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עמוד בית Wed, 26.06.19

December 2001


Original Articles
Martine Granek-Catarivas, MD

Background: Family physicians coordinate the care of their patients and follow them in a longitudinal manner. Do they have a role to play while their patients are hospitalized? Does the system of care expect them to play a role, and how does it support or integrate it?

Objectives: To discuss the various models of relations between hospital and primary care physicians in the world as compared to those in Israel.

Method: Short cases are reported describing the author’s personal experiences and difficulties encountered in a family practice.

Discussion: Identifying and defining problems encountered, as well as their origin and development within the history and evolution of the system of delivery of care in Israel, will lead to some suggestions for a possible solution. Maturation of the system, especially education of the junior staff within the hospital system, is still needed to facilitate the hospital-physician relationship.

Conclusion: More active participation of the family physician offers added value to patients’ management during their hospital stay and is welcomed by them. The full implementation of a system promoting continuity of care requires further attempts at developing suitable models of cooperation between hospital and family physicians.
 

Hava Tabenkin MD, Revital Gross, Shuli Bramli Greenberg, Dov Steinmetz MD and Asher Elhayany MD MP

Background: The rapidly increasing costs of healthcare pose a major challenge to many governments, particularly those of developed countries. Health policy makers in some Western European countries have adopted the policy of a strong primary healthcare system, partly due to their recognition of the value of primary care medicine as a means to restrain costs while maintaining the quality and equity of healthcare services. In these countries there is a growing comprehension that the role of the family physician should be central, with responsibility for assessing the overall health needs of the individual, for coordination of medical care and, as the primary caregiver, for most of the individual’s medical problems in the framework of the family and the community.

Objectives: To describe primary care physicians in Israel from their own perception, health policy makers' opinion on the role PCPs should play, and patients' view on their role as gatekeepers.

Methods: The study was based on three research tools: a) a questionnaire mailed to a representative sample of all PCPs employed by the four sick funds in Israel in 1997, b) in-depth semi-structured interviews with key professionals and policy makers in the healthcare system, and c) a national telephone survey of a random representative sample of patients conducted in 1997.

Results: PCPs were asked to rank the importance of 12 primary functions. A total of 95% considered coordination of all patient care to be a very important function, but only 43% thought that weighing economic considerations in patient management is important, and 30.6% thought that 24 hour responsibility for patients is important. Also, 60% of PCPs have undergone specialty training and 94% thought that this training is essential. With regard to the policy makers, most preferred highly trained PCPs (board-certified family physicians, pediatricians and internists) and believed they should play a central role in the healthcare system, acting as coordinators, highly accessible and able to weigh cost considerations. Yet, half opposed a full gatekeeper model. They also felt that the general population has lost faith in PCPs, and that most have a low status and do not have adequate training. Regarding the patients’ viewpoint, 40% preferred that the PCP function as their “personal physician” coordinating all aspects of their care and fully in charge of their referrals; 30% preferred self-referral to sub-specialists, and 19% preferred their PCP to coordinate their care but wanted to be able to refer themselves to specialists.

Conclusions: In order to maintain high quality primary care, it is important that all PCPs have board certification. In addition, PCP training systems should emphasize preventive medicine, health promotion, health economy, and cost-effectiveness issues. Efforts should be make to render PCPs a central role in the healthcare system by gradually implementing the elements of the gatekeeper model through incentives rather than regulations.
 

Avraham Friedman, MD and Amnon Lahad, MD, MPH

Background: Alternative medicine use is increasing worldwide and the associated expenditures are significant. In Israel 19% of patients who consulted their family physician had also sought treatment by an alternative medicine practitioner.

Objectives: To explore the correlation between different modalities of healthcare utilization, health behavior, and health belief among adult members of a kibbutz. This unique study population enabled the use of a simplified quantitative model due to the minimal individual differences in cost and access.

Methods: Healthcare utilization data were obtained for 220 kibbutz members aged 15–70 years from patient medical files and self-administered questionnaires over a 45 month period. Patient visits to the family practitioner and other specialist physicians were tallied, and individuals reported alternative medicine consultations during the previous year. Multiple regression analysis was used to control for age, chronic disease, and other background characteristics.

