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עמוד בית
Sat, 25.05.24

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December 2022
Lior Charach MD, Gideon Charach MD, Eli Karniel MD, Dorin Bar Ziv MD, Leonid Galin MD, Weintraub M MD, Itamar Grosskopf MD

Background: APOE genotype strongly affects plasma lipid levels and risk for cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. Studies of apo-e allelic and APOE genotype frequencies among several populations have revealed interesting ethnic variations that might affect cardiovascular morbidity and cognition deterioration.

Objectives: To evaluate apo-e allelic frequency among Israeli newborns based on known variances in apo-e allelic frequencies in different countries.

Methods: We examined 498 consecutive neonates born at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. Umbilical cord blood was sampled for genotyping and lipids. Birth weights were recorded. Demographics and parental risk factors for atherosclerosis were obtained from the mothers.

Results: Most parents were native-born Israelis. Other countries of origin of grandparents were Morocco, Russia, and Iraq. The prevalence of APOE genotypes in Israel is APOE 2/2: 1.4%, APOE 2/3: 8.2%, APOE 3/3: 77.7%, and APOE 4/4: 11.8%. There were no associations of APOE genotype with parental country of origin. However, there was a tendency for APOE 3/4 to be more frequent in newborns of parents of Asian and African origin. Genotype 3/3 was more frequent in newborns whose parents came from Europe and America (78%) compared to those from Asia or Africa (69%).

Conclusions: It is important to determine risk factors such as APOE genotype for evaluation of premature atherosclerosis. Determining genetic and environmental risk factors may facilitate earlier treatment and prevent heart and brain atherosclerosis. APOE genotypes did not appear to affect total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglyceride levels in newborns.

October 2020
Khalaf Kridin MD, Mouhammad Kridin MD, Howard Amital MD, Abdulla Watad MD and Mogher Khamaisi MD

Background: The reported mortality rates of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis are highly variable worldwide. The excess mortality of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis has not been evaluated in an Israeli population.

Objectives: To investigate the overall mortality in a large and well-established cohort of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis as compared to the mortality expected in the matched general population in a tertiary medical center.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the mortality of 166 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis was compared to age- and sex-matched control subjects in the general population. All-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were estimated.

Results: Overall, 47 (28.3%) deaths were observed among patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis during a mean follow-up period of 5.8 ± 4.8 years, which was 7 times higher than in the control group (SMR 7.4, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 5.5–9.8). The SMRs were comparable in patents with polymyositis (7.7, 95%CI 4.8–12.3) and dermatomyositis (7.2, 95%CI 5.0–10.3). The 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year overall survival rates were 90.0%, 82.8%, 51.5%, and 26.1%, respectively, in patients with polymyositis, and 80.3%, 59.6%, 40.0%, and 17.1%, respectively, in patients with dermatomyositis.

Conclusions: The overall mortality among Israeli patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis is 7.4 times greater than for the general population. Although long-term mortality was comparable between patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis, patients in the former group died at a notably earlier stage.

July 2020
Gilad Karavani MD, Adi Reuveni Salzman MD, Eliana Ein-Mor PhD, Uri Pinchas Dior MD and Shay Porat MD PhD

Background: While the ratio of male to female births (sex-ratio at birth [SRB]) in humans is remarkably stable on the population level, there are many families with multiple same-sex offspring.

Objectives: To identify a putative sub-population with skewed SRB and explore potential factors affecting the SRB.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study including 66,054 families with up to nine same-sex offspring evaluated between 2003 and 2015 at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. Outcome measures were observed prevalence and SRB of families with up to nine same-sex offspring in a single family. Analyses included the effect of parity, month and year of delivery, inter-delivery interval, and presence of a sequence of previous same-sex offspring on the SRB.

Results: The study comprised 193,411 live-born babies with SRB of 1.057 in favor of males. The proportion of SRB in families with up to nine same-sex offspring did not differ from the calculated presumed proportion. Furthermore, none of the tested factors (parity, month and year of delivery, inter-delivery interval, and the sequence of previous same-sex offspring) were significantly associated with SRB.

Conclusions: SRB was not associated with any of the tested demographic characteristics. We could not identify a skew in SRB even in families with up to nine consecutive same sex offspring. This finding suggests that in the majority of the population the chance of a male or female fetus in each pregnancy remains similar in every pregnancy, regardless of any of the tested variables.

September 2019
Assaf Hilely MD, Hana Leiba MD, Asaf Achiron MD, Idan Hecht MD and Reut Parness-Yossifon MD

Background: Ocular trauma in the pediatric population may lead to cataract formation. Managing traumatic cataracts in a visually immature child is a major challenge and can result in poor visual outcome.

Objectives: To review our long-term surgical experience with childhood unilateral traumatic cataracts.

