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עמוד בית
Fri, 30.09.22

Search results

January 2022
Nissim Arish MD, Ariel Rokach MD MHA, Amir Jarjou'i MD, Naama Bogot MD, Irith Hadas Halperen MD, Maher Deeb MD, Eli Golomb MD, and Gabriel Izbicki MD
December 2021
Ada Rosen MD, Sorin Elias MD, Hadas Ganer Herman MD, Alexander Condrea MD, and Shimon Ginath MD

Background: The current approach to performing sacral neuromodulation consists of a two-stage procedure, the first of which includes insertion of the sacral electrode under fluoroscopic visualization of the S3 foramen. Alternatively, in certain situations computed tomography (CT)-guided insertion can be used.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of CT in cases of reinsertion of the electrode due to infection, dislocation, or rupture.

Methods: Medical records of patients who underwent neuromodulation device reinsertion between 2005 and 2016 for fecal incontinence were reviewed. Study outcomes included procedure course, successful placement, and long-term treatment success.

Results: During the study period, we inserted a neuromodulation device in 67 patients. A CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode was performed in 10 patients. In nine patients, the insertion and the final location of the electrode were successful. In one patient, the electrode migrated upward due to a malformation of the S3 foramen on both sides and had to be placed in S4. In a mean follow-up of 68.4 ± 30.0 months following the re-insertion, there was a significant reduction in the number of incontinence episodes per day (P < 0.001) and the number of pads used per day (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: CT-guided insertion of a sacral electrode is a safe and promising option, especially in recurrent and or selected cases

June 2021
Zvi Shimoni MD, Vendi Danilov MD, Shoshana Hadar MD, and Paul Froom MD

Background: Recommendations for a head computed tomography (CT) scan in elderly patients without a loss of consciousness after a traumatic brain injury and without neurological findings on admission and who are not taking oral anticoagulant therapy, are discordant.

Objectives: To determine variables associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and the need for neurosurgery in elderly patients after low velocity head trauma

Methods: In a regional hospital, we retrospectively selected 206 consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years with head CT scans ordered in the emergency department because of low velocity head trauma. Outcome variables were an ICH and neurological surgery. Independent variables included age, sex, disability, neurological findings, facial fractures, mental status, headache, head sutures, loss of consciousness, and anticoagulation therapy.

Results: Fourteen patients presented with ICH (6.8%, 3.8–11.1%) and three (1.5%, 0.3–4.2%) with a neurosurgical procedure. One patient with a coma (0.5, 0.0–2.7) died 2 hours after presentation. All patients who required surgery or died had neurological findings. Reducing head CT scans by 97.1% (93.8–98.9%) would not have missed any patient with possible surgical utility. Twelve of the 14 patients (85.7%) with an ICH had neurological findings, post-trauma loss of consciousness or a facial fracture were not present in 83.5% (95% confidence interval 77.7–88.3) of the cohort.

Conclusions: None of our patients with neurological findings required neurosurgery. Careful palpation of the facial bones to identify facial fractures might aid in the decision whether to perform a head CT scan.

September 2019
Hana Feuerman MD, Igor Snast MD, Iris Amitay-Laish MD, Osnat Bairey MD, Aviv Barzilai MD, Maora Feinmesser MD, Daniel Mimouni MD, Einat Even-Sapir MD and Emmilia Hodak MD

Background: Whole-body integrated positron emission tomography / contrast-enhanced computed tomography (PET/CT) scan is increasingly used in cutaneous lymphomas. However, the value of PET/CT in the detection of cutaneous lesions in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL) has barely been investigated.

Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in tracking cutaneous involvement in PCBCL.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 35 consecutive patients diagnosed with cutaneous B-cell lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification who were evaluated with PET/CT as the initial staging procedure before treatment.

Results: Thirty-five patients met the study criteria. In two patients extracutaneous disease was detected by PET/CT and CT and confirmed by biopsy. Of the 33 patients with PCBCL, 26 (79%) had small cell PCBCL (18 marginal-zone, 8 follicle-center lymphoma) and 7 (21%) had large cell PCBCL (3 follicle-center, 3 leg-type, 1 indeterminate). PET/CT detected skin lesions in 3 of 26 patients (12%) with small-cell PCBCL as compared to 6 of 7 patients with large-cell PCBLC (86%), a 7.4-fold detection risk (95% confidence interval, 2.4–22, P = 0.004). The PET-positive subgroup was characterized by larger lesion size (P < 0.001) and a higher Ki-67 proliferation index (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The sensitivity of PET/CT for detecting cutaneous involvement of lymphomas is low for small-cell PCBCL but high for large-cell types, and thus may facilitate therapeutic strategies.