Results: The mean number of patient FP visits was 3.6 per patient per year. Women and chronic disease sufferers visited the doctor more frequently. A patient’s number of FP visits and other specialist physician visits were closely correlated, with each specialist physician consult resulting in an additional 0.64 FP visit for a given individual (P=0.007). Our analysis indicated that self-reported alternative therapy utilization was positively associated with the number of FP visits; patients reporting alternative therapy use visited their primary care physician once additionally per year (P=0.03). Low self-rated health status was correlated with increased likelihood of alternative therapy use (borderline significance).

Conclusion: These results suggest that a patient who seeks treatment from one type of healthcare practitioner will seek out other practitioners as well. This study supports the notion that unconventional therapies are used in conjunction with, rather than instead of, mainstream medical care.

Shlomo M. Monnickendam MD, Shlomo Vinker MD, Simon Zalewski MD, Orli Cohen MD and Eliezer Kitai MD, and Research Group of the Department of Family Medicine, Tel Aviv University

Background: Patients’ consent to being part of medical education is often taken for granted, both in primary and secondary care. Formal consent procedures are not used routinely during teaching and patients are not always aware of teaching activities.

Objective: To investigate patients’ attitudes and expectations on issues of consent regarding participation in teaching in general practice, and the influence of a student’s presence on the consultation.

Methods: The study took place in 46 teaching practices during the sixth year clinical internship in family medicine. Patients completed questionnaires at the end of 10 consecutive eligible consultations. The questionnaire contained data on the willingness to participate in teaching, the preferred consent procedure and the effects of the student’s presence. The doctors were asked to estimate the sociodemographic level in their clinic area.

Results: A total of 375 questionnaires were returned; the response rate was not affected by the clinic’s sociodemographic level. Overall, 67% of the patients had come into contact with students in the past; 3.2% of the participants objected to the presence of a student during the consultation; 15% would insist on advance notification of the presence of a student, and another 13.9% would request it; 4% stated that the presence of students had a detrimental influence on the physical examination and history; and 33.6% would refuse to be examined by a student without the doctor’s presence.

Conclusion: Most patients agreed to have a student present during the consultation; some would like prior notification; a minority refused the student’s presence. A large minority would refuse to be examined without the tutor’s presence. Our findings need to be taken into account when planning clinical clerkships.

Mirta Grynbaum MD, Aya Biderman MD, Amalia Levy PhD MPH and Selma Petasne-Weinstock MD

Background: Domestic violence is a prevalent problem with serious consequences, including a 30% risk of death. The lifetime prevalence ranges from 21 to 34%, with 8–14% of them reporting abuse in the previous year. The incidence seen in primary care practice is about 8%. Despite this high rate, domestic violence is under-diagnosed in primary care.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of domestic violence among women visiting a primary care center, to characterize them and to evaluate a screening tool.

Methods: A brief anonymous questionnaire (in Hebrew and Russian) for self-completion was used as a screening tool. During October 1998 we distributed the questionnaires in a primary care clinic in Beer Sheva to all women aged 18–60 years whose health permitted their participation. A woman was considered at high risk for domestic violence when she gave a positive answer to at least one of the three questions related to violence. The risk factors for domestic violence were calculated by odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: The response rate was 95.7%. We found 41 women (30.8%) at high risk for violence. Women preferred talking about this issue with their family physician. Women at highest risk were older than 40 years, had emigrated from the former Soviet Union during the last 10 years, were living alone, and were unemployed. None of the women visited the Domestic Violence Center during the study period and 2 months thereafter. Only three women tore off the address and phone number of the center that were attached to the questionnaire.

Conclusions: The anonymous questionnaire was well accepted and had a high compliance rate. Its disadvantages are that respondents must be literate and that it permits the woman to continue with her “secret-keeping” behavior. A high prevalence of domestic violence among women visiting a primary care clinic should convince family physicians to be more active in diagnosing the problem accurately among their patients, providing treatment and preventing further deterioration and possible danger. Further effort should be directed at improving the clinic staff's ability to detect domestic violence among patients, and in developing management programs in the health system to help combat domestic violence.

