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עמוד בית
Thu, 08.12.22

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July 2008
C. Hartman, D. Berkowitz, B. Weiss, R. Shaoul, A. Levine, O. Eshach Adiv, R. Shapira, A. Fradkin, M. Wilschanski, A. Tamir and R. Shamir

Background: A polymeric diet rich in transforming growth factor-beta 2 used as a single nutrient has been shown to induce remission in 79% of children with Crohn's disease.

Objectives: To summarize the experience of several pediatric gastroenterology units in Israel using a TGFβ2[1]-enriched polymeric diet (Modulen IBD) supplementation in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.

Methods: In a retrospective study we reviewed the charts of 28 children with Crohn's disease (10 girls, 18 boys) who received, in addition to conventional treatment, Modulen IBD™ as a supplement to their regular nutrition. These children were compared with 18 children supplemented with standard polymeric formula (Ensure Plus®) and 18 children without formula supplementation. We recorded clinical manifestations, growth, and the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index before and after initiation of the polymeric diet.

Results: The Modulen-treated children showed a significant decrease in PCDAI[2] from 34.3 to 15.7 (P < 0.0001). A significant decrease in PCDAI was recorded also in the Ensure Plus group, from 35 to 22 (P = 0.02) but not in the non-supplemented group. Significant improvements in body mass index (P = 0.01) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.03) were recorded at follow-up (median 3.4 months) only in the Modulen IBD group.

Conclusions: In this cohort of children with Crohn's disease, supplementation of the diet with Modulen IBD as well as supplementation with Ensure Plus was associated with a decrease in PCDAI. The children supplemented with Modulen IBD also showed improvement in BMI[3], suggesting an additional advantage of nutritional therapy in children with this disease.






[1] TGF-β2 = transforming growth factor-β2

[2] PCDAI = Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index

[3] BMI = body mass index


June 2008
I. Kassis, Y. Kovalski, D. Magen, D. Berkowitz and I. Zelikovic

Background Voiding cystourethrogram is performed 3–6 weeks after urinary tract infection. This prolongs the interval of prophylactics, reducing the likelihood of performing the procedure.

Objectives To investigate the yield and potential risks/benefits of early compared to late-performance VCUG[1] after UTI[2].

Methods We conducted a prospective study of 84 previously healthy children < 5 years old admitted from October 2001 to November 2002 with first documented UTI. We then divided the 78 patients who had VCUG into two groups and compared them to a control group:  group A – 49 children in whom VCUG was performed within 10 days, group B – 29 children in whom VCUG was performed > 10 days after UTI, and a historical control group C – 82 children in whom VCUG was performed > 4 weeks following UTI.

Results VCUG was performed in 48/48 (100%), 6/35 patients (17.1%), 34/116 patients (29.3%) and vesicoureteral reflux was demonstrated in 38.8%, 37.9%, 39% in groups A, B, C respectively. No significant difference was found between these groups in terms of incidence of VUR[3] and severity and grading of reflux within each group. One case of UTI secondary to VCUG occurred in a patient in whom the procedure was performed 4 months after the diagnosis.

Conclusions Performing VCUG early does not influence detection rate, severity of the VUR, or risk of secondary infection; it shortens the period of prophylactic use and increases performance rate of VCUG, thereby minimizing the risk of failure to detect VUR. The traditional recommendation of performing VCUG 3–6 weeks after the diagnosis of UTI should be reevaluated.






[1] VCUG = voiding cystourethrogram

[2] UTI = urinary tract infection

[3] VUR = vesicoureteral reflux


May 2008
V. Pinsk, J. Levy, D. A. Moser, B. Yerushalmi and J. Kapelushnik.

Background: Iron deficiency is the most common single cause of anemia worldwide. Treatment consists of improved nutrition along with oral, intramuscular or intravenous iron administration.

Objectives: To describe the efficacy and adverse effects of intravenous iron sucrose therapy in a group of children with iron deficiency anemia who did not respond to oral iron therapy.

