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עמוד בית
Wed, 12.06.24

May 2024


ORIGINALS
Rabea Haddad MD, Edo Birati MD, Hiba Zayyad MD, Nizar Andria MD, Eyal Nachum MD, Erez Kachel MD, Ibrahim Marai MD

Background: Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are increasingly being used; thus, there is an increasing need for transvenous lead extraction (TLE).

Objectives: To summarize our experience with TLE at single referral center in northern Israel.

Methods: The study included all patients who underwent TLE at our center between 2019 and 2022, regardless of the indication.

Results: The cohort included 50 patients. The mean age was 69 ± 10.36 years; 78% were males. A total of 99 electrodes were targeted. The mean number of electrodes was 1.96 (range 1–4) per patient. The time between lead implantation and extraction ranged between 1.1 and 34 years with an average of 8.14 ± 5.71 years (median of 7.5 years). Complete lead removal was achieved in 98% of patients and in 98.99% of leads. The complete procedural success rate as well as the clinical procedural success rate was 96%. The procedural failure rate was 4% (1 patient died 2 days after the index procedure and 1 patient remained with large portion of lead). The indication for TLE was infection in 78% of the cohort group. Powered mechanical sheaths were used in 36 patients (72%), laser sheaths in 27 (54%), and a combination of laser and mechanical sheaths in 16 (32%).

Conclusions: The clinical and procedural success rates of TLE, primarily for CEID-related infection, were high. A combination of laser and mechanical sheaths was needed in one-third of patients.

Jonathan Eisenberger BSc, Shmuel Somer BSc, Eyal Nachum MD, Eilon Ram MD, Jacob Lavee MD, Leonid Sternik MD, Jeffrey Morgan MD

Background: Long-term support with a HeartMate 3 (HM3) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has improved outcomes of patients with end-stage heart failure. However, there is a paucity of data on the outcomes of patients who underwent concomitant cardiac surgical procedure (CCSP) during HM3-LVAD implantation.

Objectives: To assess our single-center experience with patients who underwent CCSP during the implantation of an HM3-LVAD.

Methods: From December 2016 until April 2022, 131 adult patients underwent HM3-LVAD implantation. A total of 23 patients underwent CCSP during the HM3-LVAD implantation+CCSP, and 108 underwent only HM3-LVAD implantation (HM3-only).

Results: The median age was 59 ± 11 years (range 54-67), 82% (n=108) were male, and 76% (n=100) were implanted as a bridge-to-transplant. The concomitant procedures performed during the implantation included 8 aortic valve repairs/replacements, 14 tricuspid valve repairs, 4 patent foramen ovales or atrial septal defect closures, and 3 other cardiac procedures. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 113 ± 58 minutes for the HM3-only group and 155 ± 47 minutes for the HM3+CCSP group (P = 0.007). The mortality rates at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months post-implantation were 2 (9%), 5 (22%), and 6 (26%) respectively for the HM3+CCSP group, and 7 (6%), 18 (17%), and 30 (28%) for the HM3-only group (P = 0.658, 0.554, and 1.000).

Conclusions: Our experience demonstrated no significant difference in the 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month mortality rates for patients who underwent a CCSP during HM3-LVAD implantation compared to patients who did not undergo CCSP during HM3-LVAD implantation.

Jen Barak Levitt MD, Shira Barmatz MD, Shira Fisch-Gilad MD, Yossef H. Taieb MD, Adam Dalal MD, Khashayar Afshari MD, Nazgol Haddadi MD, Dana Tzur Bitan MD, Arnon Dov Cohen MD PhD, Daniel Mimouni MD, Emmilia Hodak MD, Shany Sherman MD

Background: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease involving apocrine gland-bearing regions. There is an under-representation of non-Caucasians in epidemiologic studies of HS. The characteristics of HS in Israeli Arabs have not yet been studied.

Objectives: To investigate the demographic and clinical profile of HS in the Israeli Arab population.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in two cohorts of patients with HS in Israel. The patients were derived from the database of a large health management organization (n=4191, 639 Arabs; population-based) and a major tertiary medical center (n=372, 49 Arabs). Demographic and clinical data were compared between ethnic groups.