Tamar Peled MSc, Michael Weingarten BM BCh, Noemi Varsano MSc, Andre Matalon MD, Adi Fuchs MD, Robert D. Hoffman MD, Charna Zeltcer MD, Ernesto Kahan MD MPH, Ella Mendelson PhD and Tiberio A. Swartz MD MPH

Background: Each winter influenza activity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality both in Israel and worldwide.

Objectives: To identify the influenza viruses active in Israel during the winter season and to assess the extent of influenza morbidity.

Methods: Information was collected on a population of 18,684 individuals enrolled in two community clinics in central Israel. It included the total number of visits for acute respiratory infection – including influenza and influenza-like illness (ARI/flu-like) – during a 20 week surveillance period (23 November 1997 to 27 March 1998) and the percent of influenza virus isolates in nasopharyngeal specimens from a sample of patients with ARI/flu-like collected on a weekly basis during the same period.

Results: A total of 5,947 visits for ARI/flu-like were recorded among 18,684 enrolled patients in two community clinics (18.1%). The progressive increase in the number of visits for ARI/flu-like reached a peak on week 2/98 with 597 visits and a rate of 31.95 visits per 1,000 population. After this, a decrease to the initial values was evident by week 12/98. Most affected patients were in the age groups 5–14 and 65 years and over, with a rate of 733.5 and 605.3 visits per 1,000 population, respectively. Influenza virus was isolated from 92 of the 426 nasopharyngeal specimens (21.6%). The most commonly detected strain was A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2) like (77.2%). The peak rate of isolates was recorded at the beginning of January (01/98).

Conclusions: A/Sydney/5/97(H3N2) like-strain was the dominant influenza virus. Its presence did not prevent the simultaneous activity of influenza A/H1N1 virus. The dynamic of the clinical disease as expressed by the weekly visit rate for ARI/flu-like was similar to the temporal pattern of the virological findings. The extent of morbidity suggests moderate epidemic activity.
 

Zohar Nachum MD, Izhar Ben-Shlomo MD, Ehud Weiner MD, Moshe Ben-Ami MD and Eliezer Shalev MD

Background: Pregnant diabetic women are often subjected to frequent and prolonged hospitalizations to assure tight glycemic control, but in recent years attempts have been made at ambulatory control. The financial and social advantages of ambulatory management are obvious, but no report to date has prospectively compared its efficacy with that of hospitalization.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and cost of ambulatory care as compared to repeated hospitalizations for management of diabetes in pregnancy.

Methods: We conducted an 8 year prospective controlled study that included 681 diabetic women, experiencing 801 singleton pregnancies, with commencement of therapy prior to 34 gestational weeks. During 1986–1989, 394 pregnancies (60 pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and 334 gestational diabetes mellitus) were managed by hospitalization, and for the period 1990–1993, 407 pregnancies (61 PGDM and 346 GDM) were managed ambulatorily. Glycemic control, maternal complications, perinatal mortality, neonatal morbidity and hospital cost were analyzed.

Results: There was no difference in metabolic control and pregnancy outcome in women with PGDM between the hospitalized and the ambulatory groups. Patients with GDM who were managed ambulatorily had significantly lower mean capillary glucose levels, later delivery and higher gestational age at induction of labor as compared to their hospitalized counterparts. In this group there were also lower rates of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, phototherapy and intensive care unit admissions and stay. The saved hospital cost (in Israeli prices) in the ambulatory group was $6,000 and $15,000 per GDM and PGDM pregnancy, respectively.

Conclusions: Ambulatory care is as effective as hospitalization among PGDM patients and more effective among GDM patients with regard to glycemic control and neonatal morbidity. This is not only more convenient for the pregnant diabetic patient, but significantly reduces treatment costs.
 

Sophia Eilat-Tsanani MD, Mordechai Sorek MD, Nir Gay MD, Ora Chaimovitch MD, Lev Kulton MD and Hava Tabenkin MD MSc

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in Israel and throughout the world. Israeli women aged 50–75 years are advised to undergo a mammographic screening examination every 2 years. However, the lack of a structured referral system is reflected in the low utilization rate of mammography.

Objectives: To describe an innovative program in which family physicians in an urban clinic developed a model framework for referrals, coordinated with radiologists and surgeons, aimed at increasing compliance among women referred for mammography.

