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עמוד בית
Tue, 06.12.22

Search results

September 2019
Assaf Hilely MD, Hana Leiba MD, Asaf Achiron MD, Idan Hecht MD and Reut Parness-Yossifon MD

Background: Ocular trauma in the pediatric population may lead to cataract formation. Managing traumatic cataracts in a visually immature child is a major challenge and can result in poor visual outcome.

Objectives: To review our long-term surgical experience with childhood unilateral traumatic cataracts.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of children with unilateral traumatic cataracts with minimal follow-up of 5 years was conducted. Main outcomes included final visual acuity (VA) and occurrence of complications.

Results: Of the 18 children included in the study, 83% were male. Mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. Median age at injury was 7.5 years. Eleven patients (61%) presented with penetrating trauma injuries and 7 (39%) with blunt trauma. Sixteen patients (89%) had cataracts at presentation, while in two the cataracts developed during follow-up. Of the 18 total, cataract removal surgery was conducted in 16 (89%) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in 14 (87.5%), while 2 remained aphakic (12.5%). Two (11%) were treated conservatively. Long-term complications included IOL dislocation in 5 (36%), glaucoma in 8 (44%), and posterior capsular opacity in 10 (71%). No correlation was found between final visual acuity and the time interval between injury and IOL implantation nor between final VA and age at trauma. However, the final VA did correlate with time of follow-up.

Conclusions: Severe complications occurred in over 30% of the patients during a long follow-up (mean 12.5 years). This finding shows the importance of discussions between the operating physician and the parents regarding the prognosis and necessity of scheduled follow-up.

Maayan Gruber MD, Colin Brown MD, Murali Mahadevan and Michel Neeff MD

Background: Ophthalmic pathologies may further complicate the sensory input of patients with congenital hearing loss; however, data on children with coexisting impairment of vision and hearing is outdated, from before universal implementation of hearing screening programs.

Objectives: To examine the different ophthalmic pathologies among children with congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) before or after the introduction of a universal newborn hearing screening program (UNHSP).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was conducted of 91 children diagnosed with congenital SNHL between 2005 and 2016 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. All patients completed an ophthalmologic examination, including assessment of visual acuity, refraction, ocular motility, slit lamp examination, and indirect funduscopy. Radiological assessment and genetic analysis were offered to all caregivers.

Results: Average age at diagnosis was 4.1 years. Nineteen children (21%) were diagnosed with an ophthalmic condition, of which the most common were refractive pathologies. Diagnosis of an ophthalmic pathology was twice as likely in the pre-UNHSP era (14 children, 27%) compared to the post-UNHSP era (5 children, 13%). Out of 91 children, 57 (63%) underwent a computed tomography scan and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging was positive for structural abnormalities in 23 children (40%). There was no correlation between imaging and ophthalmic conditions. Genetic analysis was performed in 67 patients (74%).

Conclusions: The ophthalmic assessment of babies and children with congenital SNHL may yield in significant numbers of children with concomitant ophthalmic pathologies. Implementation of a UNHSP allows early diagnosis and treatment of coexisting ophthalmic and hearing conditions.

June 2019
Nir Kugelman MD, Ohad Ronen MD, Nili Stein MPH, Ori Huberfeld MD and Raanan Cohen-Kerem MD

Background: Hypertrophy of the adenoids is common in children. However, the anatomical site makes the adenoids difficult to assess, and studies evaluating the subject are ambiguous, especially with regard to the use of X-ray as an evaluation tool.

Objectives: To compare medical history with clinical, radiological, and endoscopic evaluations of the adenoids and compare obstructed and non-obstructed children relative to the assessment methods.

Methods: A prospective comparative study was conducted with children who were suspected of having enlarged adenoids. All parents completed a medical history questionnaire and patients underwent clinical evaluation based on Nasal Obstruction Index (NOI) scores, radiological assessment based on the lateral neck X-ray adenoid–nasopharynx (A/N( ratio, and endoscopic evaluation based on anatomical relations. Spearman correlations were used for comparison between methods.

Results: We evaluated 36 patients, median age 5.33 years. Correlation measurements for clinical assessment and questionnaire (r = 0.582, P < 0.0001), questionnaire and endoscopy (r = 0.462, P = 0.005), and clinical assessment and nasal endoscopy (r = 0.621, P < 0.0001) were statistically significant. None of the parameters correlated with the radiological findings. A statistically significant difference was found between the obstructed and non-obstructed groups in both questionnaire (P = 0.004) and clinical assessment (P < 0.0001). However, no difference was found in X-ray measurements.

Conclusions: Lateral neck X-ray measurements were not correlated to symptoms, signs, or endoscopic findings. Therefore, medical professionals should use lateral neck radiography when considering adenoidectomy only on a highly selective basis.

