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עמוד בית Tue, 25.06.19

January 2000


Original Articles
Alexander Tenenbaum MD PhD, Alexander Garniek MD, Joseph Shemesh MD, Chaim I. Stroh MD, Yacov Itzchak MD PhD, Zvi Vered MD, Michael Motro MD and Enrique Z. Fisman MD

Background: Protruding aortic atheromas are a potential source of stroke and systemic emboli. The single modality currently available for their detection has been transesophageal echocardiography. However, TEE does not allow full visualization of the upper part of the ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch.

Objectives: To investigate whether double helical computerized tomography- both with and without contrast injection - may represent a useful technique for noninvasive detection of PAA in stroke patients.

Methods: Forty consecutive patients ≥50 years of age who sustained a recent ischemic stroke and/or systemic emboli (within 15 days after the onset of the event) were enrolled in the study and underwent TEE and DHCT without contrast injection using thin slice acquisition (3.2 mm thickness and 1.5 mm reconstruction increment). In addition, the last eight consecutive patients, after obtaining an unenhanced scan, underwent a contrast-enhanced DHCT following peripheral intravenous injection of a small amount of contrast material (15 ml of diatrizoate).

Results: PAAs were demonstrated by TEE in 18 patients (45%); in 16 of them (89%) the atheromas were recognized by DHCT. Of the 22 patients without PAA on TEE, DHCT confirmed their absence in 18 (82%). DHCT yielded a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 82%, and an overall accuracy of 85%. The total number of protruding plaques detected by TEE was 43, of which 41 (95%) were correctly identified by DHCT. The mean thickness of the plaques was 5.6±2.4 mm on TEE, and 5.4±2.3 on DHCT (P=NS), with a good correlation between the modalities (γ=0.84). Contrast-enhanced DHCT scans demonstrated absolute equivalence to TEE in aortic areas defined as "clearly visualized by TEE." DHCT detected PAA between the distal ascending aorta and the proximal arch in seven patients; these atheromas were not included in the comparative analysis. In these "occult" areas, DHCT may be superior to TEE.

Conclusions: DHCT without contrast injection using thin slice acquisition may become a useful modality for rapid noninvasive detection of PAA. Contrast-enhanced DHCT scans significantly improve imaging quality and may be superior to TEE in the upper ascending aorta and the proximal arch (areas not well visualized by TEE).

 

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TEE= transesophgeal echocardiography

PAA= protruding aortic atheroma

DHCT= dual helical computerized tomography
 

Zvi Fireman MD, Leonid Trost MD, Yael Kopelman MD, Arie Segal MD and Amos Sternberg MD

Background: Previous studies have published controversial results regarding a connection between Helicobacter pylori infection and colorectal cancer. One possible mechanism is increased gastrin secretion in subjects infected with H. pylori, insofar as gastrin is known to be a trophic factor for the colonic mucosa.

Objectives: To investigate a possible role of gastrin secretion in H. pylori infection associated with colorectal cancer, and determine whether H. pylori infection is a factor in this disease.

Methods: The serum gastrin levels and the presence of H. pylori IgG antibodies were measured in 51 colorectal cancer patients and 51 control subjects. The cancer patients were also tested for carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9.

Results: H. pylori IgG antibodies were found in the serum of 41 (80.4%) of the cancer patients compared to 32 (62.7%) of the control subjects (P=0.05). A significant correlation was found between CA 19-9 (γ=0.3432, n=49, P=0.01) and seropositive H. pylori IgG antibodies in the serum of the cancer patients (odds ratio 2.43, and 95% confidence limit 0.99-5.95), but none between CEA and H. pylori IgG antibodies nor between the serum gastrin level and the presence of colorectal cancer.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate a significant association between seropositive H. pylori IgG antibodies and elevated CA 19-9 in colorectal cancer patients, but no correlation between the serum gastrin level and the presence of this cancer. H. pylori seropositivity is more prevalent in patients with colorectal cancer.
 

Rosa Michlin MD, Moshe Oettinger MD, Maruan Odeh MD, Samer Khoury MD, Ella Ophir MD, Mila Barak MD, Margareta Wolfson MD and Avshalom Strulov MD, MPH

Background: Obesity, a common condition in developed countries, is recognized as a threat to health.

Objectives: To describe the distribution of weight in pregnant women and evaluate the influence of obesity on pregnancy outcome in a high parity northern Israeli population.

Methods: The study included 887 women who gave birth in the Western Galilee Medical Center during the period August to November 1995. The patients were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese according to body mass index. Maternal demographic, obstetric, and perinatal variables were compared. A control group of 167 normal weight women were matched with the obese group for maternal age, parity, and gestational age.