Methods: A retrospective observational study of children with unilateral traumatic cataracts with minimal follow-up of 5 years was conducted. Main outcomes included final visual acuity (VA) and occurrence of complications.

Results: Of the 18 children included in the study, 83% were male. Mean follow-up time was 12.5 years. Median age at injury was 7.5 years. Eleven patients (61%) presented with penetrating trauma injuries and 7 (39%) with blunt trauma. Sixteen patients (89%) had cataracts at presentation, while in two the cataracts developed during follow-up. Of the 18 total, cataract removal surgery was conducted in 16 (89%) with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in 14 (87.5%), while 2 remained aphakic (12.5%). Two (11%) were treated conservatively. Long-term complications included IOL dislocation in 5 (36%), glaucoma in 8 (44%), and posterior capsular opacity in 10 (71%). No correlation was found between final visual acuity and the time interval between injury and IOL implantation nor between final VA and age at trauma. However, the final VA did correlate with time of follow-up.

Conclusions: Severe complications occurred in over 30% of the patients during a long follow-up (mean 12.5 years). This finding shows the importance of discussions between the operating physician and the parents regarding the prognosis and necessity of scheduled follow-up.

May 2019
Mahmud Mahamid MD, Amir Mari MD, Tawfik Khoury MD, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi MD PhD, Majeed Ghantous MD, Omar Abu-Elhija MD and Abdulla Watad MD

Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori varies geographically by age, race, and socioeconomic status (SES). However, the impact of ethnicity on endoscopic outcomes in infected individuals is not well known.

Objectives: To assess the impact of ethnicity among Israelis with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection.

Methods: A retrospective study, including patients who underwent gastroscopy and were diagnosed histologically with H. pylori infection, was conducted. Information on demographics, SES, medications, and co-morbidities were extracted from medical records. Univariate (Student's t-test, chi-square test) and multivariate (multinomial and logistic) regression analysis were conducted to examine the predictors of the clinical outcome.

Results: The study included 100 Israeli Jews and 100 Israeli Arabs diagnosed with biopsy-proven H. pylori infection. At univariate analysis, the number of households was higher among Arabs (P < 0.001), whose family income and parental education were lower than among Jews (P < 0.001 for both variables). The response to amoxicillin and clarithromycin differed between the two groups, being higher among Jews (P < 0.001).In clinical outcomes (gastritis severity, gastric and duodenal ulcer, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, and MALT), no statistically significant differences could be detected between Jews and Arabs. Concerning intestinal metaplasia, lack of consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs resulted a statistically significant protective factor (odds ratio 0.128, 95% confidence interval 0.024–0.685, P = 0.016).

Conclusions: Although in the literature ethnicity seems to be a risk factor for H. pylori colonization, no statistical significance was detected in various endoscopic and histological findings related to H. Pylori infection between Israeli Arabs and Jews.

January 2019
Emily Fisher MD MSc, Christine Loock MD, Ariana Melamed BA, Shulamit Blank MD and Gideon Koren MD

Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) may be under-recognized and under-diagnosed in Israel. Fewer than 10 FASD diagnoses were reported between 1998 and 2007; however, several hundred diagnoses have been made since. Furthermore, less than 10% of surveyed Israeli pediatricians reported adequate knowledge of FASD.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suspected FASD, to establish a database as a starting point for epidemiological studies, and to develop FASD awareness for health, social, and educational services.

Methods: A chart review was conducted at an educational facility for children and adolescents with behavioral and learning challenges. The following information was extracted: adoption status, history of alcohol/drug abuse in the biological mother, medical diagnoses, medication use, and information regarding impairment in 14 published neurobehavioral categories. Subjects were classified as: category 1 (highly likely FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence of maternal alcohol abuse was available; category 2 (possible FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and evidence to support maternal substance abuse (type/time unspecified); and category 3 (unconfirmed likelihood of FASD) – impairment in three or more neurobehavioral categories and no information regarding the biological family.

Results: Of 237 files analyzed, 38 subjects (16%) had suspected FASD: 10 subjects (4%) in category 1, 5 (2%) in category 2, and 23 (10%) in category 3. Twenty-seven subjects with suspected FASD (69%) had been adopted.

Conclusions: This study is the most comprehensive review of FASD among Israeli children and adolescents in a population with learning and behavior challenges.

February 2018
Alan Katz MD, Amanda Almakias BsC and Ronit Wollstein MD

Background: Fractures of the distal radius are the most common fractures in the upper extremity, and their incidence is increasing with the aging of the population. Despite anatomical reduction of the bones, many patients complain of residual pain. A reason for this may be ligament injury not addressed during surgery or conservative treatment. Radiographic measurements may allow assessment of ligament integrity but they may be population specific and differ among races.

