Dan Carter MD and Rami Eliakim MD
Background: Bowel ultrasound has several possible uses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the initial evaluation of suspected IBD, monitoring of therapeutic response, detection of relapse, and diagnosis of complications as well as of extra-intestinal manifestations. However, its use has been limited mainly to countries where it is performed by the attending physician.
Objectives: To investigate the feasibility and sensitivity of bedside bowel ultrasound performed by a gastroenterologist for assessing disease activity and complications in IBD.
Methods: We performed a feasibility study to compare the results of bowel ultrasound examination with those of another cross-sectional imaging modality (computed tomographic enterography or magnetic resonance enterography) in Crohn's disease, or with colonoscopy in ulcerative colitis.
Results: Between May 2015 and March 2016, 178 bowel ultrasound examinations were performed in 178 patients with suspected or established diagnosis of IBD. In 79 cases the results of another cross-sectional imaging or endoscopic examination performed within 3 months prior to the ultrasound exam were available. The sensitivity for detection of intestinal bowel thickening (a surrogate of inflammation) was 90%, and for detection of Crohn's disease complications, namely bowel stenosis and inflammatory mass, was 94% and 75%, respectively.
Conclusions: Bowel ultrasound is a useful and feasible bedside imaging tool for the detection of inflammation and complications in IBD patients. Bedside bowel ultrasound can be a valuable non-invasive tool to assess disease activity and complications in IBD patients when performed by the attending physician.
Danny Alon MD, Gideon Y. Stein MD PhD, Vered Hadas-Golan RN, Luba Tau MD, Tal Brosh MD and Dan Turner MD
Background: Guidelines recommend hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination of all adults positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immune responses to single-antigen HBV vaccine among HIV-positive patients are low when compared with HIV-negative adults. Sci-B-Vac™ is a recombinant third-generation HBV that may be advantageous in this population.
Objectives: To examine the immune responses to Sci-B-Vac among HIV-positive adults.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study involving HIV-positive adults who had negative HBV serology (HBSAg, HBSAb, HBcoreAb). Sci-B-Vac at 10 µg/dose was administered intramuscularly upon recruitment and after 1 and 6 months. HBSAb levels were checked 1 month after each dose; a level > 10 mlU/ml was considered protective. Data regarding age, gender, CD4 level, and viral load were collected.
Results: The study group comprised 31 patients. Average CD4 count was 503 ± 281 cells/ml, and average viral load was 44 copies/ml. Median interquartile range (IQR) HBVAb titers after the first, second and third immunizations were 0 (0, 3.5), 30 (6, 126) and 253 (81, 408) mlU/ml. Significant titer elevations were found between the second and third immunizations (P = 0.0003). The rate of patients considered protected was 16% after the first, 65% after the second (P < 0.0001), and 84% after the third dose (P = 0.045). No adverse events were reported. More patients under the age of 40 years responded to the first immunization (28% vs. 0%, P = 0.038). CD4 level had no influence on immunization rates.
Conclusions: Sci-B-Vac might achieve better immunization rates among HIV-positive adults compared to the single-antigen vaccine and thus deserves further evaluation in a randomized, double-blind study in this population.
Efraim Aizen MD, Bela Shifrin MD, Inna Shugaev MD and Israel Potasman MD
Background: The optimal approach to the evaluation of asymptomatic bacteruria in stroke patients is uncertain.
Objectives: To compare elderly patients after an acute stroke with and without asymptomatic bacteriuria for the development of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTI).
Methods: We prospectively monitored patients over 65 years of age admitted to our rehabilitation hospital after an acute stroke, with and without asymptomatic bacteriuria, for the development of symptomatic UTIs. The prevalence of bacteriuria was determined by urine cultures obtained 2 and 4 weeks after admission. Patients with and without persistent bacteriuria were compared to identify variables associated with bacteriuria.
Results: Fifty-five patients were included in the study. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline was 20%. Of all 55 stroke patients, 13 (23.6%) developed a symptomatic UTI during the 30 day follow-up. Patients with stroke and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline had an increased risk of developing a symptomatic UTI (54.5% with asymptomatic bacteriuria vs. 15.9% without, P = 0.011). To exclude the effects of several confounders, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis, which showed that bacteruria remained a significant covariate for symptomatic UTI (hazard ratio 2.86, 95% confidence interval 0.71–10.46, P = 0.051). When subjects who experienced symptomatic urinary infection were included, the prevalence of bacteriuria in the study cohort declined to about 45.5% by 30 days.
Conclusion: Elderly patients with stroke and asymptomatic bacteriuria have an increased risk of developing a symptomatic UTI compared to those without asymptomatic bacteriuria during a 30 day post-stroke follow-up.
Asaf Achiron MD, Yael Birger MD, Lily Karmona MD, Haggay Avizemer MD, Elisha Bartov MD, Yocheved Rahamim PhD and Zvia Burgansky-Eliash MD
Background: Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects.
Objectives: To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye.
Methods: We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium’s integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use.
Results: Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid.
Conclusions: An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.
Uri Landes MD, Arthur Kerner MD, Amit Segev MD, Haim Danenberg MD, Yaron Shapira MD, Ariel Finkelstein MD and Ran Kornowski MD FESC FACC
Background: Transcatheter tricuspid valve-in-valve implantation (TVIV) is an attractive yet under-explored alternative to redo valve surgery.
