023
Naama Hermann MD, Pnina Mor CNM PhD, Orit Kaidar-Person MD, Rinat Bernstein-Molho MD, Mali Brodsky RN MSc, Dana Madorsky Feldman MD, Anath A. Flugelman MD MPH MA, Hadar Aboody Nevo MD, Danna Meshoulam Avital MD, Miri Sklair-Levy MD, Eitan Friedman MD PhD, Tanir M. Allweis MD

Background: Population screening for the BRCA mutations in Ashkenazi Jewish women was recently implemented in Israel and is expected to lead to a 10-fold increase in the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers. Performing the screening follow-up within multidisciplinary dedicated clinics for carriers is recommended for early detection and risk reduction.

Objectives: To determine the availability, capacity, and practices of dedicated screening clinic for BRCA carriers in Israel.

Methods: A telephone-based survey of all public hospitals in Israel was conducted October 2020 to August 2021 to determine whether they had a dedicated clinic. Dedicated clinics were defined as multidisciplinary screening clinics offering at least breast and gynecological screening and risk reducing services on site. The clinic director or nurse navigator answered a questionnaire about screening practices followed by a semi-structured interview.

Results: Of the ten dedicated BRCA clinics found in Israel, nine participated. Approximately 4500 BRCA carriers are currently being followed. No specialized clinics are available in the southern district or in the northernmost half of the northern district of Israel, leading to a disparity between periphery and center. Screening recommendations, although asserted as adhering to international guidelines, vary among clinics including age at initiating of clinical exam, use of adjunct imaging modalities, and follow-up during lactation and after risk reducing surgery.

Conclusions: There is a suboptimal distribution of dedicated clinics for BRCA carriers in Israel. Nationally centralized attempt to create guidelines that will unify screening practices is warranted, especially considering the expected increase in demand.

November 2022
David Levy MD, Mayan Eitan MD, Mark Vitebskiy MD, Yona Kitay-Cohen MD, Fabiana Benjaminov MD

A 70-year-old male arrived at the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of fever, shivering, and sweating for 3 days. A dry cough started a week before admission. There were no other referring symptoms. The patient, a farmer by occupation, denied any animal bite or exposure, travel abroad, consumption of uncooked meat, or drink of unpasteurized milk products. In the ED, his vital signs showed hypotension with blood pressure of 70/40 mmHg, pyrexia of 39.4°C, and tachycardia of 100 beats per minute. On physical examination, the patient shivered. On auscultation, fast heart sounds were heard.

March 2020
Hussein Sliman MD, Moshe Y. Flugelman MD, Idit Lavi MsC, Barak Zafrir MD, Avinoam Shiran MD, Amnon Eitan MD and Ronen Jaffe MD

Background: The impact of revascularization of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) on survival is unknown. Several studies, which included subjects with varied coronary anatomy, suggested that CTO revascularization improved survival. However, the contribution of CTO revascularization to improved outcome is unclear since it was more commonly achieved in subjects with fewer co-morbidities and less extensive coronary disease.

Objectives: To study the association between CTO revascularization and survival in patients with uniform coronary anatomy consisting of isolated CTO of the right coronary artery (RCA).

Methods: A registry of 16,832 coronary angiograms was analyzed. We identified 278 patients (1.7%) with isolated CTO of the RCA who did not have lesions within the left coronary artery for which revascularization was indicated. Survival of 52 patients (19%) who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention was compared to those who did not receive revascularization.

Results: Revascularized patients were younger (60.2 vs. 66.3 years, P = 0.001), had higher creatinine clearance (106 vs. 83 ml/min, P < 0.0001), and had fewer co-morbidities than those who did not receive revascularization. Lack of CTO revascularization was a univariable predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.65, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.06–6.4) over 4.3 ± 2.5 years of follow-up. On multivariable analysis, the only predictors of mortality were increased age (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.01–1.07), reduced creatinine clearance (HR 1.02, 95%CI 1.01–1.03), and ejection fraction below 55% (HR 2.24, 95%CI 1.22–4.11).

Conclusions: Among patients with isolated RCA CTO who underwent extended follow-up, revascularization was not an independent predictor of increased survival.