April 2019
Itai Gross MD, Ayalon Hadar BSc, Miklosh Bala MD and Saar Hashavya MD

Background: Horse riding has become increasingly popular in recent years and is a common activity among children. As a result, pediatric horse-related injuries are frequently encountered in emergency departments.

Objectives: To examine the characteristics of horse-related injuries in the pediatric population.

Methods: We collected and analyzed the data on all pediatric horse-related injuries presented to a tertiary hospital, level one trauma center, during the years 2006–2016.

Results: A total of 53 children with horse-related injuries were documented. Forty-two patients were male (79%) and their mean age was 11.13 ± 4.72 years. The most common mechanism of injury was falling off a horse (31 patients, 58%) and the most common type of injury was skeletal (32 patients, 60%). Head injuries occurred in 16 patients (30%) and facial injuries in 12 (23%). The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 10.5 ± 6.32, and 15 patients (28%) had severe trauma (ISS > 15). Twenty-nine patients (55%) required trauma team intervention, 12 (23%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 24 (45%) required surgery. The mean length of hospitalization was 4.3 ± 3.14 days.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that horse-related trauma may involve serious injuries and it exhibits typical injury patterns. Young boys are at highest risk. The potential severity of these injuries merits a thorough evaluation. We suggest that these injuries be triaged appropriately, preferably to a medical facility with proper trauma capabilities.

February 2019
Shirley Friedman MD, Lilach Zac MD, Anat Cattan MsC, Dror Ovadia MD, David E. Lebel MD and Idit Matot MD PhD

Background: Hyperchloremia is frequent in adult surgical patients and is associated with renal dysfunction. Studies in surgical pediatric patients are lacking.

Objectives: To identify both the incidence of postoperative hyperchloremia in children undergoing surgery for idiopathic and non-idiopathic scoliosis, and the association of postoperative hyperchloremia with intraoperative fluid management and postoperative diuresis.

Methods: The records of 74 children and adolescents who underwent elective scoliosis surgery were retrospectively evaluated. The primary endpoint was the incidence of serum chloride level ≥ 110 mEq/L at the end of surgery and 12 hours postoperatively. Secondary endpoints were the type and volume of administered fluids, 12 hours postoperative diuresis, and the incidence of postoperative oliguria.

Results: Hyperchloremia occurred in 55% of the patients at the end of surgery and in 52% 12 hours postoperatively. Hyperchloremic patients received larger intraoperative volume of 0.9% NaCl diluted cell-saver blood and 10% HAES than did normochloremic patients [median (interquartile range) 6.8 (2.5–11.0) ml/kg vs. 0 (0–7.3), P = 0.003 and 10.0 (0–12.8) vs. 4.4 (0–9.8), P = 0.02, respectively]. Additionally, when compared with normochloremic patients, diuresis during the first 12 hours postoperatively was lower in hyperchloremic patients. Postoperative oliguria (urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/hr for 12 hours) was diagnosed in 7 children (9%), of whom 6 were hyperchloremic at the end of surgery.

Conclusions: Early postoperative hyperchloremia is common in children undergoing scoliosis repair surgery and may be attributed to the administration of 0.9% NaCl diluted cell-saver blood and 10% HAES. Postoperative hyperchloremia might be associated with postoperative oliguria.

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

July 2018
Hagay Orbach MD, Nimrod Rozen MD PhD, Guy Rubin MD, Eytan Dujovny MD and Noam Bor MD

Background: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common elbow fractures in the pediatric population.

Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of French's corrective osteotomy for correction of post-traumatic cubitus varus deformity in children.

Method: We conducted a retrospective review of medical charts of all patients who had undergone French's corrective osteotomy in our institution from 1998 to 2012. We recorded range of motion, cosmetic deformity, carrying angle, lateral cortex prominence index, hyperextension, and lateral cortex step before and after the surgery.

Results: Seven patients were enrolled the study. Average follow-up time was 4.6 years (range 2–9 years). An average of 18.3º of limited flexion (range 5º–35º) compared to the healthy elbow was recorded in three patients. Lateral condylar prominence was recorded in one patient. The average preoperative carrying angle was -20.5º (range -15º–30º) and postoperative angle was 9.6º (range 7º–13º). In comparison, the average carrying angle in the healthy elbow was 8.5º (range 4º–13º). No lateral cortex prominence was recorded. An average of 27.5º (range 15º–35º) of hyperextension of the distal fragment was recorded immediately postoperatively in four patients; however, during postoperative follow-up, the hyperextension was corrected spontaneously in all patients.

Conclusions: As described by French, osteotomy has the ability to correct the varus deformity only in the coronal plane. However, our research supports the assumption that hyperextension in the sagittal plane might be corrected spontaneously.