Methods: We conducted a prospective investigation of 45 children, aged 11 months to 16 years, whose oral iron therapy had failed. The children attended the Pediatric Ambulatory Care Unit where they received intravenous iron sucrose infusion.

Results: Forty-four of the 45 patients were non-compliant. Nine had Helicobacter pylori gastritis and 16 patients suffered from intestinal malabsorption from different causes. Before treatment, the blood mean hemoglobin concentration was 7.43 g/dl (range 5–10.1 g/dl). Fourteen days after treatment the mean hemoglobin concentration increased to 9.27 g/dl (SD 1.23) and 6 months later to 12.40 g/dl (SD 1.28). One patient demonstrated a severe side effect with temporary and reversible reduced blood pressure during treatment.

Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that administration of intravenous iron in pediatric patients is well tolerated and has a good clinical result, with minimal adverse reactions.

H. Tessler, R. Gorodischer, J. Press and N. Bilenko

Background: Parental fear and misconceptions about fever are widespread in western society. Ethnicity and sociodemographic factors have been suggested as contributing factors.

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that undue parental concern about fever is less in traditional than in western cultural-ethnic groups.

Methods: Bedouin (traditional society) and Jewish (western society) parents of children aged 0–5 years with fever were interviewed in a pediatric emergency unit. Interviews were conducted in the parents' most fluent language (Hebrew or Arabic). A quantitative variable (a 9 item “fever phobia” scale) was constructed.

Results: The parents of 101 Jewish and 100 Bedouin children were interviewed. More Bedouin parents were unemployed, had less formal education and had more and younger children than the Jewish parents. Parents of both groups expressed erroneous beliefs and practices about fever; quantitative but not qualitative differences in fever phobia variables were documented. Compared with their Jewish counterparts, more Bedouin parents believed that fever may cause brain damage and death, administered antipyretic medications for temperature ≤ 38ºC and at excessive doses, and consulted a physician within 24 hours even when the child had no signs of illness other than fever (all P values < 0.001). The mean fever phobia score was higher in the Bedouin than in the Jewish group (P < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, only the cultural-ethnic origin correlated with fever phobia.

Conclusions: A higher degree of fever phobia was found among parents belonging to the traditional Bedouin group as compared to western society parents.
 

April 2008
F. Serour, A. Gorenstein and M. Boaz

Background: Reports of burn injuries in children are usually made by highly specialized burn units. Our facility admits children with burns < 20% total body surface area, while those with major burns are transferred to burn units at tertiary care facilities.

Objectives: To review our experience with thermal burns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all thermal burns admitted to our hospital during a 5 year period.

Results: Among 266 patients (69.2% boys) aged 3.5 ± 3.6 years, children < 3 years old were the most frequently injured (64.7%). Scalds (71.4%) were the most common type of burn. Partial thickness burns were sustained by 96.6% of children and TBSA[1] burned was 4.2 ± 3.6%. The mean hospital stay was 3.8 ± 4.5 days, and was significantly prolonged in girls (4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 3.5 ± 4.3 days, P = 0.01). Percent TBSA burned was correlated with patient age (r = 0.12, P = 0.04) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001). Six patients (2.3%) (mean age 3.4 ± 2.3 years) were hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit due to toxin-mediated illness.

Conclusions: Children under the age of 3 years are at increased risk for burn injury, but older children sustain more extensive injuries. Prevention and awareness are needed for child safety.






[1] TBSA = total body surface area


I. Amirav

Background: Based on the outcome of several randomized controlled trials, the orally active leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast (Singulair®, Merck) has been licensed for treatment of asthma. The drug is favored for treating childhood asthma, where a therapeutic challenge has arisen due to poor compliance with inhalation therapy.

Objectives: To assess the efficiency of and satisfaction with Singulair® in asthmatic children under real-life conditions.

Methods: Montelukast was prescribed for 6 weeks to a cohort of 506 children aged 2 to 18 years with mild to moderate persistent asthma, who were enrolled by 200 primary care pediatricians countrywide. Four clinical correlates of childhood asthma – wheeze, cough, difficulty in breathing, night awakening – were evaluated from patients' diary cards.