Results: The prevalence of HS in Israeli Arabs was found to be 0.5%, fivefold higher than in Jews. Arab patients were younger (35.3 vs. 40.5 years, P < 0.001) and mostly male (52% vs. 35.7%, p < 0.001), with lower rates of co-morbidities, including smoking (40.8% vs. 55.7%, p < 0.001), hyperlipidemia, and depression as well as a higher rate of dissecting cellulitis (10.2% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.008). HS was more severe in Arabs, but of shorter duration, with mainly axillary involvement (79.6% vs. 57.9%, p = 0.004). Treatment with hormones was more common in Jews, and with biologic agents in Arabs.

Conclusions: The findings suggest a different phenotype of HS in Arabs, warranting further study.

Waseem Abboud DMD MD, Dror Shamir DMD MSc, Rania Elkhatib MD, Heli Rushinek DMD, Yoli Bitterman DMD MSc, Mati Cohen Sela DMD, Adir Cohen DMD MSc

Background: Condylar hyperplasia is a non-neoplastic overgrowth of the mandibular condyle. The disorder is progressive and causes gradual jaw deviation, facial asymmetry, and dental malocclusion. The only treatment capable of stopping hyperplastic growth is surgical condylectomy to remove the upper portion of the condyle containing the deranged growth center. When this procedure is conducted in proportion to the length of the healthy side it may also correct the jaw deviation and facial asymmetry.

Objectives: To assess the degree to which condylectomy corrects the asymmetry and to determine the proportion of patients after condylectomy who were satisfied with the esthetic result and did not desire further corrective surgery.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who underwent condylectomy that was not followed by corrective orthognathic surgery for at least 1 year to determine the degree of correction of chin deviation and lip cant. Patient satisfaction from treatment or desire and undergo further corrective surgery was reported.

Results: Chin deviation decreased after condylectomy from a mean of 4.8⁰ to a mean of 1.8⁰ (P < 0.001). Lip cant decreased after condylectomy from a mean of 3.5⁰ to a mean of 1.5⁰ (P < 0.001). Most patients (72%) were satisfied with the results and did not consider further corrective orthognathic surgery.

Conclusions: Proportional condylectomy could be a viable treatment to both arrest the condylar overgrowth and achieve some correction of the facial asymmetry.

Ron Dabby MD, Diana Paleacu Kertesz MD, Ilia Demurchev MD, Oded Hershkovich MD, Mira Ginsberg MD, Menachem Sadeh MD

Background: The recreational use of nitrous oxide (N2O) has increased in recent years with a noticeable surge in the incidence of nitrous oxide-related myeloneuropathy.

Objectives: To raise awareness of increasing myeloneuropathy due to recreational nitrous oxide misuse in Israel.

Methods: We conducted a case series documenting the clinical and investigative features of eight patients presenting with nitrous oxide-induced myeloneuropathy who were admitted to our departments.

Results: Paresthesia was the chief complaint in all patients, with sensory gait ataxia being a common feature, which was often accompanied by Romberg's sign and mild lower limb weakness. Vitamin B12 levels were below the normal range in seven patients, accompanied by elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed hyperintense signals in the dorsal columns of the cervical spine. All patients improved following vitamin B12 injections.

Conclusions: Enhancing awareness, prompting the use of appropriate investigations, and advocating for timely treatment are needed to overcome the risks associated with nitrous oxide misuse.

Oshrit Hoffer PhD, Moriya Cohen BS, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Shay Nathanson MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis in children. However, distinguishing GAS from viral pharyngitis is sometimes difficult. Unnecessary antibiotic use contributes to unwanted side effects, such as allergic reactions and diarrhea. It also may increase antibiotic resistance. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a machine learning algorithm on the clinical evaluation of bacterial pharyngitis in children.

Methods: We assessed 54 children aged 2–17 years who presented to a primary healthcare clinic with a sore throat and fever over 38°C from 1 November 2021 to 30 April 2022. All children were tested with a streptococcal rapid antigen detection test (RADT). If negative, a throat culture was performed. Children with a positive RADT or throat culture were considered GAS-positive and treated antibiotically for 10 days, as per guidelines. Children with negative RADT tests throat cultures were considered positive for viral pharyngitis. The children were allocated into two groups: Group A streptococcal pharyngitis (GAS-P) (n=36) and viral pharyngitis (n=18). All patients underwent a McIsaac score evaluation. A linear support vector machine algorithm was used for classification.

