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עמוד בית
Sat, 18.05.24

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October 2022
Osnat Zmora MD, Atara Indursky MD, Baruch Klin MD, Sonia Mendlovic MD

Background: Rare incidence cases are part of the routine work of pediatric surgeons. Cecal anomalies in children are an example of such cases.

Objectives: To describe the presentation, workup, management and outcome of rare cecal anomalies in children and to analyze the skills needed for their successful treatment.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of cecal anomalies managed by the pediatric surgical service at a tertiary hospital from June 2017 to January 2020. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, radiological studies, surgical treatment, pathology, complications, and outcome were collected.

Results: Five cases of cecal anomalies were encountered over a period of 32 months, including a cecal volvulus, cecal duplication, cecal intussusception, and two cecal masses (one ulcerated lipoma and one polyp). All patients, except the patient with cecal duplication, presented acutely and were managed surgically. Long-term follow-up of 17–24 months was unremarkable in all cases.

Conclusions: A wide knowledge base, careful judgment, and creativity enable pediatric surgeons to successfully treat rare conditions such as rare cecal anomalies. These skills should be part of the education of pediatric surgery trainees.

May 2022
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Hilli Nativ MD, Itamar Ashkenazi MD, Jonathan Hammerschlag MD, and Igor Jeroukhimov MD

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on healthcare systems worldwide. The fear of seeking medical attention to avoid the possibility of being infected may have altered the course of some diseases.

Objectives: To describe our experience with the management of patients with acute cholecystitis during the pandemic at our medical center.

Methods: We compared patients treated for acute cholecystitis between 1 March and 31 August 2020 (Group I) to patients admitted with the same diagnosis during the same months in 2019 (Group II). We evaluated demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory and imaging findings at presentation, the disease's clinical course, management, and outcome.

Results: Group I consisted of 101 patients and group II included 94 patients. No differences were noted for age (66 years, IQR 48–78 vs. 66 years, IQR 47–76; P = 0.50) and sex (57.4% vs. 51.1% females; P = 0.39) between the two groups. The delay between symptom onset and hospital admission was longer for Group I patients (3 days, IQR 2–7 vs. 2 days, IQR 1–3; P = 0.002). Moderate to severe disease was more commonly encountered in Group I (59.4% vs. 37.2%, P = 0.003). Group I patients more often failed conservative management (36% vs. 6%, P = 0.001) and had a higher conversion rate to open surgery (15.4% vs. 0%, P = 0.025).

Conclusions: Patients presenting with acute cholecystitis during the COVID-19 pandemic more often presented late to the emergency department and more showed adverse outcomes

February 2022
Itay Zoarets MD, Yehonatan Nevo MD, Chaya Schwartz MD, Moti Cordoba BSc, Udi Shapira BSc, Motti Gutman MD FACS, and Oded Zmora MD FACS FASCRS

Background: Pilonidal sinus is a chronic, inflammatory condition. Controversy exists regarding the best surgical  management for pilonidal sinus, including the extent of excision and type of closure of the surgical wound.

Objectives: To assess the short- and long-term outcomes and success rate of the trephine procedure for the treatment of pilonidal sinus.

Method: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted at a single center. Patients who underwent trephine procedure between 2011 and 2015 were included. Data collection included medical records review and a telephone interview to establish long-term follow-up.

Results: A total of 169 patients underwent the trephine technique for the repair of pilonidal sinus. Follow-up included 113 patients, median age 20 years. Initial postoperative period, 35.6% recalled no pain and 58.6% reported a mild to moderate pain. Postoperative complications included local infection (7.5%) and mild bleeding (15.1%). On early postoperative follow-up, 47.1% recalled no impairment in quality of life, and 25%, 21.2 %, and 6.7% had mild, moderate and sever disturbance respectively. The median time to return to work or school was 10 days. At a median follow-up of 29 months (IQR 19–40), recurrence rate was 45.1% (51/113), and 38 (33.9%) of the patients underwent another surgical procedure. Overweight, smoking, and family history were associated with higher recurrence rate.

