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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

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January 2022
Nardin Elias MD, Roman Rysin MD, Samuel Kwartin MD, and Yoram Wolf MD

Background: The purpose of mastectomy for the transgender patient is to produce a masculine appearance of the chest. A number of algorithms have been proposed for selecting the surgical technique. A holistic and surgical approach to transgender men includes our experience-based classification system for selecting the correct surgical technique.

Objectives: To present and discuss the Transgender Standard of Care and our personal experience.

Methods: Data were collected from the files of female-to-male transgender persons who underwent surgery during 2003–2019. Pictures of the patients were also analyzed.

Results: Until May 2021, 342 mastectomies were performed by the senior author on 171 patients. The 220 mastectomies performed on 110 patients until November 2019 were included in our cohort. Patient age was 13.5 to 50 years (mean 22.5 ± 6.1). The excision averaged 443 grams per breast (range 85–2550). A periareolar approach was performed in 14 (12.7%), omega-shaped resection (nipple-areola complex on scar) in 2 (1.8%), spindle-shaped mastectomy with a dermal nipple-areola complex flap approach in 38 (34.5%), and a complete mastectomy with a free nipple-areola complex graft in 56 (50.9%). Complications included two hypertrophic scars, six hematomas requiring revision surgery, three wound dehiscences, and three cases of partial nipple necrosis.

Conclusions: A holistic approach to transgender healthcare is presented based on the World Professional Association for Transgender Health standard of care. Analysis of the data led to Wolf's classification for female-to-male transgender mastectomy based on skin excess and the distance between the original and the planned position of the nipple-areola complex

January 2021
Eden Moore, Barbara G. Silverman MD MPH, Yehudit Fishler, Etty Ben-Adiva MPH, Olga Davidov MBA, Rita Dichtiar MPH, Hila Edri, Miriam Zatlawi MPH, and Lital Keinan-Boker MD PhD MPH

Background: The Israel National Cancer Registry (INCR) was established in 1960. Reporting has been mandatory since 1982. All neoplasms of uncertain/unknown behavior, in situ and invasive malignancies (excluding basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin), and benign neoplasms of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) are reportable.

Objectives: To assess completeness and timeliness of the INCR for cases diagnosed or treated in 2005.

Methods: Abstractors identified cases of in situ and invasive malignancies and tumors of benign and uncertain behavior of the brain and CNS diagnosed or treated in 2005 in the files of medical records departments, pathology and cytology laboratories, and oncology and hematology institutes in 39 Israeli medical facilities. Cases were linked to the INCR database by national identity number. Duplicate cases, and those found to be non-reportable were excluded from analysis. Completeness was calculated as the percent of reportable cases identified by the survey that were present in the registry. Timeliness was calculated as the percent of reportable cases diagnosed in 2005, which were incorporated into the registry prior to 31 December 2007.

Results: The INCR’s completeness is estimated at 93.7% for all reportable diseases, 96.8% for invasive solid tumors, and 88.0% for hematopoietic tumors. Incident cases for the calendar year 2005 were less likely to be present in the registry database than those diagnosed prior to 2005.

Conclusions: Completeness and timeliness of the INCR are high and meet international guidelines. Fully automated reporting will likely improve the quality and timeliness of INCR data.

May 2018
Yehonatan Nevo MD, Yuri Goldes MD, Liran Barda MD, Roy Nadler MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Avinoam Nevler MD

Background: Recent studies have analyzed risk factors associated with complications after gastric cancer surgery using the Clavien-Dindo classification (CD). However, they have been based on Asian population cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, Korean).

Objectives: To prospectively analyze all post-gastrectomy complications according to severity using CD classification and identify postoperative risk factors and complications.

Methods: We analyzed all gastrectomies for gastric cancer performed 2009–2014. Recorded parameters included demographic data, existing co-morbidities, neo-adjuvant treatment, intra-operative findings, postoperative course, and histologic findings. Postoperative complications were graded using CD classification.

