• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Doctors card
  • Follow us
עמוד בית Thu, 14.11.19

February 2002


Perspective
Abraham Rudnick, MD, PhD

The notion of health used in medicine may have important implications, such as guiding the allocation of medical resources. This paper explores the notion of health through an overview and conceptual analysis of various notions of health found in modern medical and the philosophical literature. It argues that health is characterized either positively or negatively (per exclusion), and either mechanistically (as the set of common or ideal states of a species) or holistically (as unimpaired self-organization of organisms). The paper concludes that a sound notion of health characterizes health negatively and holistically, assimilating mechanism as a good approximation in simple cases.

Original Articles
Diab Mutlak, MD, Luis Gruberg, MD, Shimon Reisner, MD and Walter Markiewicz, MD, FACC

Background: Percutaneous transluminal septal ablation was recently introduced as an alternative to surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. In this procedure, alcohol is injected into a proximal septal artery to create a localized myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To characterize the immediate and mediumterm results following PTSMA.

Methods: Of 13 patients referred for PTSMA, 8 were found suitable for the procedure. Hemodynamic parameters were evaluated prior to and following the procedure, and clinical and echo-Doppler parameters at 2 weeks and 9 months later.

Results: The procedure was technically successful in all patients. Resting left ventricular outflow gradient at rest (by Doppler) fell from 82 + 37 to 15 + 8 mmHg (P<0.001) 9 months later. Late post-procedural gradient after the Valsalva maneuver was 2 + 24 mmHg. The degree of mitral regurgitation fell from 2.0 + 0 to 1.5 + 0.5 (P<0.05). New York Heart Association class for dyspnea improved from 2.8 + 0.5 to 1.8 + (P<0.01) and Canadian Cardiovascular Society class for angina from 2.0 + 1.3 to 1.3 + 1.2 (P=0.08). Complete right bundle branch block developed in six patients, temporary complete atrioventricular block in three, and persistent block requiring permanent pacing in one. No flow in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery (presumably due to spilling of alcohol) was seen in one (with development of a small antero-apical infraction) and ventricular fibrillation 2 hours post-procedure in one. None of the patients died.

Conclusion: PTSMA provided a substantial reduction in left ventricular outflow gradient associated with an improvement in symptomatology. Serious complications are not uncommon. Long-term follow-up is unknown.
 

Jochanan G. Peiser, MD, MPH and Dan Greenberg, MSc

Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring surgical intervention. Open appendectomy has been a safe and effective operation for acute appendicitis for more than a century. Recently, several authors proposed that the new technique of laparoscopic appendectomy should be the preferred treatment for acute appendicitis. However, unlike laparoscopic cholecystectomy, LA[1] has not yet gained popularity.

Objectives: To compare open with laparoscopic appendectomy for length of operation, complications, postoperative pain control, length of hospitalization, and hospital costs.

Methods: A sample of 194 patients who underwent OA[2] and LA during 1995 was randomly selected for the study. Patients' demographic data, preoperative laboratory and physical values, histopathologic diagnosis of removed appendix, mean operating time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative pain control and complications were reviewed.

Results: Acute appendicitis was confirmed in 66% of patients. The groups were similar demographically (gender and mean age). We could not find any statistical differences in intraoperative and postoperative complications and use of antibiotics. The operative time was longer in the OA group (62.4 vs. 57.3 minutes), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.075). The hospital stay was 2.5 days in the LA group and 2.7 days in the OA group. Higher operative costs were observed in the LA group.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic appendectomy is comparable to open appendectomy with regard to complications, length of operation, hospital stay, but it is more costly. Laparoscopic appendectomy does not offer any significant benefit over the open approach.






[1] LA = laparoscopic appendectomy



[2] OA = open appendectomy


Leah Peleg, PhD, Rachel Pesso, PhD, Boleslaw Goldman, MD, Keren Dotan, Merav Omer, Eitan Friedman, MD, PhD, Michal Berkenstadt, PhD, Haike Reznik-Wolf, PhD and Gad Barkai, MD

Background: The Bloom syndrome gene, BLM, was mapped to 15q26.1 and its product was found to encode a RecQ DNA helicase. The Fanconi anemia complementation group C gene was mapped to chromosome 9q22.3, but its product function is not sufficiently clear. Both are recessive disorders associated with an elevated predisposition to cancer due to genomic instability. A single predominant mutation of each disorder was reported in Ashkenazi Jews: 2281delATCTGAinsTAGATTC for Bloom syndrome (BLM-ASH) and IVS4+4A®T for Fanconi anemia complementation group C.

