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עמוד בית
Mon, 26.02.24

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May 2022
Nomy Dikman PhD, Rola Khamisy-Farah MD, Raymond Farah MD, Jumana Essa-Hadad PhD, Nataly Lipavski, and Izhar Ben Shlomo MD
November 2020
Uri Aviv MD, Ariel Berl M, Josef Haik MD MPH, Ariel Tessone MD, and Moti Harats MD

Background: Burn injuries are an extreme form of traumatic injury and are a global health issue. The Israeli National Burn Unit at the Sheba Medical Center, a tertiary level 1 trauma center and hence the national referral center, treats burn patients admitted both directly and referred from other medical centers. The transfer and handover of patients is a critical step in patient care. In Israel, to date, there is no standardized and accepted transfer request form for burn patients from one medical facility to another.

Objectives: To construct a transfer request form to be used in all future burn patient referrals.

Methods: After reviewing publicly available international transfer forms and comparing them to the admission checklist used at our unit, a structured transfer request form was constructed.

Results: After a pilot study period, testing the form in various scenarios and adapting it, the first standardized transfer form for burn patients in Israel in both English and Hebrew was implemented beginning May 2020.

Conclusions: Implementation of a standardized transfer process will improve communication between healthcare professionals to help maintain a continuum of care. We believe that implementation of a burn transfer form in all future referrals can standardize and assure better care for burn patients, thus improving overall patient care.

February 2020
Moti Harats MD, Josef Haik MD MPH, Michelle Cleary RN, PhD, Ilan Vashurin MD, Uri Aviv MD and Rachel Kornhaber RN PhD

Background: Rapid and selective bromelain-based enzymatic debridement provides a non-surgical alternative for the eschar removal in deep burns, which allows for early debridement of large surface areas, accurate evaluation of burn and wound depth, and the need for skin grafting.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of application of a bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement (Nexobrid®) beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines for use in burns > 48 hours as well as chemical, electrical, and pediatric burns, and chronic wounds

Methods: This retrospective review included records collected between January 2017 and April 2019, from male and female patients aged 8 months to 99 years with deep burns or wounds treated with bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement.

Results: Of the 33 patients who received the bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agent beyond the manufacturer’s guidelines, 25 (76%) were observed to have successful debridement of the eschar, 8 (24%) were observed to have little effect on the burn eschar. Sixteen required further surgery after debridement. Clinical data on the use of bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement agents are limited, but these results suggest the capacity to effectively debride burns > 48 hours (late presentation burns), use for pediatrics and for chemical and electrical burns, and apply to hard to heal full thickness chronic wounds.

Conclusions: Bromelain-based selective enzymatic debridement was found to be an effective treatment modality beyond the recommended guidelines including late presentation burns and chronic wounds. This debridement method warrants further consideration when making clinical decisions concerning burn and wound care.

January 2019
Itay Wiser MD PHD, Roni Averbuch Sagie MD, Liran Barzilai MD, Moti Haratz MD and Josef Haik MD MPH

Background: Burn injury pathophysiology is characterized by severe catabolic state and poor glycemic control. A tight glycemic control protocol using insulin for burn victims has yielded inconsistent mortality and morbidity outcomes.

Objectives: To compare the effect of standard and tight glycemic control protocols on mortality and hypoglycemia events in critical care burn patients.

Methods: We conducted a case-control study of burn victims admitted to the burn intensive care unit between 2005 and 2011. Patients were assigned to either a standard or a tight glycemic control protocol.

Results: Of the 38 burn patients in the study, 28 were under a tight glycemic control protocol. No differences in glucose area-under-the-curve per day levels were observed between the groups (148.3 ± 16 vs. 157.8 ± 16 mg/dl in the standard and tight glycemic control protocol groups respectively, P < 0.12). The hypoglycemic event rate was higher in the tight glycemic control protocol group (46.4% vs. 0%, P < 0.008). No difference in mortality rate was noted (67.9% vs. 50%, P < 0.31). Mortality-independent risk factors found on multivariate analysis included total body surface area (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.039, 95% confidence interval  [95%CI] 1.02–1.06, P < 0.001), white blood cell count on admission (AHR 1.048, 95%CI 1.01–1.09, P < 0.02) and surgery during hospitalization (AHR 0.348, 95%CI 0.13–0.09, P < 0.03).

Conclusions: The tight glycemic control protocol in burn patients was associated with higher rates of hypoglycemic events, and no association was found with improved survival in the acute setting of burn trauma care.

December 2018
Ori Samuel Duek MD BSBME, Yeela Ben Naftali MD, Yaron Bar-Lavie MD, Hany Bahouth MD and Yehuda Ullmann MD

Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients with inhalation injuries. An increased risk of pneumonia has been demonstrated in trauma and burn patients urgently intubated in the field vs. emergency departments (EDs).

Objectives: To compare intubation setting (field vs. ED) and subsequent development of pneumonia in burn patients and to evaluate the indication for urgent intubation outside the hospital setting.

Methods: A retrospective medical records review was conducted on all intubated patients presenting with thermal (study group, 118 patients) or trauma (control group A, 74 patients) injuries and admitted to the intensive care unit of a level I trauma and burn center at a single institution during a 15 year period. Control group B (50 patients) included non-intubated facial burn patients hospitalized in the plastic surgery department.