Conclusion: The trephines technique has a significant long-term recurrence rate. Short-term advantages include low morbidity, enhanced recovery, and minimal to mild postoperative impairment to quality of life. The trephine procedure may be justified as a first treatment of pilonidal disease

February 2019
Osnat Zmora MD, Ron Beloosesky MD, Ayala Gover MD and Moshe Bronshtein MD

Background: Unilateral renal agenesis is a rare finding. There are no large-scale studies reporting this finding in early pregnancy.

Objectives: To evaluate the incidence of unilateral renal agenesis (URA) and of associated anomalies diagnosed by early prenatal trans-vaginal sonography.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all 59,382 trans-vaginal scans performed at 14–16 weeks gestation by a single operator at different clinics during the period 1994–2013.

Results: The incidence of URA was 1:1212 (49/59382 cases). Associated anomalies were diagnosed in 22 cases (45%). Renal anomalies were diagnosed in 22.4%. Extra-renal anomalies (with exclusion of a single umbilical artery or nuchal edema as isolated findings) were diagnosed in 24.5%. Ambiguous genitalia were diagnosed in 8.2%.

Conclusions: URA is a rare finding in early trans-vaginal sonography. Associated anomalies are very common and should be sought.

May 2018
Yehuda Hershkovitz MD, Itamar Ashkenazi MD, Zahar Shapira MD, Oded Zmora MD and Igor Jeroukhimov MD

Background: Damage control laparotomy (DCL) is the widely accepted procedure of choice in management of severely injured trauma patient. It has been implemented in non-trauma-related surgical pathology in the last decade.

Objectives: To evaluate our experience with planned re-laparotomy (PRL) in non-trauma patients and compare it to other reports.

Methods: Charts of all patients admitted to Assaf Harofeh Medical Center who underwent PRL for non-trauma-related abdominal pathology during a 6 year period were reviewed. Data regarding demographics, vital signs, laboratory tests, indications for surgery, length of hospital stay, and mortality were obtained from medical charts. Indications for surgery, risk factors, and mortality were analyzed.

Results: The study was comprised of 181 patients. Primary abdominal sepsis (50), postoperative sepsis (49), mesenteric event (32), and intestinal obstruction (28) were the most common indications for PRL. Mortality rate was 48.6%. Factors correlating with increased mortality were advanced age, hypotension, hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, and renal failure. Bowel resection was performed on 122 patients (67%) and primary intestinal anastomosis constructed in 46.7%. Mortality rate was lower in patients who underwent PRL with primary anastomosis compared to patients with postponed bowel anastomosis (33.3% vs. 55.4%, P = 0.018).

Conclusions: PRL in abdominal emergencies carries a high mortality rate. Primary anastomosis may be considered in non-trauma-related PRL.

March 2018
Avinoam Nevler MD, Yaniv Berger MD, Avital Rabinovitz MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Danny Rosin MD and Mordechai Gutman MD FACS

Background: Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common indications for emergency abdominal surgery.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the management of acute appendicitis.

Methods: Consecutive emergency department patients referred for a surgical consult for suspected AA were prospectively enrolled in the study. Data regarding demographic, clinical and laboratory results were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed for all evaluated parameters. Clinical and laboratory markers were evaluated for diagnostic accuracy and correlation to the clinical severity, histology reports, and length of hospital stay.

Results: The study was comprised of 100 consecutive patients. ROC curve analysis revealed white blood cell count, absolute neutrophils count (ANC), C-reactive protein, total-bilirubin and direct-bilirubin levels as significant factors for diagnosis of AA. The combination of serum bilirubin levels, alanine transaminase levels, and ANC yielded the highest area under the curve (0.898, 95% confidence interval 0.835–0.962, P<0.001) with a diagnostic accuracy of 86%. In addition, total and direct bilirubin levels significantly correlated with the severity of appendicitis as described in the operative and pathology reports (P < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin also significantly correlated with the length of hospital stay (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Serum bilirubin levels, alone or combined with other markers, may be considered as a clinical marker for AA correlating with disease existence, severity, and length of hospital stay. These findings support the routine use of serum bilirubin levels in the workup of patients with suspected AA.

