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עמוד בית
Tue, 04.10.22

Search results


February 2022
Yoav Bichovsky MD, Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Evgeni Brotfain MD, Leonid Koyfman MD, Limor Besser MD, Natan Arotsker MD, Abraham Borer MD, and Moti Klein MD
July 2021
Miri Dotan MD, Elena Zion MD, Haim Ben-Zvi PhD, Havatzelet Yarden-Bilavsky MD, and Efraim Bilavsky MD

Background: Adenovirus infections are prevalent in children. They usually cause a mild self-limited disease. However, this infection can be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in specific populations, especially among immunocompromised children. Children with Down syndrome are susceptible to a higher frequency and increased severity of viral infections. Little is known about the severity and clinical course of adenovirus infections in children with Down syndrome.

Objectives: To characterize hospitalized children diagnosed with Down syndrome and presenting with adenovirus infection.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of children admitted with adenovirus from January 2005 to August 2014 from a single tertiary pediatric medical center in Israel. Data were compared between patients with and without Down syndrome.

Results: Among the 486 hospitalized children with adenoviral infection, 11 (2.28%) were diagnosed with Down syndrome. We found that children with Down syndrome were more likely to experience a higher incidence of complications (18.2% vs. 2.4%, P = 0.008), a higher rate of admissions to the intensive care unit (36.4% vs. 2.4%, P < 0.001), and more prolonged hospitalizations (17 ± 15.9 days compared to 4.46 ± 3.16, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: Children with Down syndrome who were hospitalized with adenovirus infection represent a high-risk group and warrant close monitoring. If a vaccine for adenovirus becomes available, children with Down syndrome should be considered as candidates

April 2021
Michal Vinker-Shuster MD, Ephraim S. Grossman PhD, and Yonatan Yeshayahu MD

Background: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) social-distancing strategy, including 7 weeks of strict lockdown, enabled an extraordinary test of stay-at-home regulations, which forced a sedentary lifestyle on all children and adolescents.

Objectives: To assess the lockdown effect on pediatric weight.

Methods: A retrospective-prospective cohort study at our hospital’s pediatric outpatient clinics following the COVID-19 lockdown. Patients aged 0–18 years visiting the clinic were weighed and previous weight and other clinical data were collected from the medical charts. Weight-percentile-for-age standardization was calculated according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization growth tables. Pre- and post-lockdown weight-percentiles-for-age were compared using paired t-test. Multivariate analysis was conducted using linear regression model.

Results: The study was comprised of 229 patients; 117/229 (51.1%) were boys, 60/229 (26.2%) aged under 6 years. Total mean weight-percentile was significantly higher following the lockdown (40.44 vs. 38.82, respectively, P = 0.029). Boys had a significant post-lockdown weight-percentile rise (37.66 vs. 34.42, P = 0.014), whereas girls had higher baseline pre-quarantine weight-percentile of 43.42, which did not change. Patients younger than 6 years had a significant increase in weight-percentiles (39.18 vs. 33.58, P = 0.021). In multivariate analysis these correlations were preserved.

Conclusions: A general weight gain among children was noted, especially in boys during the lockdown, with substantial effect under the age of 6 years. This collateral side-effect should be considered in further quarantine regulations

Uri Gabbay MD MPH, Doron Carmi MD MHA, Aviva Mimouni-Bloch MD, Bat El Goldstein MD, Lital Keinan-Boker MD MPH, and Joseph Meyerovitch MD

Background: Evaluation of children's anthropometrics poses challenges due to age-related changes. The main focus is on height and weight. However, since weight is height-dependent, body mass index (BMI) is the best surrogate measurement of adiposity. Israel has not developed national growth tables; therefore, researchers and clinicians utilize either World Health Organization (WHO) or U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) tables as benchmarks.

Objectives: To evaluate the anthropometrics of Israeli children benchmarked by CDC and WHO tables.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of the 1987–2003 birth cohort (age 4–18 years) from Clalit Health Services databases. Anthropometrics were retrieved twice: at study entry and one year later. We evaluated them as separate cohorts. Gender-specific age-matched median height and BMI were compared with CDC and WHO height and BMI tables.

Results: The study consisted of 15,650, mean age at study entry 9.5 years (range 4–18). Gender-specific median heights of the Israeli children were similar to CDC and WHO values at younger ages, but were slightly shorter than the age-matched CDC and WHO toward the age of final height in both cohorts. However, gender-specific median BMI was considerably and statistically significant higher compared to CDC and WHO values consistently along the entire age range in both cohorts.