February 2020
Lina Salman MD, Avi Ben-haroush MD, Gad Sabah MD, Ariella Jakobson-Setton MD, Daliah Tsoref MD, Oded Raban MD, Effi Yeoshoua MD and Ram Eitan MD

Background: The treatment of elderly patients with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma is challenging due to a high morbidity.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical course and outcome of elderly patients with advanced stage ovarian carcinoma receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).

Methods: A retrospective study of all patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian carcinoma receiving NACT in one medical center (between 2005 and 2017). The study group criteria age was above 70 years. The control group criteria was younger than 70 years old at diagnosis. Demographics and treatment outcomes were compared between groups. Primary outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Overall, 105 patients met the inclusion criteria, 71 patients (67.6%) were younger than 70 years and 34 patients (32.4%) older. Rates of interval cytoreduction were significantly higher in younger patients (76.1% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.01). Of those who underwent interval cytoreduction, no difference was found in rates of optimal debulking between groups (83.35% vs. 100%, P = 0.10). Using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, no significant differences were observed between groups in PFS or OS, P > 0.05. Among the elderly group alone, patients who underwent interval cytoreduction had significantly longer PFS than those without surgical intervention (0.4 ± 1.7 vs. 19.3 ± 19.4 months, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Elderly patients with ovarian carcinoma who received NACT undergo less interval cytoreduction than younger patients, with no difference in PFS and OS. However, among the elderly, interval cytoreduction is associated with significantly higher PFS.

January 2020
Eitan Neeman MD, Nitza Heiman Newman MD MHA, Yuval Cavari MD, Yael Feinstein MD, Yulia Fuxman MD and Isaac Lazar MD

Background: Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) surgical technique relates to a procedure in which the post-surgical abdominal wall remains open in certain indications. The Bogota bag (BB) technique is a tension-free TAC method that covers the abdominal contents with a sterilized fluid bag. There are very few reports of pediatric patients treated with this technique.

Objectives: To describe our institution’s 15 years of experience using the BB technique on pediatric patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study describing our experience treating patients with BB was conducted. The medical files of 17 pediatric patients aged 0–18 years were reviewed.

Results: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 17 patients were treated with BB at our medical center (6 females, median age 12 years). Indications for BB were a need for a surgical site re-exploration, mechanical inability for primary abdominal closure, and high risk for ACS development. Median BB duration was 5 days and median bag replacement was 2 days. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 10 days and hospital LOS was 27 days. The ICU admission and BB procedure was tolerated well by 6 patients who were discharged home without complications. Of the remaining 11 patients, 6 patients died during the admission (35%) and the others presented with major complications not related to the BB but to the patient's primary disease.

Conclusions: This report represents the largest series of children treated with BB. The technique is simple to perform, inexpensive, and has very few complications.

December 2019
Michael Pesis DMD, Eitan Bar-Droma MD/DMD, Anatoliy Ilgiyaev DMD and Navot Givol DMD

Background: Untreated dental caries or even dental manipulations, such as a tooth extraction, might cause direct spread of an odontogenic infection and consequently the development of life-threatening conditions such as deep neck infections (DNI). The most common source of DNI is of odontogenic origin (38.8–49%). Abscess formation or cellulitis can lead to life-threatening complications, despite new diagnostic imaging technology and widespread availability of antibiotics. 

Objectives: To demonstrate the dangers of DNI, which can create life-threatening situations.

Methods: Five cases of DNI of odontogenic origin, which were referred to the oral and maxillofacial surgery unit, are presented. 

Results: Clinical manifestations included trismus, dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea, and infection symptoms. In all cases, computed tomography confirmed diagnosis and extent of abscess. Complications included mediastinitis, respiratory distress, osteomyelitis of the jaws, and in rare cases the mandibular condyle. Treatment included securing the airway, immediate surgical drainage, removal of the infection source, and antibiotic therapy. All patients were discharged in stable and improved condition.

Conclusions: DNI treatment on an emergency basis requires proper diagnosis and effective management. To confirm diagnosis and prevent serious complications, it is essential for physicians to recognize the spaces of the head and neck that are likely to be affected by DNI. 

 

June 2017
Hagit Schayek PhD, Yael Laitman MSc, Lior H Katz MD, Elon Pras MD, Liat Ries-Levavi PhD, Frida Barak MD and Eitan Friedman MD PhD

Background: Biallelic BLM gene mutation carriers are at an increased risk for cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether heterozygous BLM gene mutations confer an increased cancer risk remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate CRC and endometrial cancer risk in BLM heterozygous mutation carriers.