Objectives: To provide additional verification of the mutation rate of BLM and FACC[1] in unselected Ashkenazi and non-Ashkenazi populations analyzed at the Sheba Medical Center, and to trace the origin of each mutation.

Methods: We used polymerase chain reaction to identify mutations of the relevant genomic fragments, restriction analysis and gel electrophoresis. We then applied the ProntoTM kit to verify the results in 244 samples and there was an excellent match.

Results: A heterozygote frequency of 1:111 for BLM-ASH and 1:92 for FACC was detected in more than 4,000 participants, none of whom reported a family history of the disorders. The ProntoTM kit confirmed all heterozygotes. Neither of the mutations was detected in 950 anonymous non-Ashkenazi Jews. The distribution pattern of parental origin differed significantly between the two carrier groups, as well as between each one and the general population.

Conclusions: These findings as well as the absence of the mutations in non-Ashkenazi Jews suggest that: a) the mutations originated in the Israelite population that was exiled from Palestine by the Roman Empire in 70 AD and settled in Europe (Ashkenazi), in contrast to those who remained; and b) the difference in origin distribution of the BS[2] and FACC mutations can be explained by either a secondary migration of a subgroup with a subsequent genetic drift, or a separate geographic region of introduction for each mutation.

______________________________________

[1] FACC = Fanconi anemia complementation group C


[2] BS = Bloom syndrome

Imad R. Makhoul, MD, DSc, Polo Sujov, MD, Leon Ardekian, DDS, Imad Kassis, MD, Tatiana Smolkin, MD, Imad Abu-Elnaa'j, DMD, Ada Tamir, DSc and Dov Laufer, DMD

Background: Factors influencing the oral flora of premature infants have not been adequately investigated.

Objective: To investigate the effects of gestational age and of anti-bacterial therapy on the oral flora of premature infants.

Methods: Oral cultures were obtained at age 1 day and age 10 days from 65 premature infants, divided into three groups: a) 24 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who did not receive ABT, b) 23 neonates of 30-34 weeks gestation who received ABT, and c) 18 neonates < 30 weeks gestation who received ABT.

Results: Oral bacterial colonization increased from day 1 to day 10 of life. In 24-34 week neonates, gestational age did not affect early bacteremia or oral colonization at birth. Neither gestational age nor ABT affected late bacteremia or oral colonization at day 10. In 30-34 week neonates with ABT, the oral flora consisted mainly of non-Escherichia coli gram-negative bacteria, whereas those who did not receive ABT grew mainly alpha-hemolytic streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli in neonates < 30 weeks who received ABT the oral flora were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci. Oral colonization with anearobes was zero and colonization with fungi was minimal.

Conclusions: Acquistion of oral bacteria rose from day 1 to day 10 of life, regardless of gestational life or ABT. On day 10 of life, the spectrum of oral bacterial flora changed following ABT and consisted mainly of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and non E. coli garm-negative bacteria. Oral colonization showed few fungi but no anaerobes. These microbiologic observations merit attention when empirical anti-microbial therapy is considered in premature infants suspected or having late-onset sepsis.

Freda DeKeyser, RN, PhD, Malka Avitzour, MPH, Dorraine Day Watts, PhD, RN, Arthur L. Trask, MD and Michael Muggia-Sullam, MD

Background: Trauma is viewed by many as a global problem. The phenomenon of similar outcomes within differing healthcare delivery systems can illuminate the strengths and weaknesses of various trauma systems as well as the effects of these characteristics on patient outcome.

Objectives: To compare and contrast demographic and injury characteristics as well as patient outcomes of two urban/suburban trauma centers, one in Israel and the other in the United States.

Methods: Study data were obtained from the trauma registries of two trauma centers. Demographic variables, injury characteristics and outcomes were compared statistically between registries.

Results: Significant differences between the registries were found in demographic variables (age), injury characteristics (Injury Severity Score and mechanism of injury), and outcome (mortality and length of stay). Age and Injury Severity Score were found to be significant predictors of outcome in both registries. The Glasgow Coma Score was found to contribute to patient outcomes more than the ISS[1]. Differences were found in the relative impact of injury and demographic factors on outcomes between the registries. After including the influence of these factors on patient outcomes, significant differences still remained between the outcomes of the trauma centers.