Methods: A community-based study was conducted, outside of the regular reception hours, in a neighborhood practice with a population of 527 women aged 50–75. A referral system under the supervision of family physicians was designed, and the women received appointments for mammography at specified days and hours. The results of the examination were sent to the physician who used dedicated time to continue the diagnostic and/or therapeutic process, as appropriate. At the physician’s instructions a research assistant contacted the women who did not keep their appointments and scheduled a second appointment.

Results: In 1993, the year prior to the study, when women referred themselves for mammography, the utilization rate was 9%. During the study year the utilization rate was 77%. Women born in Europe or America had higher compliance rates than women born in Asia or Africa (81% vs. 72%, respectively). Married women were more compliant than unmarried women (81% vs. 70%, respectively). No correlation was found between compliance and age, family history of cancer in general, or breast cancer in particular. Six new cases of breast cancer were detected.

Conclusions: The initiative of family physicians increased the utilization of mammography among women under their care. Family physicians allocated time outside of their regular reception hours for the program. A relatively large number of new malignancies were found, but this impression should be confirmed or negated by a large-scale study using the same methods.
 

Yaacov Fogelman MD and Ernesto Kahan MD MPH

Background: The prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and its pharmacologic treatment have increased dramatically in the past decade in the United States and Britain. We examined the use of methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of ADHD in children in northern Israel.

Methods: We evaluated all prescriptions for methylphenidate filled in 1999 for children aged 5–18 years residing in northern Israel who were insured by Clalit Health Services, a health maintenance organization that covers approximately 70% of the population.

Results: Methylphenidate was prescribed to 1.45% of the children in northern Israel in 1999, an increase of 20% in the overall prevalence of methylphenidate use since 1992. Eighty-two percent were boys. The rate of prescription varied widely by type of settlement, from 0.2% in Arab cities and towns to 5.7% in kibbutzim. Primary care physicians wrote 78% of all the prescriptions.

Conclusions: The increase in methylphenidate use was much smaller in northern Israel than in most other developed regions and countries. More efforts at diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit disorders may need to be directed at Arab populations and those with inadequate medical services.

Immigration and Health
Sasson Nakar MD, Shlomo Vinker MD, Eliezer Kitai MD, Eli Wertman MD and Michael Weingarten MD

Background: Migration leads to changes in almost all areas of life including health. But how far are health beliefs also preserved, and how far are they affected by the process of acculturation to the host society?

Objectives: To examine the difference between behavior and attitudes towards conventional and traditional medicine among elderly Yemenite immigrants.

Methods: A community-based study was conducted in the Yemenite neighborhoods in the city of Rehovot. All inhabitants of Yemenite origin over the age of 70 were identified from the population register, excluding those who were institutionalized or demented. Social work students interviewed them at home. The questionnaire inquired after health problems in the preceding month. For each of these problems, the respondent was asked whether any mode of treatment had been employed – Yemenite folk remedies, conventional medical care, or other. Their attitudes towards Yemenite folk medicine and conventional medicine were recorded. Socioeconomic data included their current age, age at immigration, year of immigration, marital status, gender, religiosity, and education.

Results: A total of 326 elderly people were identified who fulfilled the selection criteria, of whom 304 (93%) agreed to be interviewed. Of these, 276 (91%) reported at least one health problem in the preceding month, providing 515 problems of which 349 (68%) were reported to a conventional medical doctor while 144 (28%) were treated by popular folk remedies. Fifty-nine problems (11.5%) were treated by specifically Yemenite traditional remedies, mostly by the respondents themselves (38/59) rather than by a traditional healer. Immigrants who arrived in Israel over the age of 30 years, as compared to respondents who immigrated at an earlier age and grew up in Israel, were more likely to use traditional Yemenite remedies (24.4% vs. 8.2%, P<0.005).

Conclusion: Aged Yemenite Jews in Israel prefer modern medicine. The earlier the immigrant arrived in Israel, the more positive the attitude towards modern medicine and the less use made of traditional Yemenite healing.

John Yaphe MD MClSc, Moshe Schein MB ChB MS and Pnina Naveh RN

Background: The recent influx of Ethiopian immigrants to Israel has created challenges for healthcare workers. Qualitative research methods have proven to be of value in providing useful data in cross-cultural medical settings.

