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עמוד בית
Thu, 18.04.24

Search results


March 2019
Shaden Salameh MD MHA, Meir Antopolsky MD, Natalia Simanovsky MD, Eyal Arami MD and Nurith Hiller MD

Background: Acute non-traumatic abdominal pain is typically evaluated by abdomino-pelvic computed tomography (CT) with oral and venous contrast. The accuracy of unenhanced CT for diagnosis in this setting has not been widely studied.

Objectives: To assess the accuracy of unenhanced CT in establishing the etiology of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical and imaging records of patients aged ≥ 18 years who presented to the emergency department (ED) during a 6-month period with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain of unknown etiology, and who were evaluated with non-contrast CT within 24 hours of ED admission. Clinical details were recorded. A presumptive clinical diagnosis and CT diagnosis were compared to the discharge diagnosis which was considered the reference standard. The requirement for informed consent was waived.

Results: Altogether, 315 patients met the inclusion criteria – 138 males (44%) and 177 females (56%); their mean age was 45 years (range 18–90). Clinical diagnosis correlated with the CT findings in 162 of the cases (51%). CT was accurate in 296/315 cases (94%). The leading diagnosis in cases of a mismatch between CT diagnosis and discharge diagnosis was infection mostly in the urinary tract (12/18). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 91%, 99%, 91% and 85% respectively. The discharge diagnosis was unchanged in the patients who returned to the ED within 1 week of the first admission.

Conclusions: In this study, unenhanced CT proved to be a feasible, convenient and legitimate examination for the evaluation of patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain presenting to the ED.

October 2017
Natalia Simanovsky MD, Nurith Hiller MD, Maxim Timofeev, Eli M. Eisenshtein MD, Zeev Perles MD and Sigal Tal MD

Background: Virtual autopsies by computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging can be valuable in cases of unexplained infant death. The radiologist must be familiar with the normal appearance of all the segments of the thoracic aorta in normal and deceased children. A thorough review of the literature revealed no prior articles describing CT changes in the ascending aorta or the aortic arch in pediatric virtual autopsies.

Objectives: To compare the CT appearance of the thoracic aorta in deceased children and in those younger than 3 years of age.

Methods: Hospital registries were searched for cases of unexpected deaths in children younger than 3 years old, with a postmortem CT available, as well as for clinically indicated chest CT in children of the same age during a 5 year period. The ascending aorta (AA), aortic arch (arch), and the descending aorta (DA) diameters were measured. Student's t-tests and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used to compare the two groups.

Results: A total of 64 scans were reviewed: 35 postmortem and 29 performed on living patients. The differences in the diameter and the ratios of the diameter between the AA and the arch, as well as between the arch and the DA in the postmortem and living groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: On postmortem CT scans, we found focal tapering of the aortic caliber at the level of the arch between the origin of the brachiocephalic artery and left subclavian artery. This finding should not be misinterpreted as a hypoplastic aortic arch.

 

November 2015
Moshe Simons MD, Samuel N. Heyman MD, Michael Bursztyn MD, Oded Shalev MD, Nurith Hiller MD and Sarah Israel MD
January 2015
Yael Adler-Levy MD, Simcha Yagel MD, Michael Nadjari MD, Yaakov Bar-ziv MD, Natalia Simanovsky MD and Nurith Hiller MD
Background: Sonographic evaluation of congenital skeletal dysplasias is often challenging. Ultrasound may be limited in demonstrating the skeleton and may overlook specific signs of skeletal abnormality. Computed tomography (CT) with 3D reconstruction was proposed as an aid in the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

Objectives: To describe our experience with 3D-CT imaging for the evaluation of suspected skeletal dysplasias.

Methods: The study group comprised 20 pregnant women carrying 22 fetuses, referred for further evaluation by CT following sonographic suspicion of fetal skeletal dysplasia at 17–39 weeks of gestation. Examinations were performed using various CT protocols. Radiation exposure was decreased during the study period, with eventual lowering of the dose to 1–3 mSv. Meticulous review of the skeleton and long bone measurements were performed on 3D reconstructions. For cases of pregnancy termination, the postmortem diagnosis was compared retrospectively with the CT findings.

Results: Very low dose CT protocols provided excellent diagnostic images. Of 22 fetuses suspected of having skeletal dysplasia on ultrasound, 8 were found by CT to be dysplastic and in 7 the pregnancy was terminated. Postmortem findings, when available, concurred with the CT diagnosis. The remaining 14 fetuses within this cohort were found to be normal according to CT and were carried to term.

Conclusions: 3D-CT may be a valuable complimentary imaging tool to ultrasound for the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. Using low dose protocols makes this examination relatively safe, and in the appropriate clinical context may assist in making difficult decisions prenatally.
July 2009
N. Hiller, N. Simanovsky, C. Bahagon, N. Bogot and C. Maayan

Background: Lung disease in patients with famHiat dys-autonomia is caused mainly by recurrent aspiration of gastric contents, food and liquids swallowed incorrectly.