Conclusions: Despite possible explanations for these differences, true comparisons between centers are problematic.

_______________________________



[1] ISS = Injury Severity Score


Mickey Scheinowitz, PhD, Arkady-Avi Kotlyar, PhD, Shachar Zimand, MD, Ilan Leibovitz, MD, Nira Varda-Bloom, Dan Ohad, Iris Goldberg, PhD, Santiego Engelberg, MD, Nafthali Savion, PhD and Michael Eldar, MD

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated myocardial salvage by basic fibroblast growth factor administration following chronic myocardial ischemia or acute myocardial infarction.

Objectives: To study the effect of bFGF[1] on left ventricular morphometry following coronary occlusion and reperfusion episode in rats.

Methods: bFGF (0.5 mg) or placebo was continuously administered for a period of one week using an implanted osmotic pump. Animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after surgery and myocardial cross-sections were stained with Masson-trichrome and with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody.

Results: LV[2] area, LV cavity diameter, LV cavity/wall thickness ratio, and injury size were unchanged compared with control animals. Proliferating endothelial cells were significantly more abundant in injured compared with normal myocardium, but with no differences between animals treated or not treated with bFGF.

Conclusions: One week of systemic bFGF administration following coronary occlusion and reperfusion had no additional effect on LV geometry or cellular proliferation in rats.

________________________

[1]
bFGF = basic fibroblast growth factor

[2] LV = left ventricular

Immunology Series
Case Communications
Eilon Shany, MD, David Greenberg, MD and Eliezer Shahak, MD
Jacob Ablin, MD, Shaltiel Cabili, MD, Ayala Lagziel, PhD and Hava Peretz, PhD
Nir Cohen, MD, David Keret, MD, Eli Ezra, MD and Franklin Lokiec, MD
Clinical Problem-solving
Shomron Ben Horin, MD, David Luria, MD, Michael Glikson, MD and Avi Livneh, MD
Educational Notes
Netta Notzer, PhD and Ruth Abramovitz, MA

Background: The importance of health promotion and disease prevention in health policy and clinical practice is widely accepted in many countries. However, a large number of medical schools do not dedicate a significant part of their curriculum to these aspects. In Israel, there are no reports on the training of the future physician towards his or her role as health promoter in general, or in the areas of cardiovascular and cancer diseases specifically.

Objectives: To examine the preparation of Israel medical students for the role of health promoter in cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: The study was carried out over 2 years in two of the four medical schools in Israel: the Sackler Faculty of Medicine at Tel Aviv University and the Faculty of Health Sciences at Ben Gurion University in Beer Sheva. The students (n=172, 70% response rate) were surveyed during 1999-2000 by means of a questionnaire, which included assessment of their training towards the role of health promoter, their clinical experiences and exposure to patients at different stages of illnesses at various medical sites, and the specific skills and relevant knowledge they acquired.

Results: Most of the students’ learning experiences occurred in hospitals with patients at the treatment stage and little time was dedicated to prevention, especially in the community. They demonstrated better knowledge, skills and satisfaction with their learning experiences in CVD than in cancer; and reported having insufficient exposure to several common cancer diseases and lacking examining skills for early detection of cancer. The students in Beer Sheva had significantly more interaction with patients at different stages of CVD and acquired more examination skills than the Tel Aviv students.

Conclusions: A change in the curriculum is urgently needed: namely training medical students in community settings and preparing them to promote the well-being of their patients, including prevention. Attention should be given to launching new learning modes in the pre-clinical and clinical curriculum. We propose that: a) pre-clinical courses include prevention techniques in CVD and cancer, problems of cancer patients, and some examining skills; and b) the clinical phase should integrate oncology concepts and total cancer and CVD care into existing clerkships in the hospitals and in the community.
 

Congress Points
הבהרה משפטית: כל נושא המופיע באתר זה נועד להשכלה בלבד ואין לראות בו ייעוץ רפואי או משפטי. אין הר"י אחראית לתוכן המתפרסם באתר זה ולכל נזק שעלול להיגרם. כל הזכויות על המידע באתר שייכות להסתדרות הרפואית בישראל. מדיניות פרטיות
ז'בוטינסקי 35 רמת גן, בניין התאומים 2 קומות 10-11, ת.ד. 3566, מיקוד 5213604. טלפון: 03-6100444, פקס: 03-5753303