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עמוד בית
Fri, 23.02.24

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March 2015
Itay A. Sternberg MD, Benjamin F. Katz MD, Lauren Baldinger DO, Roy Mano MD, Gal E. Keren Paz MD, Melanie Bernstein BA, Oguz Akin MD, Paul Russo MD and Christoph Karlo MD

Abstract

Background: Renal hemangiomas are rare benign tumors seldom distinguished from malignant tumors preoperatively.

Objectives: To describe the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience with diagnosing and treating renal hemangiomas, and to explore possible clinical and radiologic features that can aid in diagnosing renal hemangiomas preoperatively.

Methods: Patients with renal hemangiomas treated at MSKCC were identified in our prospectively collected renal tumor database. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patient characteristics and the tumor characteristics. All available preoperative imaging studies were reviewed to assess common findings and explore possible characteristics distinguishing benign hemangiomas from malignant renal tumors preoperatively.

Results: Of 6341 patients in our database 15 were identified. Eleven (73%) were males, median age at diagnosis was 53.3 years, and the affected side was evenly distributed. All but two patients were treated surgically. The mean decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after surgery was 36.3%; one patient had an abnormal presurgical eGFR and only two patients had a normal eGFR after surgery. We could not identify radiographic features that would make preoperative diagnosis certain, but we did identify features characteristic of hepatic hemangiomas that were also present in some of the renal hemangiomas.

Conclusions: Most renal hemangiomas cannot be distinguished from other common renal cortical tumors preoperatively. In select cases a renal biopsy can identify this benign lesion and the deleterious effects of extirpative surgery can be avoided.

Olga Reitblat MD, Tsahi T. Lerman MD, Olga Grisko MD, Anna Gelfand MD, Azaria Simonovich MD, Galina Novokhatko MD, Doron Zamir MD and Tatiana Reitblat MD
February 2015
Nurit Katz-Agranov MD, Amir Tanay MD, Daniel Bachar MD and Gisele Zandman-Goddard MD
January 2015
Yaniv Berger MD, Riccardo A Superina MD, Andrew P. Zbar MD, Nora Balint-Lahat MD, Nir Horesh MD and Ron Bilik MD

Background: Congenital hepatic hilar cysts are rare. Some are simple and do not require intervention, but some biliary cystic malformations impose the risk of morbidity and mortality. Objectives: To assess a series of five patients presenting with congenital hepatic hilar cysts. 

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all cases presenting to our pediatric surgical service between January 2010 and December 2012 and found to have a congenital hepatic hilar cyst. Data regarding clinical, radiological, operative and pathological features were analyzed.

Results: Five children with congenital cyst of the hepatic hilum were identified; four of them were diagnosed prenatally. Four children had undergone surgical intervention: one with intrahepatic choledochal cyst, one with epidermoid cyst, and two with biliary atresia and an associated cyst of the common bile duct. In another case of choledochal cyst the treatment was conservative. All children except one had a good prognosis; one child with biliary atresia required liver transplantation.

Conclusions: The differential diagnosis of congenital hepatic hilar cyst includes a broad spectrum of pathologies. It is essential to diagnose biliary atresia as early as possible. Signs such as smaller cysts in association with a hypoplastic gallbladder and direct hyperbilirubinemia may be suggestive of biliary atresia.

Yael Adler-Levy MD, Simcha Yagel MD, Michael Nadjari MD, Yaakov Bar-ziv MD, Natalia Simanovsky MD and Nurith Hiller MD
Background: Sonographic evaluation of congenital skeletal dysplasias is often challenging. Ultrasound may be limited in demonstrating the skeleton and may overlook specific signs of skeletal abnormality. Computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction was proposed as an aid in the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

Objectives: To describe our experience with 3D-CT imaging for the evaluation of suspected skeletal dysplasias.

Methods: The study group comprised 20 pregnant women carrying 22 fetuses, referred for further evaluation by CT following sonographic suspicion of fetal skeletal dysplasia at 17–39 weeks of gestation. Examinations were performed using various CT protocols. Radiation exposure was decreased during the study period, with eventual lowering of the dose to 1–3 mSv. Meticulous review of the skeleton and long bone measurements were performed on 3D reconstructions. For cases of pregnancy termination, the postmortem diagnosis was compared retrospectively with the CT findings.

Results: Very low dose CT protocols provided excellent diagnostic images. Of 22 fetuses suspected of having skeletal dysplasia on ultrasound, 8 were found by CT to be dysplastic and in 7 the pregnancy was terminated. Postmortem findings, when available, concurred with the CT diagnosis. The remaining 14 fetuses within this cohort were found to be normal according to CT and were carried to term.

