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עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

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April 2016
Merav A. Ben-David MD, Ruth Elkayam MPA RN, Ilana Gelernter MA and Raphael M. Pfeffer MD

Background: Radiation-induced dermatitis is commonly seen during radiotherapy for breast cancer. Melatonin-based creams have shown a protective effect against ultraviolet-induced erythema and a radioprotective effect in rats.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of melatonin-containing cream in minimizing acute radiation dermatitis. 

Methods: In this phase II, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study, patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery for stage 0-2 breast cancer were randomly allocated to melatonin emulsion (26 women) or placebo (21 women) for twice daily use during radiation treatment and 2 weeks following the end of radiotherapy. All women received 50 Gy whole breast radiation therapy with 2 Gy/fx using computed tomography-based 3D planning. Patients were examined and completed a detailed questionnaire weekly and 2 weeks following the end of treatment.

Results: The occurrence of grade 1/2 acute radiation dermatitis was significantly lower (59% vs. 90%, P = 0.038) in the melatonin group. Women older than 50 had significantly less dermatitis than younger patients (56% vs. 100%, P = 0.021). The maximal radiation dermatitis in the study group was grade 2 in 15% of the treated patients.

Conclusions: Patients treated with melatonin-containing emulsion experienced significantly reduced radiation dermatitis compared to patients receiving placebo.

February 2016
Efrat Ben-Shalom MD, Ori Toker MD and Shepard Schwartz MD

Background: Hypernatremic dehydration is a common and potentially life-threatening condition in children. There is currently no consensus as to the optimal strategy for fluid management. Objectives: To describe the relationship between the type, route and rate of fluids administered and the rate of decline in serum sodium (Na+) concentration. 

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all children under the age of 2 years who were hospitalized with hypernatremic dehydration (serum Na+ ≥ 155 mEq/L) in Shaare Zedek Medical Center during the period 2001–2010. Collected data of 62 subjects included initial and subsequent serum Na+ levels, and rate and Na+ concentration of all intravenous and oral fluids administered until the serum Na+ reached ≤ 150 mEq/L.

Results: Median initial serum Na+ was 159.5 mEq/L (IQR 157–163, maximal value 170). The median rate of decline in serum Na+ until serum Na+ reached 150 mEq/L was 0.65 mEq/L/hr (IQR 0.45–0.95). Forty-two children received hypotonic oral fluids which accounted for approximately one-quarter of all fluids they received. There was no significant difference in the rate of decline in serum Na+ between those who consumed oral fluids and those who did not. Neither was there a correlation between the rate of IV fluids, receipt of oral fluids or the degree of dehydration, with the rate of decline in serum Na+. No child experienced an apparent short-term adverse outcome. 

Conclusions: A cumulative rate of 5.9 ml/kg/hr of IV fluid administration may reduce the serum Na+ to an acceptable rate (0.65 mEq/L/hr). Fluid therapy comprising up to 25% hypotonic oral fluids and 75% IV fluids high in Na+ concentration was not associated with any short-term adverse outcome in our patient population. 

 

January 2016
Avinoam Nevler MD, Esther Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD, Aviad Hoffman MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Moshe Shabtai MD

Background: High density breast mammography has been associated with a greater risk for breast cancer and an increased likelihood of false negative results. 

Objectives: To assess whether the degree of mammographic breast density correlates with an increased risk for the presence of radiographic findings requiring further histological investigation. 

Methods: Included in the study were 2760 consecutive screening mammograms performed in a large volume, early detection mammography unit. All mammograms were complemented by high resolution ultrasound and interpreted by a single expert radiologist. Breast density (BD) was evaluated using a semi-quantitative 5 grade scale and grouped into low breast density (LBD) and high breast density (HBD) mammograms. Demographic and all relevant obstetric, personal and family history of breast cancer data were recorded. 

Results: Of the 2760 mammograms 2096 (76%) were LBD and 664 (24%) were HBD. Mean age of the LBD and HBD groups was 59 ± 10.5 and 50.9 ± 9.3 years respectively (P = 0.001). Breast density significantly correlated with presence of mammographic findings requiring further histological assessment (8.7% and 12.3% for LBD and HBD respectively, P < 0.01). In women younger than 60 years in whom histological assessment was required due to these findings, malignant pathology was significantly more prevalent in the HBD group (2.3% and 4.1% respectively, P = 0.03). Age, parity, patient history and HBD were identified as independent risk factors for any pathological mammographic finding. 

Conclusions: Highly dense mammography, aside from being an indicator of higher risk for breast cancer, appears to be associated with a significantly higher incidence of findings that will prompt further investigation to achieve a definite diagnosis. 

 

August 2015
Keren Mahlab-Guri MD, Ilan Asher MD, Tanir Allweis MD, Judith Diment MD, Zev M. Sthoeger MD and Eliezer Mavor MD

Background: Granulomatous lobular mastitis (GLM) is a rare disorder that can clinically mimic breast carcinoma. The recommendation for diagnosis and treatment of GLM has not yet been established. 

Objectives: To assess a series of GLM patients, including their clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome. 