Methods:
Jewish Ashkenazim at high risk for colon or endometrial cancer and endometrial cancer cases unselected for family history were genotyped for the BLMAsh predominant mutation.

Results: Overall, 243 high-risk individuals were included: 97 men CRC patients (55.12 ± 12.3 years at diagnosis), 109 women with CRC (56.5 ± 13.7 years), 32 women with endometrial cancer (58.25 ± 13.4 years) and 5 women with both CRC and endometrial cancer. In addition, 120 unselected Ashkenazi women with endometrial cancer (64.2 ± 11.58 years) were genotyped. The BLMAsh mutation was present in 4/243 (1.65%) high-risk patients; 2 CRC (0.97%) 2 endometrial cancer (5.4%), and 1/120 unselected endometrial cancer patients (0.84%). Notably, in high-risk cases, BLMAsh mutation carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (for CRC 47.5 ± 7.8 years; P = 0.32 ; endometrial cancer 49.5 ± 7.7 years; P = 0.36) compared with non-carriers.

Conclusions: Ashkenazi high risk CRC/endometrial cancer, and women with endometrial cancer have a higher rate of BLMAsh heterozygous mutation compared with the general population. BLMAsh heterozygous mutation carriers are diagnosed with CRC and endometrial cancer at a younger age compared with non-carriers. These observations should be validated and the possible clinical implications assessed.

May 2017
Michael Findler MD, Jeremy Molad MD, Natan M Bornstein MD and Eitan Auriel MD MSc

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia and a common cause of ischemic stroke. Stroke patients with AF have been shown to have a poorer neurological outcome than stroke patients without AF.

Objectives: To determine the impact of pre-existing AF on residual degree of disability in patients treated with IV thrombolysis.

Methods: In this case-control study, data of 214 stroke patients (63 with AF and 151 without AF) were collected from the National Acute Stroke Israeli Registry, a nationwide quadrennial stroke database. Stroke severity and outcome were compared using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on admission and discharge. Demographics and stroke characteristics were also compared between the groups.

Results: Stroke severity, as determined by NIHSS at admission, was higher in the AF group than the non-AF. In the group of patients who were treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), more patients had favorable outcomes (mRS = 0–1 on discharge) in the non-AF group than in the AF group (P = 0.058, odds ratio = 2.217, confidence interval 0.973 to 5.05).

Conclusions: Our study suggests worse outcome in thrombolized patients with AF compared to non-AF stroke patients. Therefore, AF itself can be a poor prognostic factor for tPA sensitivity regarding the chance of revascularization and recovery after intravenous tPA.

October 2016
Osnat Halshtok Neiman MD, Zippy Erlich PhD, Eitan Friedman M PhD, Arie Rundstein MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Yael Servadio MD and Miri Sklair Levy MD

Background: Automated breast volumetric sonography (ABVS) is a new technology with various possible applications.

Objectives: To compare ABVS and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the surveillance of women with BRCA1/2 gene mutation carriers.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study in Jewish female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who underwent breast MRI and ABVS. The results of both exams performed 6 months apart or less, and relevant clinical data, were reviewed. The BIRADS results were divided into three subgroups according to subsequent expected management: BIRADS 1-2 (normal study), BIRADS 3 (probably benign finding), and BIRADS 4 and 5 (suspicious findings). BIRADS 0 and 6 scores were excluded from the study. Distribution of ABVS and MRI BIRADS scores were compared using McNemar's test, and concordance was calculated using the Cohen kappa test.

Results: Overall, 68 women, 40 BRCA1 and 28 BRCA2 mutation carriers, age range 26–69 (mean 44.55 ± 12.1 years), underwent 79 paired ABVS and MRI examinations. McNemar's test calculations showed no significant difference between MRI and ABVS BIRADS score distribution. Cohen’s kappa test resulted in k = 0.158, an agreement that can be described as only "slight agreement" between both modalities. Of 14 discordant cases there was one cancer, revealed by MRI and not by ABVS performed 6 months prior to MRI.

Conclusions: ABVS showed slight agreement with MRI in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. These preliminary results on a small group of healthy high risk patients suggest that the diagnostic abilities of ABVS are inferior to MRI. Further studies encompassing larger groups are needed.

 

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