Results: Due to under-treatment by their physicians, almost 60% of the children were not receiving controller therapy at baseline. By the end of the study, which consisted of montelukast treatment, a significant improvement over baseline was noted in asthma symptoms and severity, as well as in treatment compliance. The participating pediatricians and parents were highly satisfied with the treatment.

Conclusions: The results of this extensive study show that the use of montelukast as monotherapy in children presenting with persistent asthma resulted in a highly satisfactory outcome for themselves, their parents and their physicians.
 

March 2008
I. Amirav and M.T. Newhouse

Background: Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC[1] will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV[2] and thus different performance.

Objectives: To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures.

Methods: The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV).

Results: There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility.

Conclusions: Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs. 

 






[1] VHC = valved holding chambers

[2] DSV = dead space volume


January 2008
November 2007
J. Meyerovitch, R. Goldman, H. Avner-Cohen, F. Antebi and M. Sherf

Background: The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in the western world has increased dramatically.

Objective: To assess the efficiency of routine childhood obesity screening by primary physicians in the pediatric population in Israel and the utilization of health services by overweight children.

Methods: The electronic medical records of children aged 60–83 months registered in 39 pediatric primary care centers between January 2001 and October 2004 (n=21,799) were reviewed. Those in whom height and weight were documented during a clinic visit (index visit) were classified as overweight, at risk of overweight, and normal weight by body mass index percentiles. The number of visits to the pediatrician, laboratory tests and health care costs 12 months after the index visit were calculated.

Results: Anthropomorphic measurements were performed in 1556 of the 15,364 children (10.1%) who visited the clinic during the study period. Of these, 398 (25.6%) were overweight, 185 (11.9%) were at risk of overweight, and 973 (62.5%) were normal weight. Children in the first two groups visited the clinic slightly more often than the third group, but the differences was not statistically significant (P = 0.12), and had significantly more laboratory tests than the rest of the children visiting the clinics (P = 0.053). Health care costs were 6.6% higher for the overweight than the normal-weight children.

Conclusions: Electronic medical records are a useful tool for population-based health care assessments. Current screening for obesity in children during routine care in Israel is insufficient and additional education of community pediatricians in diagnosis and intervention is urgently needed.

 
 

October 2007
R. Gofin and M. Avitzour

Background: Trauma management includes the care provided both in hospital and by emergency medical systems in the community. In many cases it is the parents who decide where to take an injured child for care, depending on the circumstances and severity of the injury, the personal characteristics of the injured or the carer and the availability and accessibility of services.

Objectives: To examine the use of pre-hospitalization services and reasons for their use by children and adolescents according to the injury and personal characteristics.

Methods: The study group comprised 924 Israeli citizens aged 0–17 years hospitalized for injuries in six hospitals across Israel. Carers were interviewed in the hospital regarding the circumstances of the injury event, the use of pre-hospitalization services, and sociodemographic characteristics. Data on the cause and nature of the injury were obtained from the hospital records.

Results: The proportion of severe injuries (Injury Severity Score 16+) was higher in Arab children than Jewish children (15% and 9% respectively). Sixty-three percent of the Arab children and 39% of the Jewish children used community services prior to hospitalization. The odds ratio of proceeding directly to the hospital was 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.69, for the Arab compared to the Jewish children, controlling for severity, cause and nature of the injury, sociodemographic characteristics, and the reported availability of ambulance services.

Conclusions: More Arab than Jewish carers tended to seek care in the community for an injured child, but the effect of personal characteristics on seeking care was similar in both population groups. Issues of availability and accessibility of services may explain the differences.

 
 

August 2007
G. Chodick, C.M. Ronckers, V. Shalev and E. Ron

Background: The use of computed tomography in Israel has been growing rapidly during recent decades. The major drawback of this important technology is the exposure to ionizing radiation, especially among children, who have increased organ radiosensitivity and a long lifetime to potentially develop radiation-related cancer.

Objective: To estimate the number of excess lifetime cancer deaths related to annual CT scans performed in children in Israel.