December 2018
Raviv Allon BsC, Yahav Levy MD, Idit Lavi MA, Aviv Kramer MD, Menashe Barzilai MD and Ronit Wollstein MD

Because fragility fractures have an enormous impact on the practice of medicine and global health systems, effective screening is imperative. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which has limited ability to predict fractures, is being used. We evaluated the current literature for a method that may constitute a better screening method to predict fragility fractures. A systematic review of the literature was conducted on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to evaluate screening methods to predict fragility fractures. We found that ultrasound had sufficient data on fracture prediction to perform meta-analysis; therefore, we analyzed prospective ultrasound cohort studies. Six study populations, consisting of 29,299 individuals (87,296 person-years of observation) and including 992 fractures, were analyzed. MRI was found to be sensitive and specific for osteoporosis, but its use for screening has not been sufficiently evaluated and more research is needed on cost, accessibility, technical challenges, and sensitivity and specificity. CT could predict fracture occurrence; however, it may be problematic for screening due to cost, exposure to radiation, and availability. Ultrasound was found to predict fracture occurrence with an increased risk of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.73) to fracture. Ultrasound has not replaced DXA as a screening tool for osteoporosis, perhaps due to operator-dependency and difficulty in standardization of testing.

May 2018
Yehudit Eden Friedman MD, Gabriela Gayer MD, Moran Livne Margolin MD, Abraham Kneller MD and Meir Mouallem MD
March 2018
Hanan Goldberg MD, Gil N. Bachar MD, Riad Majadla MD, Ofer Yossepowitch MD, Jack Baniel MD and Edward Ram MD

Background: Right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis is an under-reported phenomenon with only several case reports published.

Objectives: To assess the incidence of this phenomenon in our database of patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis.

Methods: Data were collected on 1092 patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis between 2003 and 2007 in our tertiary medical center. The data entailed demographic, surgical, and hospitalization parameters including ultrasound or computed tomography examinations and presence of right hydronephrosis prior to surgery.

Results: Out of 1092 patients, appendicitis was eventually diagnosed in 87.4% of the patients. Only 594 (54%) had preoperative imaging performed prior to surgery (ultrasound or computed tomography). Out of these 594 patients, 21 (3.5%) had a new right hydronephrosis diagnosed and all had appendicitis with 15/21 (71%) having a retrocecal appendix. Of those with retrocecal appendix, 10 were pregnant women (48%). Erythrocyturia was present in 15/21 patients (71%) and in 10/11 of patients (91%) after excluding those who were pregnant. No significant differences were seen in patients with hydronephrosis regarding age, hospitalization, and surgery time. In all patients, an ultrasound was performed 2 weeks after surgery demonstrating the disappearance of hydronephrosis. Median follow-up time was 41.7 months (range 14.8–118.4 months).

Conclusions: Our study shows that 3.5% of our cohort had right hydronephrosis secondary to acute appendicitis. Although this presentation is very rare, physicians should be aware of this phenomenon and the risk for delayed diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.


November 2017
Talia Levy, Salim Bader, Kay-Geert Hermann MD, Gal Yaniv MD, Gahl Grinberg MD, Oshry Mozes MD, Merav Lidar MD and Iris Eshed MD

Background: Enthesopathy may lead to calcification of the stylohyoid ligament and can cause elongation of the styloid process (SP).

Objectives: To evaluate whether SP elongation is associated with two common enthesitis-related diseases: ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).

Methods: Cervical spine computed tomography (CT) examinations of patients with DISH (n=64, Resnick criteria), AS (n=24, New York criteria) and a controls (no radiological signs of DISH or AS, n=54) were retrospectively evaluated. The DISH group was further divided into patients with and without cervical DISH. The length of right and left SP was measured independently by two readers on coronal and sagittal curved reformats. The average right and left styloid length and average length per person were compared among the groups.

Results: Demographic characteristics were similar between the DISH and control groups (average age 68.2 ± 15.7, 69.2 ± 12.7 years, male:female ratio 48:16 and 35:19, respectively, P > 0.05), whereas age was significantly lower (average age: 53 ± 15 years, P < 0.0001) in the AS group, which was also composed mainly of men. The AS and DISH groups had significantly longer SP compared to controls (AS 37.9 ± 9.6 mm, DISH 34.4 ± 9 mm, control 30.3 ± 10.1 mm, P < 0.05). There was no correlation between age and SP length. Inter-reader reliability of SP measurements was excellent in all groups (ICC = 0.998, P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: SP elongation is associated with both AS and DISH substantiating the enthesopathy-related pathophysiology of this finding.

September 2017
Shahar Shelly MD, Nicola Maggio MD PhD, Marina Boxer MD, Ilan Blatt MD, David Tanne MD and David Orion MD

Background: Computed tomography (CT) brain perfusion is a relatively new imaging method that can be used to differentiate patients following epileptic seizures in the setting of acute neurological deficits (e.g., hemiparesis, hemiplegia, hemianopsia, aphasia) who arrive at the emergency room with a suspected stroke.