Results: The machine learning algorithm resulted in a positive predictive value of 80.6 % (27 of 36) for GAS-P infection. The false discovery rates for GAS-P infection were 19.4 % (7 of 36).

Conclusions: Applying the machine-learning strategy resulted in a high positive predictive value for the detection of streptococcal pharyngitis and can contribute as a medical decision aid in the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P.

Tal Frenkel Rutenberg MD, Alon Ben Uri MD, Omer Slevin MD, Yona Kosashvili MD, Franck Atlan MD, Sorin Daniel Iordache MD

Background: Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) is a common and severe hand infection. Patients who present early can be treated with intravenous antibiotics.

Objectives: To determine whether PFT caused by animal bites and treated with antibiotics leads to a different outcome than other disease etiologies due to the extensive soft tissue insult and different bacterial flora.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 consecutive patients who presented with PFT between 2013 and 2020. The 10 patients who presented with PFT following an animal bite were compared to those who presented with PFT caused by any other etiology.

Results: Patients who were bitten pursued medical attention sooner: 1.9 ± 1.4 days compared with 5.3 ± 4.7 days (P = 0.001). Despite the quicker presentation, patients from the study group received similar antibiotic types and duration as controls. All patients were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics under surveillance of a hand surgeon. One patient (10%) from the study group and four controls (12%) were treated surgically (P = 1). Average follow-up was 17 ± 16 days. At the end of follow-up, one (10%) patient from the study group and three (9%) controls sustained mild range of motion limitation and one (3%) patient from the control group had moderate limitations (P = 0.855).

Conclusions: Intravenous antibiotic treatment, combined with an intensive hand surgeon follow-up, is a viable option for the treatment of PFT caused by animal bites.

CASE COMMUNICATIONS
David Koren MD, Leonid Sternik MD, Liza Grosman-Rimon PhD, Amihay Shinfeld MD

Echinococcus infections of the liver and lungs are well-known, but cardiac echinococcus is rare, requiring further understanding. A 19-year-old male presented with chest pain, shortness of breath and palpitations. Changes in an electrocardiogram, increased troponin, and a computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a cardiac cyst at the left ventricle’s posterior lateral wall. Medical management included albendazole and praziquantel for 2 weeks followed by surgical cyst removal.

Clinical presentation of cardiac involvement of echinococcus granulosis is variable, requiring high clinical suspicion. Cardiac CT scan and echocardiography provided sufficient information for the diagnosis. The treatment included surgical removal of the cyst and albendazole administration.

Hydatid cyst is a rare zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus [1]. The incidence in endemic areas is about 1–200 cases per 100,000 in population [2].

The liver (60–70% of cases) and lungs (20–30%) are the most common locations of hydatid cysts, with rare cardiac involvement of only 0.05% to 2% of all cases [3], with the left ventricle most frequently involved (60%) [2,4].

Elena Korytnikova MD, Maayan Elnir Katz MD, Itzhak Gabizon MD, Tamar Eshkoli MD

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects glycogen metabolism and manifests as a multisystem disease. Most patients present with oropharyngeal malformations, cardiomyopathies, elevated liver enzymes, and hypoglycemia. Treatment with D-galactose has been shown to improve symptoms. Our patient presented with PGM1 deficiency. She conceived spontaneously. Throughout her pregnancies, our patient was monitored by a multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, endocrinologists, and physicians with experience in high-risk pregnancy. She delivered twice by cesarean section. Our case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and individualized management of prenatal and postpartum care of a patient with a PGM1 deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports about a PGM1-deficient patient who conceived and delivered.

Oren Biham MD, Shira Sophie Hudes BA, Aviya Kedmi MD, Uriel Wachsman MD, Mohamed Abo Sbet MD, Eduard Ling MD PhD, Lior Zeller MD

Inflammatory myopathies include polymyositis, necrotizing autoimmune myositis, dermatomyositis, juvenile inflammatory myopathy, and inclusion body myositis. These diseases are classified based on the different clinical and pathological characteristics unique to each of them [1]. Dermatomyositis is a rare disease with an incidence of 6–10 cases/1,000,000 a year with the highest incidence in the 7th decade of life as reported by a Norwegian cohort in a Caucasian population [2].