Conclusions: 3D-CT may be a valuable complimentary imaging tool to ultrasound for the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. Using low dose protocols makes this examination relatively safe, and in the appropriate clinical context may assist in making difficult decisions prenatally.
December 2014
Vera Stejskal PhD
Background: The multiple symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia resemble those described in patients suffering from autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). It has been suggested that chronic metal-induced inflammation might play a role both in CFS and fibromyalgia as well as in ASIA. Humans are exposed to metals mainly through the release of metal ions from corroding dental restorations and orthopedic implants, food, vaccines and jewelry. Metals readily bind to sulphur and other groups in the mitochondria, enzymes and cell proteins. Metal-bound proteins are recognized by the immune system of susceptible subjects and might trigger an abnormal immune response, including allergy and autoimmunity.

Objectives:  To study three subjects with CFS and two with fibromyalgia, all of whom suspected metal exposure as a trigger for their ill health.

Methods: We measured delayed-type hypersensitivity to metals (metal allergy) using a validated lymphocyte transformation test, LTT-MELISA®. All patients except one were sensitized to metals present in their dental restorations. The remaining patient reacted to metals in his skull implant. The removal of sensitizing metals resulted in long-term health improvement. Nine healthy controls matched for gender and age showed only marginal reactivity to the metals tested.

Conclusions: Patients with CFS and fibromyalgia are frequently sensitized to metals found in the environment or used in dentistry and surgery. This allergy to metals might initiate or aggravate non-specific symptoms in metal-sensitized patients.
October 2014
Yael Bar-On MD, Varda Shalev MD, Dahlia Weitzman PhD, Gabriel Chodick PhD and Howard Amital MD MHA
August 2014
Matti Eskelinen MD PhD, Tuomas Selander MSc, Pertti Lipponen MD PhD and Petri Juvonen MD PhD

Background: The primary diagnosis of functional dyspepsia (FD) is made on the basis of typical symptoms and by excluding organic gastrointestinal diseases that cause dyspeptic symptoms. However, there is difficulty reaching a diagnosis in FD.

Objectives: To assess the efficiency of the Usefulness Index (UI) test and history-taking in diagnosing FD.

Methods: A study on acute abdominal pain conducted by the World Organizati­on of Gast­roentero­logy Research Committee (OMGE) included 1333 patients presenting with acute abdo­minal pain. The clinical history-taking variables (n=23) for each pa­tient were recorded in detail using a prede­fined structured data collection sheet, and the collected data were compared with the final diagnoses.

Results: The most signifi­cant clinical history-taking variables of FD in univa­riate analysis were risk ratio (RR): location of pain at diagnosis (RR = 5.7), location of initial pain (RR = 6.5), previous similar pain (RR = 4.0), duration of pain (RR = 2.9), previous abdominal surgery (RR = 4.1), previous abdominal diseases (RR = 4.0), and previous indigestion (RR = 3.1). T­he sensi­tivity of the physicians’ initial de­cisi­on in detecting FD was 0.44, speci­fi­city 0.99 and effi­ciency 0.98; UI was 0.19 and RR 195.3. In the stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent predictors of FD were the physicians’ initial decision (RR = 266.4), location of initial pain (RR = 3.4), duration of pain (RR = 3.1), previous abdominal surgery (RR = 3.7), previous indigestion (RR = 2.2) and vomiting (RR = 2.0).

Conclusions: The patients with upper abdominal pain initially and a previous history of abdominal surgery and indigestion tended to be at risk for FD. In these patients the UI test could help the clinician differentiate FD from other diagnoses of acute abdominal pain.

July 2014
Arnon Blum MD, Saleh Nazzal MD and Avi Peretz PhD
June 2014
Itay Zoarets MD, Natan Poluksht MD and Ariel Halevy MD

Background: Appendectomies are the most common operations performed on an emergency basis. The accepted rate of "white" appendectomies is around 20%. In recent years, computed tomography (CT) scanning has been recognized as a valuable tool with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The use of CT scans in the management of patients with suspected acute appendicitis is increasing worldwide.

Objectives: To assess whether introducing more liberal use of CT in the management of patients presenting to the emergency room with right lower quadrant pain or suspected acute appendicitis would reduce the rate of “white” appendectomies.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of the pathology reports and CT scans of all patients who underwent appendectomy during a 3 year period. We examined the correlation between the rate of CT scans performed and the rate of "white" appendectomies.

Results: Overall, we performed 797 appendectomies during the study period. In 2004, we performed 272 appendectomies and CT in 34 patients (12.5%). In 2005, we performed 275 appendectomies and CT in 83 patients (30.2%). In 2006, we performed 250 appendectomies and CT in 88 patients (35.2%). The percentage of "white" appendectomies decreased from 29% in 2004 to 21.1% in 2005 and to 18.8% in 2006.