Conclusions: Israeli children were slightly shorter toward the age of final height, compared to WHO and CDC. However, BMI in Israeli children was significantly higher compared to the CDC and WHO consistently along the age range, which raises an alarm regarding obesity patterns

March 2021
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA and Andrew Gal BSc (Med) MBBS FRCPA

Germany was a scientifically advanced country in the 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in medicine, with a major interest in research and the treatment of tuberculosis. From 1933 until 1945, Nazi Germany perverted scientific research through criminal experimentations on captured prisoners of war and on "subhumans" by scientifically untrained, but politically driven, staff. This article exposes a series of failed experiments on tuberculosis in adults, experiments without scientific validity. Nonetheless, Dr. Kurt Heißmeyer repeated the experiment on Jewish children, who were murdered for the sake of personal academic ambition. It is now 75 years since liberation and the murdered children must be remembered. This observational review raises questions of medical and ethical values

Monica Goldberg-Murow MD, Zvi Steiner MD, Yaniv Lakovsky MD, Elena Dlugy MD, Arthur Baazov MD, Enrique Freud MD, and Inbal Samuk MD

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4–15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.

November 2020
Eias Kassem MD, Sigal Eilat-Adar PhD, Mahmood Sindiani Med, and Sigal Ben-Zaken PhD

Background: Vitamin D is essential for skeletal health. Because peak bone mass accrual occurs during childhood and adolescence, vitamin D insufficiency during this period of life could cause adverse health outcomes.

Objectives: To explore the potential sex differences in anthropometric indicators and vitamin D status among primary school-age children.

Methods: A modified food-frequency intake questionnaire was completed by 116 pre-pubertal children (52 girls, 64 boys). Body measurements were recorded and blood was drawn to assess vitamin D status. All children were of Arab-Israeli origin and lived in villages or rural areas in the north-east area of Israel.

Results: Prevalence of obesity was higher among girls (34%) compared to boys (21.9%, P = 0.018). All the children were vitamin D insufficient, and 80% were deficient. Plasma vitamin D was significantly higher among boys (12.4 ng/ml) compared to girls (9.1 ng/ml, P < 0.01). A significant negative correlation was found between vitamin D status and weight percentile for girls (r = -0.43, P < 0.05) but not for boys. There was a trend toward a statistically significant inverse correlation between vitamin D status and body fat percent in the girls (r = -0.37, P = 0.07). Sex frameworks are important for the understanding of the determinants of health and the development of effective health promotion programs.

Conclusions: Pre-pubertal girls in Arab villages should be provided with tailor-made nutrition and physical activity programs for promoting health.

July 2020
Yuval Bitterman MD, Evyatar Hubara MD, Amir Hadash MD, Josef Ben-Ari MD, Gail Annich MD MS FRCP and Danny Eytan MD PhD

Background: Methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis and its effects is a potentially effective treatment against distributive shock states such as septic shock and vasoplegic syndrome. MB has been shown to alleviate vasoplegia and promote an increase in blood pressure. It may reduce mortality. However, in the pediatric population, there are few case reports and only one controlled study on administration of MB use for vasoplegia, sepsis, or shock in general.

Objectives: To summarize the experience of administering MB for vasoplegic shock in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of seven pediatric cases treated with MB for vasoplegic shock was conducted. MB was administered as a bolus followed by continuous infusion. The authors measured blood pressure, vasopressor, and inotropic support. Patient outcome was monitored.

Results: The authors observed a favorable hemodynamic response with an increase in blood pressure and a reduction in vasopressor and inotropic support needed following MB administration in six patients. No side effects were observed. Three patients eventually died one to two days later, secondary to their underlying disease.

Conclusions: This case series adds to the small body of evidence in the pediatric population supporting the use of MB for distributive shock states and emphasizes the need for larger, randomized trials evaluating its role in vasoplegic shock treatment.

April 2020
Osama Tanous MD, Tal Dujovny MD, Gabriel Hertzel MD, Ariel Koren MD and Carina Levin MD PhD

Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder of variable origin that results in bleeding and decreased platelet count. Autoimmune abnormalities have been described in patients with malignancies including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but are rarely described in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Objectives: To describe an unusual presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma in an unusual age and alarm pediatricians of the challenging diagnosis.  

Methods: We present two cases that highlight an unusual clinical presentation of childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma occurring at an atypical age.