Results: The study comprised 112 patients who underwent gastrectomy. Mean age was 64.8 ± 12.8 years; 53 patients (47%) underwent gastrectomy, 37 (34%) total gastrectomy, and 22 (19%) total extended gastrectomy. All patients had D2 lymphadenectomy. The average number of retrieved lymph nodes was 35 ± 17. Severe complication rate (≥ IIIa) was 14% and mortality rate was 1.8%. In a univariate analysis, age > 65 years; ASA 3 or higher; chronic renal failure; multi-organ resection; and tumor, node, and metastases (TNM) stage ≥ IIIc were found to be significantly associated with CD complication grade > III (P = 0.01, P = 0.05, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, and P = 0.01, respectively). Multivariate regression analysis revealed advanced stage (≥ IIIc) and age > 65 years to be significant independent risk factors (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Age > 65 and advanced stage (≥ IIIc) were the primary risk factors for complications of grade > III according to the CD classification following gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

January 2018
Oren Iny MD, Henit Yanai MD, Shay Matalon MD, Erwin Santo MD, Oren Shibolet MD, Iris Dotan MD and Nitsan Maharshak MD

Background: Up to 3.4% of Crohn’s disease (CD) patients will be diagnosed with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Despite the worldwide increase incidence of CD, data on the clinical characteristics of PSC-CD patients are scarce.

Objectives: To clinically characterize CD in patients who have concomitant PSC.

Methods: A retrospective case-control analysis was conducted with 18 CD patients with concomitant PSC who attended the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center between 2011–2014 (PSC-CD patients). They were matched by age, gender, and disease duration to 90 control patients (those with CD who did not have concomitant PSC). Disease phenotype (according to the Montreal classification), demographics, and clinical data were compared in the two groups.

Results: PSC-CD patients were characterized by a disease that was more frequently limited to the colon (L2) (50% vs. 16%, P = 0.004) and by a non-stricturing and non-penetrating inflammatory phenotype (83% vs. 33%, P = 0.0001) compared to controls who had an increased prevalence of the penetrating phenotype (B3) (6% vs. 33% P < 0.05). Use of 5-aminosalicylic acid agents as a single therapy was significantly more prevalent among PSC-CD patients than in controls (39% vs. 7%, P < 0.005). In contrast, biologic therapy was significantly less common among PSC-CD patients compared to controls (17% vs. 52%, P = 0.0086).

Conclusions: Patients with PSC-CD are clinically distinct from patients with isolated CD, and are characterized by predominant colonic involvement and an inflammatory, non-stricturing and non-penetrating phenotype.

May 2017
Sharon Blum Meirovitch MD, Igal Leibovitch MD, Anat Kesler MD, David Varssano MD, Amir Rosenblatt MD MPH and Meira Neudorfer MD

Background: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the thyroid gland and the eye orbit. Of patients with TAO, 3%–5% have severe sight-threatening disease due to optic neuropathy Optical coherence tomography (OCT), the non-invasive imaging technology that yields high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, provides qualitative and quantitative data on the retina.

Objectives: To apply this technique to quantitatively assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ring thicknesses in healthy subjects and in patients with TAO to determine their relationship to the severity of the orbital disease.

Methods: All patients in the ophthalmology clinic who were diagnosed with TAO and underwent OCT imaging as part of their ocular examination comprised the study group, and healthy patients who volunteered to undergo OCT examination served as controls. Results of the complete ophthalmologic examination and OCT findings were collected from medical files, including the thickness of the RNFL and the macula.

Results: The study comprised 21 patients and 41 healthy controls. TAO patients exhibited RNFL thickening and inner macula thinning compared to healthy subjects. Mean RNFL thickness was correlated with the severity of the orbital disease.

Conclusion: The OCT findings suggest that the retina is involved in TAO, probably as early as the subclinical stage. This highlights the ability of OCT to identify retinal changes earlier and far more accurately than is detected today, enabling earlier diagnosis and more timely treatment to prevent severe visual sequelae.

April 2016
Chiara Baldini MD, Nicoletta Luciano MD, Marta Mosca MD and Stefano Bombardieri MD

In recent years, salivary gland ultrasonography (SGUS) has emerged as a promising tool for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of patients with primary and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome. Several studies have emphasized that salivary ultrasonography could be a highly specific tool for the diagnosis of the disease. However, before it can be used in daily clinical practice the SGUS procedure needs standardization and validation in larger disease-control groups. In this review we provide an update on the role of SGUS in the diagnostic algorithm of primary Sjögren’s syndrome.

 

May 2014
Lidia V. Gabis MD and John Pomeroy MD
Background:  Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common phenotype related to multiple etiologies, such to genetic, brain injury (e.g., prematurity), environmental (e.g., viral, toxic), multiple or unknown causes. 