Results: Field intubation was less frequent (37% field vs. 63% ED), although it was more frequent in larger burns (total body surface area > 50%; 43% field vs. 27% ED). More field intubated patients developed pneumonia during hospitalization (65% field vs. 36% ED [burns]; 81% field vs. 45% ED [multi-trauma]; 2% non-intubated, P < 0.05), with a significantly higher all-cause mortality (49% field vs. 24% ED, P < 0.05) and dramatically lower rates of extubation within 3 days (7% field vs. 27% ED, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Field intubation is associated with a higher risk of subsequent development of pneumonia in burn and multi-trauma patients and should be applied with caution, only when airway patency is at immediate risk.

March 2017
Evgeny Solomonov MD, Alexander Braslavsky MD, David Fuchs and Seema Biswas FRCS
February 2017
Alexander Margulis MD, Allan Billig MD, Jhonatan Elia MD, Yair Shachar MD and Neta Adler MD

Background: Burn scar reconstruction is extremely challenging, even for the most proficient reconstructive surgeon. Within the arsenal of tools at the plastic surgeon’s disposal, tissue expansion provides an efficient modality for reconstruction despite the reported complication rates. 

Objectives: To critically review our experience with tissue expansion for burn scar reconstruction, comparing particularly the adult and pediatric populations.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of the outcomes of patients who underwent burn scar reconstruction with tissue expansion at Hadassah Medical Center between January 2003 and July 2012. The data included patient age, anatomical site of expansion, number of procedures, and associated complications. The outcomes of the above-mentioned populations were also compared with those in a control group of patients undergoing reconstruction with tissue expansion for indications other than burn scars. 

Results: Sixty-seven tissue expansion procedures were carried out in 50 patients, 42 in the pediatric population (< 16 years of age) and 25 in the adult population. Complications were observed in 10 of the 42 pediatric procedures (23.8%) and in 3 of the 25 adult procedures (12%). This difference was found to be statistically significant. When the complication rate for each population was compared to its control group (tissue expansion for indications other than burn scar reconstruction, such as reconstruction for motor vehicle accident scarring, congenital nevi, or vascular malformations), no statistically significant difference was found between them (complication rates 19.8% and 12.5%, respectively). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference in complication rates between the different anatomical areas of expansion within both populations undergoing burn scar reconstruction. Most of the complicated cases completed successful reconstruction.

Conclusions: Tissue expansion is a useful surgical tool in post-burn scar reconstruction, both in the adult and pediatric populations and in all anatomic sites, despite consistently high complication rates, especially in the pediatric population. This complication rate is not higher than in patients undergoing tissue expansion for indications other than burn scar reconstruction. 

Yuval Krieger MD, Eldad Silberstein MD, Yaron Shoham MD and Alexander Bogdanov-Berezovsky MD
November 2015
Moshe Simons MD, Samuel N. Heyman MD, Michael Bursztyn MD, Oded Shalev MD, Nurith Hiller MD and Sarah Israel MD
June 2015
Eitan Heldenberg MD, Igor Rabin MD, Amir Peer MD Rebekah Karplus MD, and Arie Bass MD
August 2013
June 2013
E. Palmanovich, Y.S. Brin, L. Laver, M. Nyska and B. Kish
April 2013
N. Yanculovich, Z.H. Perry, R. Gurfinkel and L. Rosenberg

 Background: Burn injuries are extremely common and may impose a serious load on public health around the world.

 Objectives: To compare mortality rates and length of hospitalization according to the identified risk factors, extent of burn, gender and age.

Methods: In this retrospective study, data from 558 archive files of hospitalization due to burns as the diagnosis in patients of all ages, between the years 2001 and 2002, were analyzed to identify the risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization.

Results: Males comprised 62.4% of the hospitalized burn patients. The mortality rate was 3.2% (n=18) and among them 55.6% were women. Fifty percent of the fatality cases were over 48 years old, with statistically significant correlation of mortality rate and age. Most of the fatality cases (66.7%) had burns with total burn surface area (TBSA) larger than 40%. The multiple logistic regression model showed that leukocyte count on admission, TBSA, and age are the most important predictors of mortality. Smoke inhalation was not found to be an independent risk factor.

Conclusions: Using a statistical model for estimating the mortality rate, this study found that white blood cell count at admission, TBSA, and age were the most significant predictors of mortality. 

April 2008
F. Serour, A. Gorenstein and M. Boaz

Background: Reports of burn injuries in children are usually made by highly specialized burn units. Our facility admits children with burns < 20% total body surface area, while those with major burns are transferred to burn units at tertiary care facilities.

Objectives: To review our experience with thermal burns.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all thermal burns admitted to our hospital during a 5 year period.

Results: Among 266 patients (69.2% boys) aged 3.5 ± 3.6 years, children < 3 years old were the most frequently injured (64.7%). Scalds (71.4%) were the most common type of burn. Partial thickness burns were sustained by 96.6% of children and TBSA[1] burned was 4.2 ± 3.6%. The mean hospital stay was 3.8 ± 4.5 days, and was significantly prolonged in girls (4.6 ± 4.8 vs. 3.5 ± 4.3 days, P = 0.01). Percent TBSA burned was correlated with patient age (r = 0.12, P = 0.04) and length of hospital stay (r = 0.6, P < 0.0001). Six patients (2.3%) (mean age 3.4 ± 2.3 years) were hospitalized in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit due to toxin-mediated illness.

Conclusions: Children under the age of 3 years are at increased risk for burn injury, but older children sustain more extensive injuries. Prevention and awareness are needed for child safety.






[1] TBSA = total body surface area


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