April 2018
George M. Weisz MD FRACS BA MA and Konrad Kwiet PhD

The discovery of Jewish babies who were born in Nazi concentration camps and survived seems miraculous, but this phenomenon did occur toward the end of World War II. The lives of a small group of mothers and surviving children are of both historical and medical interests. Their survival shows additional support for the hypothesis that maternal nutrition can induce metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization in their offspring. Information obtained through direct contact with some of the surviving children is the basis for this article.

February 2018
Ori Eyal MD, Asaf Oren MD, Dganit Almasi-Wolker MD, Yardena Tenenbaum-Rakover MD, Marianna Rachmiel MD and Naomi Weintrob MD

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) as the first presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a serious complication that is preventable.

Objectives: To identify risk factors for DKA at presentation of T1DM to delineate high-risk Israeli populations that could benefit from preventative measures.

Methods: Data for this multicenter retrospective study were collected from the medical files of three pediatric diabetes centers representing three districts in Israel. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of T1DM, age at diagnosis ≤ 17 years, permanent residency in Israel, and documentation of the presence or absence of DKA at presentation.

Results: The study population included 607 patients of whom 438 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 ± 4.5 years. DKA was present at diagnosis in 156/438 patients (35.6%). The incidence of DKA was different among the three diabetes centers (P = 0.04). The DKA group was significantly younger than the non-DKA group (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 9.5 ± 4.4, respectively, P = 0.008). DKA was significantly associated with maternal origin (Ashkenazi Jewish origin [lower] vs. non-Ashkenazi, P = 0.04) and with paternal education level (academic [lower] vs. non-academic education, P = 0.04). Stepwise logistic regression showed that maternal Ashkenazi Jewish origin has a protective effect on DKA (odds ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.21–0.74, P = 0.004) and that younger age is an independent risk factor (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.01–1.1, P = 0.02).

Conclusions: A diabetes educational program targeting high-risk population groups may reduce the prevalence of DKA nationwide.

December 2017
Michal Kori MD, Jacob Yahav MD, Rita Berdinstein MD and Haim Shmuely, MD

Background: Empiric treatment for Helicobacter pylori is influenced by antibiotic susceptibility of infecting strains. A rise in the resistance rate to clarithromycin and metronidazole has been reported in pediatric populations.

Objectives: To assess the primary and secondary antibiotic resistance of H. pylori isolates in Israeli children and adolescents.

Methods: A retrospective review of H. pylori isolates cultured from antral biopsies of consecutive children aged 1 to 18 years, who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Kaplan Medical Center, over a 2.8 year period, was performed. Antibiotic susceptibility to clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin was determined by E-test. Data on the age of the patient, indication for endoscopy, and antibiotic treatment for H. pylori in previously treated children was collected.

Results: Cultures for H. pylori yielded 123 isolates. In children not previously treated (n=95), the primary global resistance was 38% with resistance to clarithromycin 9.5%, metronidazole 32.6 %, and to both 4.2%. Respective rates of resistance in previously treated children (n=28) were 71% (P = 0.002), 29% (P = 0.02), and 61% (P = 0.007). Simultaneous resistance to both drugs was found in 18% (P = 0.02). All H. pylori strains were susceptible to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin. Past eradication treatment was the only independent risk factor for antibiotic resistance in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Significantly higher resistance rates were found in previously treated patients, stressing the need to refrain from empiric treatment using the "test and treat strategy." Culture-based treatment strategy should be considered in all previously treated children.

Noam Meiri MD, Amichi Ankri (medical clown), Faten Ziadan MA, Itay Nahmias (medical clown), Muriel Konopnicki MD, Zeev Schnapp MD, Omer Itzhak Sagi MD, Mohamad Hamad Saied MD and Giora Pillar MD PhD

Background: A good physical exam is necessary to help pediatricians make the correct diagnosis and can save unnecessary imaging or invasive procedures. Distraction by medical clowns may create the optimal conditions for a proper physical examination.

Methods: Children aged 2–6 years who required physical examination in the pediatric emergency department were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two groups: physical exam by a pediatrician in the presence of caregivers vs. physical exam with the assistance of a medical clown. Outcome measures consisted of the level of child's discomfort, anxiety, and the quality of the physical examination.

Results: Ninety three children participated. Mean age was 3.3 ± 3.6 years (range 2–6). The duration of the physical exam was similar between the clown and control groups (4.6 ± 1.4 minutes vs. 4.5 ± 1.1 minutes (P = 0.64). The duration of discomfort was shorter in the clown group (0.2 ± 0.6 minutes) than the control group(1.6 ± 2.0 minutes, P = 0.001). In the medical clown group, 94% of pediatricians reported that the medical clown improved their ability to perform a complete physical examination. A trend of less hospitalization in the medical clown group was also noticed (11.3% in the medical clown group vs. 18.3% in the control group, P = 0.1); however, further study is required to verify this observation.