Objectives: To devise a clinical classification of children diagnosed with ASD according to etiologic workup.

Methods: Children diagnosed with ASD (n=436) from two databases were divided into groups of symptomatic, cryptogenic or idiopathic, and variables within each database and diagnostic category were compared.

Results: By analyzing the two separate databases, 5.4% of the children were classified as symptomatic, 27% as cryptogenic and 67.75% as idiopathic. Among other findings, the entire symptomatic group demonstrated language delays, but almost none showed evidence for regression. Our results indicate similarities between the idiopathic and cryptogenic subgroups in most of the examined variables, and mutual differences from the symptomatic subgroup. The similarities between the first two subgroups support prior evidence that most perinatal factors and minor physical anomalies do not contribute to the development of core symptoms of autism. Conclusions: Differences in gender and clinical and diagnostic features were found when etiology was used to create subtypes of ASD. This classification could have heuristic importance in the search for an autism gene(s).

January 2014
Limor Aharonson-Daniel, Dagan Schwartz, Tzipi Hornik-Lurie and Pinchas Halpern
Background: Emergency department (ED) attenders reflect the health of the population served by the hospital and the availability of health care services in the community.

Objectives: To examine the quality and accuracy of diagnoses recorded in the ED in order to appraise its potential utility as a guage of the population's medical needs.

Methods: Using the Delphi process, a preliminary list of health indicators generated by an expert focus group was transformed into a query to the Ministry of Health's database. In parallel, medical charts were reviewed in four hospitals to compare the handwritten diagnosis in the medical record with that recorded on the standard diagnosis "pick list" coding sheet. Quantity and quality of coding were assessed using explicit criteria.

Results: During 2010 a total of 17,761 charts were reviewed; diagnoses were not coded in 42%. The accuracy of existing coding was excellent (mismatch 1%–5%). Database query (2,670,300 visits to 28 hospitals in 2009) demonstrated potential benefits of these data as indicators of regional health needs.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that an increase in the provision of community care may reduce ED attendance. Information on ED visits can be used to support health care planning. A "pick list" form with common diagnoses can facilitate quality recording of diagnoses in a busy ED, profiling the population’s health needs in order to optimize care. Better compliance with the directive to code diagnosis is desired.

July 2013
D. Leibovici, S. Shikanov, O.N. Gofrit, G.P. Zagaja, Y. Shilo and A.L. Shalhav
 Background: Recommendations for active surveillance versus immediate treatment for low risk prostate cancer are based on biopsy and clinical data, assuming that a low volume of well-differentiated carcinoma will be associated will a low progression risk. However, the accuracy of clinical prediction of minimal prostate cancer (MPC) is unclear.

Objectives: To define preoperative predictors for MPC in prostatectomy specimens and to examine the accuracy of such prediction.

Methods: Data collected on 1526 consecutive radical prostatectomy patients operated in a single center between 2003 and 2008 included: age, body mass index, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, biopsy Gleason score, clinical stage, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and maximal core length (MCL) involvement. MPC was defined as < 5% of prostate volume involvement with organ-confined Gleason score ≤ 6. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to define independent predictors of minimal disease. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis was used to define cutoff values for the predictors and measure the accuracy of prediction.

Results: MPC was found in 241 patients (15.8%). Clinical stage, biopsy Gleason`s score, percent of positive biopsy cores, and maximal involved core length were associated with minimal disease (OR 0.42, 0.1, 0.92, and 0.9, respectively). Independent predictors of MPC included: biopsy Gleason score, percent of positive cores and MCL (OR 0.21, 095 and 0.95, respectively). CART showed that when the MCL exceeded 11.5%, the likelihood of MPC was 3.8%. ;Conversely, when applying the most favorable preoperative conditions (Gleason ≤ 6, < 20% positive cores, MCL ≤ 11.5%) the chance of minimal disease was 41%.

Conclusions: Biopsy Gleason score, the percent of positive cores and MCL are independently associated with MPC. While preoperative prediction of significant prostate cancer was accurate, clinical prediction of MPC was incorrect 59% of the time. Caution is necessary when implementing clinical data as selection criteria for active surveillance. 

July 2010
M. Haddad, G. Rubin, M. Soudry and N. Rozen

Background: There is controversy as to which is the preferred treatment for distal radius intra-articular fractures – anatomic reduction or external fixation.