Objective: To learn about parents' perception of the health of their children among a group of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel.

Methods: Ethiopian parents of children under age 3 registered with a family medicine clinic in Jerusalem were invited to participate in two focus groups. Transcripts of the group discussions were analyzed to reveal themes relating to children's health.

Results: Analysis of the transcripts revealed five themes relating to the health of children in two domains: the intra-familial and the extra-familial. Specific themes that emerged in the intra-familial domain were: the role of traditional medicine, gender-specific roles in child care, and decision-making in seeking extra-familial medical help. Themes in the extra-familial domain were recognition of illness and the meaning of symptoms, and notions of prevention and resistance to illness. The collected data found application in the daily clinical work of the researchers and enriched understanding of their patients.

Conclusions: Ethiopian immigrants to Israel share special perceptions of their children’s health that differ from prevailing beliefs in Israel. Focus groups provide health workers with a wealth of data on these beliefs that will enable them to offer more culturally sensitive care.
 

Howard Tandeter MD, Mirta Grynbaum MD and Jeffrey Borkan MD PhD

Background: Bloodletting is practiced in Ethiopia. Physicians in Israel engaging in transcultural encounters with Ethiopian immigrants are generally unaware of these ethnomedical beliefs and practices.

Objective: To assess the past and present use of bloodletting among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel.

Methods: We interviewed a sample of 50 adult patients of Ethiopian origin about present and past use of bloodletting. A second consecutive sample of 10 adult patients of Ethiopian origin who often asked their doctors to perform blood tests were identified and interviewed. Data analysis was performed by "immersion-crystallization" analysis.

Results: More than half of the interviewed patients reported the use of bloodletting. Scars were commonly present on their upper extremities. A qualitative analysis identified the different reasons for the use of bloodletting, the technique used and its appreciated efficacy. We also found an unexpected cultural synergy between traditional bloodletting and western medical blood sampling.

Conclusions: Some Ethiopian immigrants continue to perform traditional bloodletting in their new country of residency, a practice that local physicians may not be aware of. Bloodletting-type scars on the upper extremities may be common in these patients. Patients may ask for blood sampling as a culturally accepted way to perform bloodletting (synergy).
 

Orna Baron-Epel PhD MPH and G. Kaplan MA

Background: A mass influx of immigrants from the former Soviet Union to western countries and Israel followed the demise of the Soviet Bloc at the beginning of the 1990s. It was expected that these immigrants would have a higher morbidity and mortality rate similar to that in Russia.

Objectives: To measure and compare self-reported diseases, subjective health and health services utilization of a representative sample of veteran Israeli Jews and immigrants from the former USSR.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Israeli adults was performed by telephone interviews. The survey included 793 Israeli Jews, of whom 124 were immigrants from the former USSR who arrived in Israel after 1989 (response rate 52%).

Results: The immigrants reported a higher rate of diseases and sub-optimal health after adjustment for other variables. However, no excess in health services utilization was reported. A time trend of reporting sub-optimal subjective health was observed: the longer the immigrants spent in Israel the more their reporting patterns resembled those of immigrants who arrived in Israel before 1970. Those who arrived after 1994 more frequently reported having a chronic disease.

Conclusions: Acculturation seems to have been the main effect on the immigrants' health, together with a healthy migrant effect at the beginning of the 1990s. The immigrants' health was worse in the later years of the immigration wave, partially reflecting the poor state of health in Russia compared to Israel.
 

Reviews
Asher Elhayany, MD

One of the most important issuesfor a country, its population and doctors is the effective use of its health system. The tremendous waste of resources. To combat this, and at the same time ensure that medical quality plays a role when making decisions on interventions, it is essential to equip doctors and clinic directors with information on the quality of the medical care they are providing. In order to assist clinic directors in maitaining medical quality, Clalit Health Services has developed comparative medical indices enabling doctors to compare their performance to that of their colleagues, as well as to the standard and their performance over time. The development of an index to evaluate the quality of medical treatment offered in clinics provides doctors and the health system with an essential tool to lessen the existing variation among doctors and to enhance and evaluate performance.