Conclusions: Integration of a medical clown in physical examination improves the overall experience of the child and the caregivers and helps the pediatrician to perform a complete physical examination.

October 2017
Natalia Simanovsky MD, Nurith Hiller MD, Maxim Timofeev, Eli M. Eisenshtein MD, Zeev Perles MD and Sigal Tal MD

Background: Virtual autopsies by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging can be valuable in cases of unexplained infant death. The radiologist must be familiar with the normal appearance of all the segments of the thoracic aorta in normal and deceased children. A thorough review of the literature revealed no prior articles describing CT changes in the ascending aorta or the aortic arch in pediatric virtual autopsies.

Objectives: To compare the CT appearance of the thoracic aorta in deceased children and in those younger than 3 years of age.

Methods: Hospital registries were searched for cases of unexpected deaths in children younger than 3 years old, with a postmortem CT available, as well as for clinically indicated chest CT in children of the same age during a 5 year period. The ascending aorta (AA), aortic arch (arch), and the descending aorta (DA) diameters were measured. Student's t-tests and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to compare the two groups.

Results: A total of 64 scans were reviewed: 35 postmortem and 29 performed on living patients. The differences in the diameter and the ratios of the diameter between the AA and the arch, as well as between the arch and the DA in the postmortem and living groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: On postmortem CT scans, we found focal tapering of the aortic caliber at the level of the arch between the origin of the brachiocephalic artery and left subclavian artery. This finding should not be misinterpreted as a hypoplastic aortic arch.


January 2017
Avichai Weissbach MD, Ben Zion Garty MD, Irina Lagovsky Phd, Irit Krause MD and Miriam Davidovits MD

Background: Several studies link the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). However, data on the serum TNFα level in children with nephrotic syndrome are sparse. 

Objective: To investigate serum TNFα levels and the effect of steroid therapy in children with nephrotic syndrome. 

Methods: A prospective cohort pilot study of children with nephrotic syndrome and controls was conducted during a 1 year period. Serum TNFα levels were measured at presentation and at remission, or after a minimum of 80 days if remission was not achieved.

Results: Thirteen patients aged 2–16 years with nephrotic syndrome were compared with 12 control subjects. Seven patients had steroid-sensitive and six had steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Mean baseline serum TNFα level was significantly higher in the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome patients than the controls (6.13 pg/ml vs. 4.36 pg/ml, P = 0.0483). Mean post-treatment TNFα level was significantly higher in the steroid-resistant than in the steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients (5.67 pg/ml vs. 2.14 pg/ml, P = 0.001). In the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome patients, mean serum TNFα levels were similar before and after treatment.

Conclusions: Elevated serum TNFα levels are associated with a lack of response to corticosteroids. Further studies are needed to investigate the role of TNFα in the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome.


November 2016
Julia Berman MD, Adi Aran MD, Tamar Berenstein-Weyel MD and Ehud Lebel MD

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is an idiopathic hip osteonecrosis prevalent in children < age 15 years. The etiology remains incompletely understood, partly because of multiple potential environmental risk factors and partly because of lack of genetic markers. It has been hypothesized that hyperactivity may induce mechanical stress and/or vascular damage at a fragile joint. 

Objectives: To assess children with LCPD for markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to their unaffected comparably aged siblings to exclude the contribution of hyperactive behavior versus environmental and/or genetic factors in LCPD. 

Methods: All children followed in the Pediatric Orthopedic Clinic, and their comparably aged siblings, were recruited. ADHD was assessed using the TOVA computerized test and DSM-IV criteria. Quality of life and sleep disorders as ancillary tests were assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire (Parent Form 50), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument, and Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale.

Results: Sixteen children with LCPD (age 9.1 ± 3.3, 75% males) were compared with their closest-aged siblings (age 9.3 ± 2.6, 30% males). Mean TOVA scores of children with LCPD (-3.79 ± 2.6) and of their non-LCPD siblings (-3.6 ± 4.04) were lower relative to the general population (0 ± 1.8, P < 0.0001). Both group means were in the ADHD range (≤ -1.8) implying that 73% of this LCPD cohort and 53% of their non-LCPD siblings performed in the ADHD range, relative to 3.6% incidence expected in the general population (P < 0.0001). Other test results were similar in both groups. 

Conclusions: Our findings in a small cohort of children with LCPD and their comparably aged siblings do not support an association between LCPD and ADHD. ADHD markers were equally high in the LCPD children and siblings. 


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