Objectives: To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcome following external fixation of these fractures.

Methods: Between January 2003 and March 2005, 43 patients with distal radius intra-articular fractures were treated using a mini-external AO device. Follow-up of 38 of the patients included X-rays at 1 week, 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The Visual Analogue Scale was used to assess pain levels, and the Lidstrom criteria scale to evaluate functional outcome and wrist motion. Clinical and radiographic results were correlated.

Results: According to the Lidstrom criteria, the results were excellent in 31%, good in 61% and fair in 5.5%; 2.5% had a poor outcome. The results of the VAS[1] were good. Thirty-five patients gained a good range of wrist movement, but 3 had a markedly reduced range. We found statistical correlation between the radiographic and clinical results, emphasizing the value of good reduction. There was no correlation between fracture type (Frykman score) and radiologic results or clinical results.

Conclusions: External fixation seems to be the preferred method of treatment for distal radius intra-articular fractures, assuming that good reduction can be achieved. The procedure is also quick, the risk of infection is small, and there is little damage to the surrounding tissues.

 






[1] VAS = Visual Analogue Scale


February 2006
A. Peretz, H. Checkoway, J.D. Kaufman, I. Trajber and Y. Lerman

Evidence that crystalline silica is associated with an increased rate of lung cancer led the International Agency for Research on Cancer to conclude in 1997 that crystalline silica is a known human carcinogen. In Israel too, crystalline silica is considered as such. The decision raised a debate in the scientific arena, and a few scientists have questioned the basis upon which causality was determined. We review the literature regarding the level of evidence of crystalline silica carcinogenicity.

December 2002
Salvatore De Vita MD, Rosaria Damato MD, Ginevra De Marchi MD, Stefania Sacco MD and Gianfranco Ferraccioli MD

Background: Hepatis C virus infection is presently an exclusion criterion to classify SjoÈ gren's syndrome; however, there are distinct clinicopathologic and biologic similarities between HCV-related and SS-related chronic inflammation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and lymphoproliferation that suggest common pathogenetic pathways.

Objectives: To determine whether a subset of patients with sicca syndrome and HCV infection may present a true primary SS rather than a distinct clinicobiologic entity.

Methods: We extensively characterized 20 consecutive patients with positive anti-HCV antibodies and heavy subjective dry eye and/or dry mouth symptoms, plus positive unstimulated sialometry and/or Shirmer's test. We then compared these features with those in HCV-negative primary SS controls (classified according to the latest American-European Consensus Group Classification Criteria for SS).

Results: Of the 20 HCV-positive patients with sicca manifesta-tions, 12 (60%) had positive anti-SSA/SSB antibodies (3/12 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 6/12 by immunoblot) and/or positive salivary gland biopsy (at least 1 focus/4 mm2), which met the strict classification criteria for SS, as in the case of HCV-negative SS controls. Comparing the HCV-positive SS subset with HCV-negative SS controls showed similar female to male ratio (11/1 vs. 46/4), major salivary gland swelling (17% vs. 26%), positive antinuclear antibodies (75 vs. 94%) and positive rheumatoid factor (58 vs. 52%). Significant differences (P< 0.05) were seen in mean age (69 vs. 56 years), liver disease (50 vs. 2%), lung disease (25 vs. 0%), anti-SSA/SSB positivity (25 vs. 90%), and low C3 or C4 (83 vs. 36%). HCV-positive SS patients exhibited a trend for more frequent chronic gastritis (50 vs. 22%), fibromyalgia (33 vs. 14%), peripheral neuropathy (33 vs. 18%), purpura (33 vs. 19%) and cryoglobulinemia (33 vs. 6%).

Conclusions: A major subset of HCV-positive patients with definite subjective sicca symptoms and positive objective tests may indeed present a true, though peculiar, subset of SS. There are strict similarities with key clinical, pathologic and immunologic findings of definite HCV-negative SS. Other features appear more characteristic of HCV infection. When also considering that HCV is sialotropic and may be treated, HCV-related chronic sialadenitis represents a unique opportunity to clarify key pathogenetic events occurring in the large majority of HCV-negative SS; and similarities to typical primary SS, rather than differences, should be taken into account.
 

April 2001
Gady S. Cojacaru, Gideon Rechavi, MD, PhD and Naftali Kaminski, MD
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