Conclusions: It appears that a more selective use of CT scans in the management of suspected appendicitis could reduce the rate of "white" appendectomies.

April 2014
George Habib MD MPH, Munir Nashashibi MD and Sara Gips MD
Background: Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is considered the method of choice for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE). In most patients with impaired renal function, ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning is the preferred modality.

Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of V/Q scanning in patients with impaired renal function.

Methods: We assessed all patients with impaired renal function who underwent V/Q scanning. The patients studied included those who also had CTPA (group 1) and those who did not (group 2). We recorded the results of V/Q scanning, chest X-rays, CTPA, D-dimer levels, ultrasound of deep veins, and clinical probability for PE (Wells' score) in group 1. CTPA results were considered true results. Anticoagulant treatment was documented in all the patients.

Results: Of the 45 patients in group 1, 12 (22%) had positive CTPA for PE. The positive predictive value (PPV) for patients with high probability results on V/Q scanning for PE was 30%. Restricting results to D-dimer levels ≥ 1000 ng/ml added little to this value. Restricting results to Wells’ score ≥ 7 resulted in 72% PPV. The negative predictive values for low or moderate probability were ~79 % and ~67% respectively. Of the 95 patients in group 2, all those with high probability for PE were treated with anticoagulants.

Conclusions: Patients with impaired renal function and high probability for PE on V/Q scanning had very low PPV for PE. Due to the lack of CTPA studies, patients with high probability for PE on V/Q scanning were treated with anticoagulants.

March 2014
Lela Migirov, Gahl Greenberg, Ana Eyal and Michael Wolf
Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst that is characterized by independent and progressive growth with destruction of adjacent tissues, especially the bone tissue, and tendency to recurrence. Treatment of cholesteatoma is essentially surgical. The choice of surgical technique depends on the extension of the disease, and preoperative otoscopic and radiological findings can be decisive in planning the optimal surgical approach. Cholesteatoma confined to the middle ear cavity and its extensions can be eradicated by use of the minimally invasive transmeatal endoscopic approach. Computerized tomography of the temporal bones fails to distinguish a cholesteatoma from the inflammatory tissue, granulations, fibrosis or mucoid secretions in 20–70% of cases showing opacification of the middle ear and mastoid. Using the turbo-spin echo (TSE), also known as non-echo planar imaging (non-EPI) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging, cholesteatoma can be distinguished from other tissues and from mucosal reactions in the middle ear and mastoid. Current MRI sequences can support the clinical diagnosis of cholesteatoma and ascertain the extent of the disease more readily than CT scans. The size determined by the TSE/HASTE (half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin echo) DW sequences correlated well with intraoperative findings, with error margins lying within 1 mm. Our experience with more than 150 endoscopic surgeries showed that lesions smaller than 8 mm confined to the middle ear and its extension, as depicted by the non-EPI images, can be managed with transmeatal endoscopic approach solely. We call upon our otolaryngologist and radiologist colleagues to use the newest MRI modalities in the preoperative evaluation of candidates for cholesteatoma surgery.

November 2013
N. Sarid, R. Eshel, E. Rahamim, M. Carmiel, I. Kirgner, M. Shpringer, S. Trestman, R. Marilus, C. Perry, A. Polliack, E. Naparstek and Y. Herishanu

Background: Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) is mutated in a high proportion of patients with polycythemia vera and in a smaller number with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Mutated JAK2 is an important diagnostic marker for myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and may also play a major role in the pathogenesis of MPN.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of mutated JAK2 (JAK2-V617F) among patients with major intraabdominal vein thrombosis who had normal blood counts at diagnosis of the initial event.

Methods: The medical records of patients who presented with a major intraabdominal venous thrombosis and normal peripheral blood counts were obtained. JAK2-V617F mutation status was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Twenty-two patients were available for this analysis and 9 (41%) were found to have JAK2-V617F. Patients with positive JAK2-V617F were younger and had more frequent clinical splenomegaly than those with wild-type JAK2.

Conclusions: A high proportion of patients presenting with “idiopathic” major intraabdominal vein thrombosis and normal blood counts carry JAK2-V617F. We recommend searching for the mutation in this clinical setting to detect patients with occult MPN.

September 2013
K. Goldman, S.Gertel and H. Amital
 Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) are detected in the sera of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and have a profound role in diagnosis of the disease. In this review we discuss the different cohorts of RA patients in whom the presence, sensitivity and specificity of ACPA were evaluated. The significance of ACPA in the pathogenesis and prognosis RA is also interpreted. Recent advances in the understanding of molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of RA have led to the identification of novel biologic agents that are now widely used in patients with RA

 

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