Diagnosis of dermatomyositis is based on typical signs and symptoms combined with laboratory results, imaging, and electromyography findings and muscle biopsy. Historically, the diagnosis of dermatomyositis was based on the classification criteria named after Bohan and Peter published in 1975. Many other classification criteria were proposed subsequently, the latter by the European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology (EULAR/ACR), which were published in 2020 [3].

The clinical features of dermatomyositis are diverse. Skin manifestations can accompany or precede muscle weakness. Classical skin findings include periorbital heliotrope rash and a rash of the upper chest, back, and shoulders, known as the V sign and shawl sign respectively, as well as the Gottron's papules on the knuckles. Another skin appearance is subcutaneous calcifications that break periodically through the skin causing ulcerations. Dermatomyositis usually manifests as a symmetrical proximal muscle weakness but can present with preserved strength called amyopathic dermatomyositis [1].

REVIEWS
Thelma L Skare MD PhD, Jozélio Freire de Carvalho MD PhD

Hearing and vestibular function may be affected by gout and/or hyperuricemia. We performed a systematic review of the literature on ear involvement in patients with gout and hyperuricemia. We selected 24 articles: 8 case reports and 16 original articles. Case reports mainly focused on the presence of tophi in the middle ear, which was resolved with surgical treatment. Seven articles studied the hearing function in relationship to serum uric acid and 10 articles studied the occurrence of vertigo, with one of them studying both aspects. Regarding results on vertigo, five studies showed an association with uric acid elevation, three with lowering of uric acid, and two found no differences. Concerning hearing loss, five studies detected poor hearing function in association with high uric acid levels while other two did not.) Most of the studies showed an association of hearing loss with high uric acid/gout. Regarding vestibular function, the results are too heterogeneous to make any conclusions.

Tomer Boldes MD, Benny Nageris MD, Firas Kassem MD, Ameen Biadsee MD

Intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are frequently prescribed for allergic rhinitis but can also be used for other indications, such as sinusitis and nasal congestion. INCS are considered effective in controlling nasal symptoms with a similar safety profile among the different INCS formulations. In this review, we presented all available INCS formulations marketed in Israel while emphasizing the differences among them with a practical approach for medical providers in selecting a specific INCS agent. We conducted a literature review using PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar to identify articles related to INCS, triamcinolone acetonide, fluticasone propionate, and fluticasone furoate. Currently, five brands of INCS are available in Israel. While they all have similar efficacy in treating nasal symptoms, only fluticasone furoate consistently demonstrated a reduction in ocular symptoms compared to placebo. Other differences included sensory attributes, recommended regimens, approved age for use, and cost. When selecting INCS agent, a personalized approach is advised. Factors such as age, co-morbidities, concurrent medications, pregnancy, and patient preferences should be considered.

LETTERS
Fadi Hassan MD, Mohammad E. Naffaa MD

Since the introduction of the international study group (ISG) criteria for the diagnosis of Behçet's disease (BD) in the early 1990s by Yazici and colleagues [1] and the international criteria for BD (ICBD) by Davatchi and colleagues in 2014 [2], great progress has been achieved in the diagnosis of BD with fairly high sensitivity and specificity rates. However, a small, but very challenging and unique minority might not fulfill these criteria, at least at presentation. These patients are most challenging as they may present with life-threatening vascular or neurological manifestations. If the diagnosis BD is delayed, the risk for morbidity and even mortality might be increased. Therefore, we should aim for early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

Eliyahu Hayim Mizrahi MD MHA

Similar to ageism, which is defined as discrimination against older people due to negative and inaccurate stereotypes [1], geriatrism, a new concept in medical field, reflects a negative attitude and bias toward the study of geriatrics, especially observed among students specializing in therapeutic fields such as nursing, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, psychology, and medicine. However, it implies a reluctance of all professionals in the therapeutic fields, including young medical doctors, to specialize in treating individuals aged 65 years and older.

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