Objective: To describe chest computed tomography findings in patients with familial dyautonomia.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of chest CT findings was performed for 34 FD patients (15 females, 19 males) with a mean age of 18± 12.8 years.

Results: The CT revealed bronchial wall thickening (in 94% of the patients), atelectasis (in 73%), ground glass opacities (in 53%), focal hyperinflation (in 44%), fibrosis (in 29%) and bronchiectasis (in 26%). The extrapulmonary abnormalities were scoliosis (79%) and esophageal dilatation (35%). Silent fractures were noted in two vertebral bodies and one rib.

Conclusions: Pulmonary changes were consistent with chronic inflammation in the bronchi and interstitial tissues. Ground  glass opacities and fibrosis support the theory that these changes could be due to gastric aspiration. Bronchiectasis is less frequent. Esophageal dilatation with fluid overflow adds to aspiration. Fractures can be asymptomaflc and are often missed.

 

July 2006
T. Hershcovici, T. Chajek-Shaul, T. Hasin, S. Aamar, N. Hiller, D. Prus and H. Peleg
April 2006
H. Mazeh, A. Nissan, N. Simanovsky and N. Hiller
July 2005
G. Blinder, J. Benhorin, D. Koukoui, Z. Roman and N. Hiller
 Background: Multi-detector spiral computed tomography with retrospective electrocardiography-gated image reconstruction allows detailed anatomic imaging of the heart, great vessels and coronary arteries in a rapid, available and non-invasive mode.

Objectives: To investigate the spectrum of findings in 32 consecutive patients with chest pain who underwent CT coronary angiogram in order to determine the clinical situations that will benefit most from this new technique.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with chest pain were studied by MDCT[1] using 4 x 1 mm cross-sections, at 500 msec rotation with pitch 1–1.5, intravenous non-ionic contrast agent and a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction algorithm. The heart anatomy was evaluated using multi-planar reconstructions in the axial, long and short heart axes planes. Coronary arteries were evaluated using dedicated coronary software and the results were compared to those of the conventional coronary angiograms in 12 patients. The patients were divided into four groups according to the indication for the study: group A – patients with high probability for coronary disease; group B – patients after CCA[2] with undetermined diagnosis; group C – patients after cardiac surgery with possible anatomic derangement; and group D – symptomatic patients after coronary artery bypass graft, before considering conventional coronary angiography.

Results: Artifacts caused by coronary motion, heavy calcification and a lumen diameter smaller than 2 mm were the most frequent reasons for non-evaluable arteries. Assessment was satisfactory in 83% of all coronary segments. The overall sensitivity of 50% stenosis was 74% (85% for main vessels) with a specificity of 96%. Overall, the CTCA[3] results were critical for management in 18 patients.

Conclusions: Our preliminary experience suggests that CTCA is a reliable and promising technique for the detection of coronary artery stenosis as well as for a variety of additional cardiac and coronary structural abnormalities.


 


[1] MDCT = multi-detector computed tomography

[2] CCA = conventional coronary angiography

[3] CTCA = CT coronary angiogram


November 2004
N. Hiller, O. Goitein and Y.J. Ashkenazi
October 2001
Dvora Aharoni, MD, Sergey Mekhmandarov, MD, Menachem Itzchaki, MD, Nurith Hiller, MD and Deborah Elstein, PhD
December 2000
Nurith Hiller, MD, Daniel Berelowitz, MD and Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD
 Background: Primary epiploic appendagitis is a relatively rare condition in which torsion and inflammation of an epiploic appendix result in localized abdominal pain. This is a non-surgical situation that clinically mimics other conditions requiring surgery such as acute diverticulitis or appendicitis.

Objective: To investigate the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings of the disease.

Methods: During the years 1995-88 five patients with primary epiploic appendigitis were diagnosed at our institution. The clinical, laboratory and imaging results were summarized and compared to previously reported series. Emphasis was placed on the computed tomography findings, which are the gold standard for diagnosis.

Results: All our patients (two males and three females, mean age 47 years) presented with left lower quadrant abdominal pain. CT proved to be the imaging modality of choice in all patients by showing a pericolic fatty mass with an increased attenuation as compared to normal abdominal fat. In all cases the mass was surrounded by a high attenuation rim, and focal stranding of the fat was observed. In no case was there thickening of the adjacent bowel wall. This serves as an important, and previously unreported, clue for diagnosis.

Conclusion: Primary epiploic appendagitis is a relatively rare condition that may be clinically misdiagnosed, resulting in unnecessary surgical intervention. Judicious interpretation of CT may lead to early diagnosis and ensure proper conservative treatment.

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