Objectives: To report the multicenter TVIV experience in Israel.
Methods: We approached multiple centers and collected data regarding seven TVIV cases.
Results: The study group comprised seven participants: five females and two males, with a mean age of 63 ± 12 years and EuroSCORE-II 13.6 ± 3.3%. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 21 months (mean 8 ± 6 months). All presented with advanced heart failure. The indication for valve intervention was a predominant tricuspid stenosis in three patients, significant tricuspid regurgitation in one and a mixture in three. Six procedures were conducted via a transfemoral approach and one by transatrial access. The Edwards SAPIENTM XT valve was used in four cases and the SAPIENTM 3 in three. Without pre-stenting/rapid pacing, all participants underwent successful valve implantation. Mean transvalvular gradient decreased from 11 ± 3 mmHg to 6 ± 3 mmHg (P = 0.003) and regurgitation decreased from moderate/severe (in four cases) to none/trace (in six of the seven cases). One patient remained severely symptomatic and died 3.5 months after the implantation. All others achieved a functional capacity improvement and amelioration of symptoms soon after the implantation, which persisted during follow-up.
Conclusions: TVIV may be a safe and effective strategy to treat carefully selected patients with degenerated bioprosthetic tricuspid valve at high operative risk.
Irina Briskman MD, Assaf Shelef MD MHA, Uri Berger MA, Yehuda Baruch MD MHA, Gali Bar MA, Jack Asherov MD, Artur Lvovski MD, Alan Apter MD and Yoram Barak MD MHA
Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) increases the danger of future suicide death and the risk increases with age. Self-harm in older adults is often associated with greater suicidal intent and lethality.
Objectives: To investigate clinical and psychosocial variables of older patients (age ≥ 65 years) assessed due to DSH, compared with younger adults.
Methods: Patients admitted to the Emergency Department following DSH during an 8 year period were included.
Results: Of 1149 participants, 187 (16.6%) were older adults (age ≥ 65) and 962 (83.4%) were younger adults (< 65). The older adults reported DSH closer to mid-day (P < 0.01) and suffered more frequently from adjustment disorder and depression. Personality disorders and schizophrenia were less commonly diagnosed (P < 0.001). Prescription medication (sedatives and hypnotics) were a more frequent means (88% vs. 71%) of DSH among older patients. Younger patients with DSH used over-the-counter medications (21.9% vs. 6.4%) three times more than did the older patients (P < 0.01). Past DSH was significantly more frequent in younger adults. Following DSH the older patients were frequently admitted for further general hospitalization (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: Older adults with DSH are a unique group with different clinical characteristics. There is a need for targeted prevention strategies and education of caregivers regarding DSH in older adults.
Yakir Segev MSc MD, Ella Arnon MD, Efraim Siegler MD, Ofer Gemer MD, Yael Goldberg MD, Ron Auslender MD, Anis Kaldawy MD and Ofer Lavie MD
Marina Pekar-Zlotin MD, Yaakov Melcer MD, Orna Levinsohn-Tavor MD, Josef Tovbin MD, Zvi Vaknin MD and Ron Maymon MD
Hana Vaknin-Assa MD, Abid Assali MD, Eli I. Lev MD, Gabriel Greenberg MD, Katia Orvin MD, Orna Valzer MD, Gideon Paul MD, Amos Levi MD and Ran Kornowski MD
Noémi Gyarmati MD, Ágota Kulisch MD PhD, András Németh MD, Annamária Bergmann MD, József Horváth MD, Zsuzsanna Mándó MD, Ágnes Matán MD, Erika Szakál MD, Tímea Sasné Péter, Dóra Szántó and Tamás Bender MD PhD DSc
Andrew Villion MD, Zeev Arinzon MD, Jacob Feldman MD, Oded Kimchi MD and Yitshal Berner MD
Background: Arthritis and arthralgia are painful symptoms experienced by many elderly patients during hospitalization. Crystal-induced arthritis (CIA) is one of the most common causes of arthritis worldwide and represents the most common cause of acute arthritis in the elderly.
Objective: To determine the incidence of both acute new onset or acute exacerbation of CIA among elderly patients hospitalized due to an acute medical illness.
Method: This study comprised 85 patients. Patients aged 70 years and older who complained of any articular pain were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were signs of septic arthritis, chronic use of steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or admission to the hospital due to an acute attack of CIA.
Results: Synovial aspiration was performed in 76 patients (89%). Joint aspiration yielded a diagnosis in 67 of them (79%). The predominant type of crystal was calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (68%) followed by monosodium urate (20%). The main causes of hospitalization were acute infectious disease (57%) followed by neurologic and cardiac diseases, 14% and 9% respectively, and orthopedic problems (6%). Among patients with acute infectious disease, the main causes were pulmonary (57%) and gastrointestinal (22%) infections. In 9 patients (12%) who underwent synovial aspiration, visible crystals were identified without a definite diagnosis.
Conclusion: Our study showed that hospitalization could be a risk factor for the development of CIA, and the time to diagnose CIA is during hospitalization for other acute illnesses.