Objectives: To evaluate brain perfusion changes in patients who had an epileptic seizure.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 721 patients who presented at our stroke center between 2012 and 2015 with a suspected acute stroke and underwent examination thorough a stroke protocol, including cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) and CT angiography (CTA) within 8 hours from the onset of symptoms. 

Results: Out of 721 patients, 25 presented with ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings within 24–72 hours from symptom onset without evidence of vascular occlusion on CTA. While 15 patients had to be excluded from the study due to concomitant brain pathology, we found a specific reduction in cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow occurring at the ictal zone, which was identified by a post hoc EEG investigation. 

Conclusions: Our study shows that CTP is an easily accessible tool in emergency department setting for the detection of changes in blood flow dynamics among postictal patients. Thus, we propose the use of CTP in emergency settings to discriminate between postictal changes and acute vascular events. 


April 2017
Eyal Lotan MD MSc, Stephen P. Raskin MD, Michal M. Amitai MD, Yeruham Kleinbaum MD, Ella Veitsman MD, Peretz Weiss MD, Oranit Cohen-Ezra MD, Tania Berdichevski MD and Ziv Ben-Ari MD

Background: Accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is crucial for the management of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of liver segment-to-spleen volume ratio in predicting the severity of liver fibrosis.

Methods: Sixty-four consecutive HCV patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and were divided into three groups based on their hepatic fibrosis stage evaluated by shear-wave elastography (SWE): non-advanced (F0–F1, n=29), advanced (F2, n=19) and severe fibrosis (F3–F4, n=16). Using semi-automated liver segmentation software, we calculated the following liver segments and spleen volumes for each participant: total liver volume (TLV), caudate lobe (CV), left lateral segment (LLV), left medial segment (LMV), right lobe (RV) and spleen (SV), a well as their ratios: CV/SV, RV/SV, LLV/SV, LMV/SV and TLV/SV.

Results: RV/SV was found to discriminate between patients with non-advanced and advanced fibrosis (P = 0.001), whereas SV, CV, RV, TLV/SV, LMV/SV and RV/SV discriminated between patients with advanced and severe fibrosis (P < 0.05). RV/SV ≤ 3.6 and RV ≤ 2.9 were identified as the best cutoff values to differentiate non-advanced from advanced fibrosis and advanced from severe fibrosis with sensitivities of 72.2% and 92.7%, specificities of 72.7% and 77.8%, and with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.797 and 0.847, respectively (P ≤ 0.002).

Conclusions: RV/SV may be used for the assessment and monitoring of liver fibrosis in HCV patients prior to the administration of antiviral therapy, considering SWE as the reference method.


July 2016
Noa Lavi MD, Gali Shapira MD, Ariel Zilberlicht MD, Noam Benyamini MD, Dan Farbstein MD, Eldad J. Dann MD, Rachel Bar-Shalom MD and Irit Avivi MD

Background: Despite the lack of clinical studies supporting the use of routine surveillance FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who achieved remission, many centers still use this strategy, especially in high risk patients. Surveillance FDG-PET computed tomography (CT) is associated with a high false positive (FP) rate in DLBCL patients. 

Objectives: To investigate whether use of specific CT measurements could improve the positive predictive value (PPV) of surveillance FDG-PET/CT. 

Methods: This retrospective study included DLBCL patients treated with CHOP or R-CHOP who achieved complete remission and had at least one positive surveillance PET. CT-derived features of PET-positive sites, including long and short diameters and presence of calcification and fatty hilum within lymph nodes, were assessed. Relapse was confirmed by biopsy or consecutive imaging. The FP rate and PPV of surveillance PET evaluated with/without CT-derived measurements were compared. 

Results: Seventy surveillance FDG-PET/CT scans performed in 53 patients were interpreted as positive for relapse. Of these studies 25 (36%) were defined as true-positive (TP) and 45 (64%) as FP. Multivariate analysis found long or short axis measuring ≥ 1.5 and ≥ 1.0 cm, respectively, in PET-positive sites, International Prognostic Index (IPI) ≥ 2, lack of prior rituximab therapy and FDG uptake in a previously involved site, to be independent predictors of true positive surveillance PET (odds ratio 5.4, 6.89, 6.6, 4.9, P < 0.05 for all). 

Conclusion: PPV of surveillance PET/CT may be improved by its use in selected high risk DLBCL patients and combined assessment of PET and CT findings.


October 2015
July 2013
G. Yaniv, G. Twig, O. Mozes, G. Greenberg, C. Hoffmann and Y. Shoenfeld
 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder involving multiple organs. One of the main sites of SLE morbidity is the central nervous system (CNS), specifically the brain. In this article we review several imaging modalities used for CNS examination in SLE patients. These modalities are categorized as morphological and functional. Special attention is given to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its specific sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). These modalities allow us to better understand CNS involvement in SLE patients, its pathophysiology and consequences.


March 2012
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