Methods: We used CT scan utilization data from 1999 to 2003 obtained from the second largest health management organization in the country to project age and gender-specific CT scan use nationwide. Based on published organ doses for common CT examinations and radiation-related cancer mortality risk estimates from studies in survivors of the atomic bomb, we estimated the excess lifetime risks for cancer mortality attributed to use of CT in children and adolescents (up to 18 years old) in Israel.

Results: We estimated that 17,686 pediatric scans were conducted annually in Israel during 1999–2003. We project that 9.5 lifetime deaths would be associated with 1 year of pediatric CT scanning. This number represents an excess of 0.29% over the total number of patients who are eventually estimated to die from cancer in their lifetime.

Conclusions: Pediatric CT scans in Israel may result in a small but not negligible increased lifetime risk for cancer mortality. Because of the uncertainty regarding radiation effects at low doses, our estimates of CT-related cancer mortality should be considered with caution. Nevertheless, physicians, CT technologists, and health authorities should work together to minimize the radiation dose for children to as low as reasonably achievable and encourage responsible use of this essential diagnostic tool.
 

Click on the icon on the upper right hand side for the article by Naomi Bar-Joseph, MSc, Gad Rennert, MD, Ada Tamir, PhD, Liora Ore, MD and Gad Bar-Joseph, MD. IMAJ 2007: 8: August: 603-606

Background: In the western world, trauma is the leading cause of disability and mortality in the 1–39 years age group. Road accidents constitute the most frequent cause of mortality among children older than 1 year and falls from a height are the most frequent cause of injuries requiring hospitalization.

Objectives: To analyze the epidemiology and characteristics of severe pediatric trauma due to falls from a height in northern Israel. This analysis should aid in planning an effective intervention plan.

Methods: This observational study included all patients aged 0–14 who died or were admitted to an intensive care unit in northern Israel following a steep fall. Demographic and clinical data were collected retrospectively for 3 years and prospectively for 1 year.

Results: A total of 188 children were severely injured or died following such a fall, with an annual rate of 11.4 per 100,000 children. Over 85% of severe injuries due to falls occurred among non-Jewish children, with an incidence rate 6.36 times higher than among Jewish children (20.17 and 3.17 per 100,000 children, respectively). In the non-Jewish sector 93.7% of the falls occurred at or around the child’s home, mainly from staircases, balconies and roofs.

Conclusions: A very high incidence of severe trauma due to domestic falls from a height was found among non-Jewish children in northern Israel. Domestic falls represent an important epidemiological problem in the non-Jewish pediatric sector, and an effective prevention plan should include measures to modify parents’ attitudes towards safety issues and the creation of a safe domestic environment.
 

July 2007
N.Bilenko, M.Yehiel, Y.Inbar, and E.Gazala

Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent anemia in infants and is known to be a major public health problem.

Objective: To examine mothers’ knowledge and adherence with recommendations regarding iron supplementation and assess their association with the prevalence of anemia in infants.

Methods: Data on 101 infants and mothers of infants born between November 2000 and February 2001, living in a small Jewish town in southern Israel, were collected using a structured questionnaire and the infants’ medical charts. Anemia was defined as serum hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl. Independent variables include socioeconomic data, mothers' knowledge, and adherence to treatment as reported by them. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables, t-test was used for continuous variables, and hemoglobin was tested at 9–12 months of age.

Results: Of the 101 infants in the study, 47% had serum hemoglobin under 11 g/dl. Of the mothers, 62 (62%) were partially or completely non-compliant with iron supplementation; 34 (34%) had low level of knowledge regarding anemia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant and inverse relationship between the presence of anemia and the level of maternal knowledge (odds ratio = 5.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6–9.7; P = 0.006) and reported adherence with iron supplementation (3.2, 1.1–9.7; P = 0.04) after controlling for confounding factors: maternal education, socioeconomic status, breastfeeding, and meat consumption.

Conclusions: The presence of iron deficiency anemia in infants in southern Israel is inversely affected by the level of maternal knowledge of anemia and adherence to iron supplementation. Low level of knowledge is also directly related to low adherence.
 

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