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and treatment of 17 female patients with biopsy-proven GLM. Breast tissue was obtained by a core needle biopsy (15 patients) or open biopsy (2 patients). Images were reviewed by an experienced radiologist.

Results: The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 44.6 ± 12.6 years. Five patients (29%) presented with bilateral disease, and seven (41%) presented with a mass, suggesting the initial diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Treatment comprised observation alone (23%), antibiotics (58.8%) and/or corticosteroids (with or without methotrexate) (35%). At the end of the study 70.6% of the patients demonstrated complete remission. None of the patients developed any systemic (granulomatous) disease or breast carcinoma during the follow-up period (4.7 ± 3.8 years). 

Conclusions: Core needle biopsy is mandatory for the diagnosis of GLM and the exclusion of breast carcinoma. The recommended treatment modalities are observation alone or corticosteroids; surgery should be avoided. GLM is a benign disease with a high rate of resolution and complete remission.

 

July 2015
Osnat Halshtok-Neiman MD, Anat Shalmon MD, Arie Rundetsein MD, Yael Servadio MD, Michael Gotleib MD and Miri Sklair-Levy MD

Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an important role in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Suspicious findings on MRI are further evaluated with ultrasound. This case series illustrates the use of automated breast volumetric ultrasound (ABVS) as a tool for second-look ultrasound (SLUS) following MRI. Seven women underwent breast MRI with findings necessitating SLUS. ABVS was used for second look and all MRI lesions were detected. Four cancers, one fibroadenoma and two benign lesions, were diagnosed. This case series shows that ABVS can be used as a tool for SLUS following MRI and in some cases is superior to hand-held ultrasound.

January 2015
Lior Leibou MD, Oscar Herman MD, Jacob Frand MD, Eyal Kramer MD and Shimonov Mordechai MD
December 2014
Borys A. Cornejo-Moreno MD MSc, Diego Uribe-Escamilla MD and Fabio Salamanca-Gómez MD
Breast cancer, specifically mammary carcinoma, is the most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide, with a lifetime risk of one in nine, and its prevalence is increasing. It represents around 30% of all cancer in females and approximately 40,000 deaths in the United States per year. Important advances have been made in detection and treatment, but a significant number of breast cancers are still detected late. This summary of its epidemiology and history, the molecular aspects of detection and the main implicated genes emphasizes the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease. It is still not clear whether the remaining cases of breast cancer negative to BRCA are due to mutations in another high penetrance gene or to unknown factors yet to be discovered.
July 2014
February 2014
Renata Faermann, Fani Sperber, Schlomo Schneebaum and Daphna Barsuk
Background: The surgical approach to breast cancer has changed dramatically in the past 20 years. The surgical objective today is to remove the tumor, ensuring negative margins and good cosmetic results, and preserving the breast when possible. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an essential imaging tool prior to surgery, diagnosing additional tumors and assessing tumor extent. Tumor-to-breast volume ratio, an important predictor of breast conservation, can be measured with MRI and may change the surgical decision.

Objectives: To measure the tumor-to-breast volume ratio using MRI in order to assess whether there is a correlation between this ratio and the type of surgery selected (breast-conserving or mastectomy).

Methods: The volumes of the tumor and the breast and the tumor-to-breast volume ratio were retrospectively calculated using preoperative breast MRI in 76 patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy.

Results: Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) was performed in 64 patients and mastectomy in 12. The average tumor-to-breast volume ratio was 0.06 (6%) in the lumpectomy group and 0.30 (30%) in the mastectomy group (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The tumor-to-breast volume ratio correlated with the type of surgery. As measured on MRI, this ratio is an accurate means of determining the type of surgery best suited for a given patient. It is recommended that MRI-determined tumor-to-breast volume ratio become part of the surgical planning protocol for patients diagnosed with breast cancer.

January 2013
V. Nir, E. Nadir, M. Mekonen and M. Feldman
 Background: Ethnic differences in the incidence of spitting up have not been reported. The nursing team at our well-baby nursery observed that newborn infants of Ethiopian origin appeared to spit up more than the others.

Objective: To determine whether there are such ethnic differences and what, if anything, is their clinical relevance.

Methods: Of the 3663 enrolled infants born at the Hillel Yaffe Medical Center during the 12 month study period, 55 were of Ethiopian origin and their medical records were retrospectively surveyed. The retrieved data were compared with those of 167 randomly selected non-Ethiopian newborns (controls). Exclusion criteria were preterm delivery, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and congenital birth defects.

Results: Newborn infants of Ethiopian origin spit up 57% more than control infants. The difference in the number of spit ups was more obvious when only the infants who spit up were compared (2.3 ± 1.7 Ethiopian newborns vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 controls, P = 0.002), although the percentage of infants who spit up was the same in the two groups. There was no difference in weight gain, days of hospitalization, bilirubin levels or nutrition type between the groups.

Conclusions: Infants of Ethiopian origin spit up more than the control newborn infants of non-Ethiopian origin, while other clinical parameters were similar. In the absence of other pathological signs, spitting up is a non-relevant clinical condition.

 

 

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