Results: Over a 4-year period, two children aged 5 and 6 years were admitted for suspected ITP, both had cervical lymphadenopathy. Bone marrow examination showed no evidence of tumor or fibrosis. Biopsy of the lymph node was possible only after administration of intravenous immunoglobulins and normalization of the platelet count. Platelet counts increased after initiation of chemotherapy.

Conclusions: The identification of the clinical presentation of ITP as a possible presentation of Hodgkin's lymphoma is important to facilitate timely diagnosis and management.

Ron Eremenko BSc, Shira Barmatz MSc, Nadia Lumelsky MD, Raul Colodner PhD, Merav Strauss PhD and Yoav Alkan MD

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children.

Early treatment may prevent renal damage in pyelonephritis. The choice of empiric antibiotic treatment is based on knowledge of the local susceptibility of urinary bacteria to antibiotics. In Israel the recommended empiric oral antibiotic treatment are First or second generation cephalosporin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid.

Objectives: To describe resistance rates of urine bacteria isolated from children with UTI in the community settings. Identify risk factors for resistance.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of UTI in children aged 3 months to 18 years diagnosed with UTI and treated as outpatients in a large community clinic between 7/2015 and 7/2017 with a diagnosis of UTI.

Results: A total of 989 urinary samples were isolated, 232 were included in the study. Resistance rates to cephalexin, cefuroxime, ampicillin/clavulanate and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole were 9.9%, 9.1%, 20.7%, and 16.5%, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities and recurrent UTI were associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance rates. Other factors such as age, fever, and previous antibiotic treatment were not associated with resistance differences.

Conclusions: Resistance rates to common oral antibiotics were low compared to previous studies performed in Israel in hospital settings. First generation cephalosporins are the preferred empiric antibiotics for febrile UTI for outpatient children. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is not favorable due to resistance of over 20% and the broad spectrum of this antibiotic. Care should be taken in children with renal abnormalities as there is a worrying degree of resistance rates to the oral first line antibiotic therapy.

March 2020
Tal David Berger MD, Shelly Soffer MD, Tal Vurzel-Harel MD, Ari Silbermintz MD, Hava Fleishaker, Raanan Shamir MD and Noam Zevit MD

Background: The number of investigative esophagogastroduodenoscopies (EGD) in children has increased over several decades, despite their unclear diagnostic yields.

Objectives: To evaluate the indications for performing EGD, their diagnostic yields, and consequences on pediatric patient management.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of consecutive pediatric patients aged 0–18 years, who underwent EGD between January and August 2014.

Results: During the study period, 547 EGD were performed on 478 children. The most frequent indications were suspected celiac disease, chronic non-specific abdominal pain, persistent Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The yield of the diagnostic EGD was 59.2%, and the most common new diagnoses were celiac disease (28%), Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis (16.5%), and Crohn’s disease (5.4%). Of the patients with documented follow-up, 74.1% reported improved symptoms. Procedures performed for chronic unexplained abdominal pain had significantly lower yields (26.2%) and only 39.3% improved at follow-up.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest a general high diagnostic yield for EGD in pediatric patients, stemming mainly from patients in whom a specific condition was suspected a priori. However, the role of the procedure in the diagnosis and management of non-specific gastrointestinal complaints was minor suggesting that EGD may be superfluous for some of these patients.

February 2020
Hussein Zaitoon MD, Ellen Bamberger MD, Liat Yaniv MD, Bracha Mendelson MD, Isaac Srugo MD and Irina Chistyakov MD

Background: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (PCV-13) has reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease.

Objective: To characterize true positive blood cultures of children who presented to our hospital following implementation of the PCV-13 vaccine.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures of children presenting with fever from 2010–2017. Subjects were divided into two age groups: a younger group 3–36 months and an older group 3–18 years. Patients were classified as either having or not having a focus of infection at the time of their bacteremia. Pneumococcal isolates were typed at Israel's Streptococcal Reference Laboratory.

Results: The samples included 94 true positive blood cultures. Focal infection with concomitant bacteremia was more common than bacteremia without a focus both overall: 67/94 (71%) vs. 27/94 (28.7%), P <0.001 as well as in the two groups: 32/48 (66%) vs. 16/48 (33%), P = 0.02 in the younger group and 35/46 (76%) vs. 11/46 (24%), P = 0.001 in the older group. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen overall, 27/94 (29%), and in the younger group, 21/48 (44%), but rare in the older group, 6/46 (13%). In the latter, Brucella species predominated, 12/46 (26%), along with Staphylococcus aureus 12/46 (26%).

Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with other studies reporting decreased pneumococcal bacteremia, bacteremia primarily accompanying focal infection, and changing etiological agents among PCV-13-vaccinated children. Brucella species was prominent in older children with osteoarticular infections. Ongoing surveillance is warranted to better understand the implications of PCV-13.

January 2020
Eitan Neeman MD, Nitza Heiman Newman MD MHA, Yuval Cavari MD, Yael Feinstein MD, Yulia Fuxman MD and Isaac Lazar MD

Background: Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) surgical technique relates to a procedure in which the post-surgical abdominal wall remains open in certain indications. The Bogota bag (BB) technique is a tension-free TAC method that covers the abdominal contents with a sterilized fluid bag. There are very few reports of pediatric patients treated with this technique.

Objectives: To describe our institution’s 15 years of experience using the BB technique on pediatric patients.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study describing our experience treating patients with BB was conducted. The medical files of 17 pediatric patients aged 0–18 years were reviewed.

Results: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 17 patients were treated with BB at our medical center (6 females, median age 12 years). Indications for BB were a need for a surgical site re-exploration, mechanical inability for primary abdominal closure, and high risk for ACS development. Median BB duration was 5 days and median bag replacement was 2 days. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 10 days and hospital LOS was 27 days. The ICU admission and BB procedure was tolerated well by 6 patients who were discharged home without complications. Of the remaining 11 patients, 6 patients died during the admission (35%) and the others presented with major complications not related to the BB but to the patient's primary disease.

Conclusions: This report represents the largest series of children treated with BB. The technique is simple to perform, inexpensive, and has very few complications.

September 2019
Assaf Hilely MD, Hana Leiba MD, Asaf Achiron MD, Idan Hecht MD and Reut Parness-Yossifon MD

Background: Ocular trauma in the pediatric population may lead to cataract formation. Managing traumatic cataracts in a visually immature child is a major challenge and can result in poor visual outcome.

Objectives: To review our long-term surgical experience with childhood unilateral traumatic cataracts.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of children with unilateral traumatic cataracts with minimal follow-up of 5 years was conducted. Main outcomes included final visual acuity (VA) and occurrence of complications.

Results: Of the 18 children included in the study, 83% were male. Mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. Median age at injury was 7.5 years. Eleven patients (61%) presented with penetrating trauma injuries and 7 (39%) with blunt trauma. Sixteen patients (89%) had cataracts at presentation, while in two the cataracts developed during follow-up. Of the 18 total, cataract removal surgery was conducted in 16 (89%) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in 14 (87.5%), while 2 remained aphakic (12.5%). Two (11%) were treated conservatively. Long-term complications included IOL dislocation in 5 (36%), glaucoma in 8 (44%), and posterior capsular opacity in 10 (71%). No correlation was found between final visual acuity and the time interval between injury and IOL implantation nor between final VA and age at trauma. However, the final VA did correlate with time of follow-up.

Conclusions: Severe complications occurred in over 30% of the patients during a long follow-up (mean 12.5 years). This finding shows the importance of discussions between the operating physician and the parents regarding the prognosis and necessity of scheduled follow-up.

Maayan Gruber MD, Colin Brown MD, Murali Mahadevan and Michel Neeff MD

Background: Ophthalmic pathologies may further complicate the sensory input of patients with congenital hearing loss; however, data on children with coexisting impairment of vision and hearing is outdated, from before universal implementation of hearing screening programs.

Objectives: To examine the different ophthalmic pathologies among children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before or after the introduction of a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHSP).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted of 91 children diagnosed with congenital SNHL between 2005 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. All patients completed an ophthalmologic examination, including assessment of visual acuity, refraction, ocular motility, slit lamp examination, and indirect funduscopy. Radiological assessment and genetic analysis were offered to all caregivers.

Results: Average age at diagnosis was 4.1 years. Nineteen children (21%) were diagnosed with an ophthalmic condition, of which the most common were refractive pathologies. Diagnosis of an ophthalmic pathology was twice as likely in the pre-UNHSP era (14 children, 27%) compared to the post-UNHSP era (5 children, 13%). Out of 91 children, 57 (63%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging was positive for structural abnormalities in 23 children (40%). There was no correlation between imaging and ophthalmic conditions. Genetic analysis was performed in 67 patients (74%).

Conclusions: The ophthalmic assessment of babies and children with congenital SNHL may yield in significant numbers of children with concomitant ophthalmic pathologies. Implementation of a UNHSP allows early diagnosis and treatment of coexisting ophthalmic and hearing conditions.

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