Objectives: To assess radiographic wrist measurements in an Israeli population and to compare them to existing values.

Methods: Demographic data, previous diagnosis of osteoporosis, fracture classification, and radiologic measurements (radial height, radial inclination, ulnar variance, volar tilt, and d2/w2) were measured and compared.

Results: The study was comprised of 53 females and 27 males, mean age 64 years, with wrist radiographs following surgery. Of these, 13% were smokers and 38.5% had osteoporosis. According to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen classification system, most of the fractures were comminuted and intra-articular. The mean values for all measurements did not differ significantly from values in the literature. The average d2/w2 ratio (describing the radiocarpal ligaments) was 0.42, significantly differing from this measurement in normal wrists as described in the literature, but similar to a population following surgery (P = 0.002).

Conclusions: Our population had more fragility fractures than other populations. Otherwise, our demographics and measurements did not differ from normal values described in the literature. This study supports the validity of any wrist radiographic study performed in our population.

 

January 2016
Etty Daniel-Spiegel MD, Micha Mandel PhD, Daniel Nevo MA, Avraham Ben-Chetrit MD, Ori Shen MD, Eliezer Shalev MD and Simcha Yagel MD

Background: Selection of appropriate reference charts for fetal biometry is mandatory to ensure an accurate diagnosis. Most hospitals and clinics in Israel use growth curves from the United States. Charts developed in different populations do not perform well in the Israeli population.

Objectives: To construct new reference charts for fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), using a large sample of fetuses examined at 14–42 weeks gestational age in a medical center and a community ultrasound unit located in two different regions of Israel. 

Methods: Data from the medical center and the community clinic were pooled. The mean and standard error of each measure for each week was calculated. Based on these, reference charts were calculated using quantiles of the normal distribution. The performance of the reference charts was assessed by comparing the new values to empirical quantiles.

Results: Biometric measurements were obtained for 79,328 fetuses. Growth charts were established based on these measurements. The overall performance of the curves was very good, with only a few exceptions among the higher quantiles in the third trimester in the medical center subsample.

Conclusions: We present new local reference charts for fetal biometry, derived from a large and minimally selected Israeli population. We suggest using these new charts in routine daily obstetric practice.

 

February 2003
E. Gal, G. Abuksis, G. Fraser, R. Koren, C. Shmueli, Y. Yahav and Y. Niv

Background: The 13C-urea breath test is the best non-invasive test to validate Helicobacter pylori eradication. Serology is unreliable for this purpose due to the slow and unpredictable decline in the antibodies titer.

Objectives: To characterize a specific group of patients who were treated for H. pylori and tested for successful eradication by 13C-UBT[1] in our central laboratory and to correlate the eradication success rate with specific drug combinations, and to evaluate other factors that may influence eradication success.

Methods: 13C-UBT for H. pylori was performed in the central laboratory of Clalit Health Services. The breath test was performed by dedicated nurses in 25 regional laboratories and the samples were analyzed by a mass spectrometer (Analytical Precision 2003, UK). The physician who ordered the test completed a questionnaire computing demographic data (age, gender, origin), indication, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or proton pump inhibitor, and combination of eradication therapy.

Results: Of the 1,986 patients tested to validate successful H. pylori eradication, 539 (27%) had a positive test (treatment failure group) and 1,447 (73%) had a negative test (successful treatment group). Male gender, older age and European-American origin predicted better eradication rates. Dyspeptic symptoms and chronic PPI[2] therapy predicted treatment failure. Combination therapy that included clarithromycin had a higher eradication rate than a combination containing metronidazole. The combination of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin achieved an eradication rate of 81.3%, which was better than the combination of omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin (77.2%) (not significant), or of omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole (66.1%) (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Gender, age, origin, dyspepsia and PPI therapy may predict H. pylori eradication results. Our findings also support an increase in metronidazole resistance of H. pylori strains in Israel, as described in other countries. We recommend combination therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin and avoidance of metronidazole as one of the first-line eradication drugs.






[1]13C-UBT[1]  = 13C-urea breath test



[2] PPI = proton pump inhibitor


March 2001
Tamy Shohat, MD, MPH, Orly Ramono-Zelekha and the Israel Network for Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Background: Charts of fetal measurements are widely used in the follow-up of pregnant women, however no charts have been constructed for the Israeli population.

Objectives: To establish growth charts for fetal femur size and biparietal diameter.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of 1,422 singleton pregnancies was conducted.

Results: A total of 1,143 pregnancies met the inclusion criteria. Femur length and biparietal diameter were measured. A linear cubic model was fitted to construct growth charts for the different centiles. The charts were compared with previously published data.

Conclusions: We have constructed new fetal measure­ment charts for femur length and biparietal diameter that are unique for the Israeli population. These charts have been found to be similar to those published for other Caucasian populations.
 

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