Rachel Dahan, MD, Shmuel Reis, MD, Doron Hermoni, MD and Jeffrey Borkan, MD
Editorials
Rachel Dahan, MD, Shmuel Reis, MD, Doron Hermoni, MD and Jeffrey Borkan, MD
Paul E. Slater, MD, MPH and Alex Leventhal, MD, MPH, MPA
Case Communications
Educational Notes
Howard Tandeter, MD and Martine Granek-Catarivas, MD

In countries in which a primary care-oriented system has developed, general practitioners, family physicians, and other primary care doctors are the keystone of an approach that aims to achieve high quality and satisfaction with relatively low costs. Despite this new trend, medical schools still produce excessive numbers of sub-specialists rather than prinary care physicians. Among multiple reasons influencing a career choice either towards or away from primary care (institutional, legislative, and market pressures), the present article discusses ways in which medical school curricula may affect students in their perceptions of the role of primary care physicians. Since students are greatly influenced by the cultures of the institutions in which they train, the negative attitude of university towards family medicine may negatively affect the number of students going into this specialty. Examples from Israeli faculties are presented.

Shmuel Reis MD, Margalit Goldfracht MD, Ada Tamir DSc, Riki Van Raalte MA, Tomas Spenser FRCGP and Doron Hermoni MD

Background: Which medical specialties do Israeli medical graduates choose? Answers to this question can serve as an essential means of evaluating both Israeli medical education and the healthcare system.

Objectives: To determine the distribution of medical specialty choice, its change over time and the posible influence of the medical school on the choice; to study the graduates’ gender, gender variability in specialty choice of family medicine as a career among the graduates as a group, by medical school, gender, and time trends.

Method: The study population comprised all graduates of the four medical schools in Israel during 16 years: 1980-1995 inclusive. Data were obtained from the four medical schools, the Israel Medical Association’s Scientific Council, and the Ministry of Health. Data allowed for correct identification of two-third of the graduates.

Results: A total of 4,578 physicians graduated during this period. There was a significant growth trend in the proportion of women graduates from 22.6% in 1980 (lowest: 20.0% un 1981) to 35.3 in 1995 (highest: 41.5% in 1991). Overall, 3,063 physicians (66.8%) started residency and 1,714 (37.4%) became specialists. The four most popular residencies were internal medicine. Ten percent of Israeli graduates choose family medicine.

Conclusions: The overall class size in Israel was stable at a time considerable population change. Women’s place in Israeli medicine is undergoing significant change. Family medicine is one of the four most popular residencies. Amonitoring system for MSC in Israel is imperative.
 

Uzi Milman MD, Mordechai Alperin MD, Shmuel Reis MD, Riki Van-Ralte MA and Doron Hermoni MD BSc

Background: Most of the published documents proposing teaching objectives for undergraduate clerkships were prepared by expert bodies. Seldom have the clinical teachers, who are critical to the learning process and to the implementationof the  teaching objectives, been the actual proponents of its core content.

Objective: To develop a national-scale proposal of teaching, objectives for the family medicine clerckship in medical school, using a consensus method and the actual, community-based teachers as the expert body.

Method: The Delphi method was chosen for that purpose. In the first round all 189 family medicine teachers in Israeli medical schools were asked to propose five teaching objectives. In the second round the objectives, which were generatedin the first round, were characterized by key words and were send to the participants as a second round for ranking according to their importance.

Results: A total of 116 family medicine teachers (61.38%) responded in the first round and 91 of the 116 (78.5%) in the second round. They formulated 51 teaching objectives listed in order of importance, covering a wide array of themes and including knowledge, attitude and skills objectives. The most important objectives were common problems in primary care, recognition of the biopsychosocial model, and understanding the importance of the doctor-patient relationship. The structure of the list provides a uniqe insight into the relative importance of each objective in the context of the whole core content of the clerkship.

Conclusions: Constructing a proposal for teaching objectives is feasible using the Delphi method and the field instructors as the selecting body. The process and its results can provide faculty with relevant and important suggestions on the content and structure of the family medicine clerkship.
 

Clinical Views
Orith Portnoy, MD, Gabriela Gayer, MD, Nicholas Onaca, MD, Eitan Heldenberg, MD and Sara Apter, MD
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303