Results: Obese mothers had a higher incidence of gestational diabetes and pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to normal weight mothers (5.4% vs. 1.8%, and 7.2% vs. 0.6% respectively, P<0.01), a higher rate of labor induction (20.4% vs. 10.2%, P<0.01), and a higher cesarean section rate (19.6% vs.10.8%, P<0.05). There was also a significant difference in the prevalence of macrosomia in the offspring (16.8% vs. 8.4%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: Obese pregnant women are at high risk for complications during delivery and therefore need careful pre-conception and prenatal counseling, as well as perinatal management.

Rahamim Avisar MD, Nissim Loya MD, Yuval Yassur MD and Dov Weinberger MD

Background: Previous work has suggested an association between increasing size of pterygium and increasing degrees of induced corneal astigmatism.

Objectives: To assess the quantitative relation between pterygium size and induced corneal astigmatism using a computerized corneal analysis system (TMS II) and slit-lamp beam evaluation of pterygium size, and to conclude whether corneal astigmatism is an early indication for surgical intervention.

Methods: We evaluated 94 eyes of 94 patients with unilateral primary pterygium of different sizes, using TMS II and slit-lamp beam measurements of the size of the pterygium (in millimeters) from the limbus to assess parameters of pterygium size with induced corneal astigmatism. Best corrected visual Snellen acuity was performed.

Results: Primary pterygium induced with-the-rule astigmatism. Pterygium extending 16% of the corneal radius or 1.1 mm or less from the limbus produced increasing degrees of induced astigmatism of more than 1.0 diopter. Significant astigmatism was found in 16.16% of 24 eyes with pterygium of 0.2 up to 1.0 mm in size, in 45.45% of 22 eyes with pterygium of 1.1 up to 3.0 mm in size (P≤0.0004), and in 100% of 3 eyes with pterygium of 5.1 up to 6.7 mm in size (P=0.0005). We found that visual acuity was decreased when topographic astigmatism was increased.

Conclusions: When primary pterygium reaches more than 1.0 mm in size from the limbus it induces with-the-rule significant astigmatism (≥1.0 diopter). This significant astigmatism tends to increase with the increasing size of the lesion. Topographic astigmatism tends to be improved by successful removal of the pterygium. These findings suggest that early surgical intervention in the pterygium may be indicated when the lesion is more than 1.0 mm in size from the limbus.

Amos Katz MD, Adi Biron MD, Eli Ovsyshcher MD and Avi Porath MD MPH

Background: Previous studies have documented an increased incidence of cardiac mortality and sudden death during winter months.

Objectives: To evaluate seasonal variation in sudden death in a hot climate such as the desert region of southern Israel.

Methods: We analyzed the files of 243 consecutive patients treated for out-of-hospital sudden death by the Beer Sheva Mobile Intensive Care Unit during 1989-90. Daily, monthly and seasonal incidence of sudden death was correlated with meteorological data, including temperature, heat stress, relative humidity and barometric pressure.

Results: The seasonal distribution of sudden death was 23% in spring, 21% in summer, 25% in autumn and 31% in winter (not significant). In patients with known heart disease there were more episodes of sudden death in cold weather (<15.4°C) than hot (>34.2°C) (16 vs. 3, P<0.05). Resuscitation was less successful in cold compared with hot weather (28 vs. 11, P<0.05). Of patients older than 65 years, 11 sustained sudden death when heat stress was below 12.4°C compared to 2 patients when heat stress was above 27.5°C (P=0.05).

Conclusion: Despite the warm desert climate, there were more cases of sudden death in older patients and in those with known heart disease during the winter season and on particularly cold days.
 

Shoshana Merchav PhD, Ilana Tatarsky MD, Judith Chezar MD, Rivka Sharon MD, Hanna Rosenbaum MD and Yael Schechter MD

Background: The etiology of bone marrow failure, a prominent feature of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobulinuria, is presently unknown.

Objectives: To evaluate the possible influence of cellular immune mechanisms in the bone marrow failure of PNH.

Methods: We studied marrow erythroid colony formation in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria without hypoplastic/aplastic marrow complications.

Results: In vitro assays revealed a pronounced inhibition of primitive erythroid (BFU-E) progenitor cell growth by marrow T lymphocytes. Removal of T cells prior to culture resulted in a 4.5-fold enhancement of BFU-E numbers. Reevaluation of in vitro erythropoiesis during steroid administration indicated a persistent, albeit less prominent, T cell inhibitory effect.

Conclusion: Our findings provide the first direct evidence for a cellular immune inhibitory phenomenon accompanying PNH.

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PNH= paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Reviews
Iris Baumgartner, MD and Jeff M. Isner, MD
Isabel Zvibel, PhD, Yaron Mintz, MD, Shlomo Brill, MD, Zamir Halpern, MD and Moshe Papa, MD
Case Communications
Shlomo Walfisch, MD, Lilinda Lupu, MD and David Czieger, MD, PhD, MD
Dvora Aharoni, MD, Irith Hadas-Halpern, MD, Deborah Elstein, PhD and Ari Zimran, MD
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303