April 2017
Avinoam Nevler MD, Gil Har-Zahav MD, Avigdor Abraham MD, Ginette Schiby MD, Oded Zmora MD, Moshe Shabtai MD, Mordechai Gutman MD and Danny Rosin MD

Background: Diagnosis of abdominal lymphadenopathy is challenging when not accompanied by peripheral lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy has largely replaced open procedures in recent years, but this approach is limited by access to the anatomic region and the amount of tissue acquired.

Objective: To demonstrate the feasibility of the laparoscopic approach in obtaining abdominal lymph node biopsies and to evaluate the diagnostic adequacy of the technique.

Methods: We reviewed the data of patients who underwent laparoscopic lymph node biopsy between 2014 and 2014 in our department. Demographics, intra-operative parameters and postoperative course were examined, as were histological reports. Postoperative complications were categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo(CD) classification.

Results: Between 2004 and 2014, 57 laparoscopic biopsies were performed for intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. One case was a repeated attempt due to limited histologic material. The mean age was 49.5 ± 19.6 years. There were two conversions to open laparotomy, one due to small bowel injury and the other due to a sizable mass. Overall, 56 cases had full clinical data: 48 cases (85.7%) had CD=0, six (10.7%) had CD=1, one postoperative severe complication (CD=3) and one mortality (CD=5), which was related to preexisting hepatic insufficiency. Mean hospital stay was 1.6 days. Overall, adequate tissue samples were acquired in 96.7% and only 3 of these cases resulted in inconclusive diagnoses.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic lymph node biopsy is a viable alternative to the currently available methods of tissue retrieval. It provides an access for nodes which are inaccessible percutaneously, and may allow a superior diagnostic yield.

September 2015
Shannon L. Castle MD, Osnat Zmora MD, Stephanie Papillon MD, Dan Levin MD and James E. Stein MD

Background: Gastric bezoars in children are infrequent. Most are trichobezoars. Surgical intervention is sometimes necessary.

Objectives: To describe the clinical findings and radiological workup, as well as treatment and outcome of patients with complicated gastric bezoars who underwent surgery in our institution.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of surgery for gastric bezoars performed in our institution between 2000 and 2010. Data collected included gender and age of the patients, composition and extent of the bezoar, presenting signs and symptoms, imaging studies used, performance of endoscopy, and surgical approach. Outcome was measured by the presence of postoperative complications.

Results: We identified seven patients with gastric bezoars who underwent surgery. All were females aged 4–19 years. Six had trichobezoars and one had a mass composed of latex gloves. Presenting symptoms included abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss, and halitosis. All patients had a palpable epigastric mass. A large variety of imaging modalities was used. Endoscopic removal was attempted in three patients but failed, and the laparoscopic approach was attempted in one patient and failed. All patients eventually underwent laparotomy with gastrotomy and recovered without complications. 

Conclusions: The presence of gastric bezoars should be suspected in any child with unexplained abdominal pain, vomiting, weight loss, or halitosis, or with a palpable abdominal mass, especially in girls. A variety of imaging modalities can aid in diagnosis. Endoscopic removal might be attempted, although failure of this approach is frequent and must prompt surgical intervention, preferably laparotomy and gastrotomy, which has an excellent outcome.

 

August 2011
D. Rosin, A. Lebedyev, D. Urban, D. Aderka, O. Zmora, M. Khaikin, A. Hoffman, M. Shabtai and A. Ayalon

Background: The treatment of rectal cancer has changed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced surgical techniques have led to an increase in the rate of sphincter-preserving operations, even for low rectal tumors. This was facilitated by preoperative oncologic treatment and the use of chemoradiation to downstage the tumor before resection. The introduction of total mesorectal excision further improved the oncologic outcome and became the standard of care. The use of laparoscopy for rectal resection is the most recent addition to this series of improvements, but in contrast to the use of laparoscopy in colon cancer its role is not yet well defined.

Objectives: To present our experience with laparoscopic surgery for upper and lower rectal tumors.

Methods: A database was used to prospectively collect all data on laparoscopic rectal surgery in our department since we started performing these procedures in 1997. Follow-up data were collected from outpatient clinic visits, oncology files and telephone interviews. Updated survival data were retrieved from the national census.

Results: Of 750 laparoscopic colorectal procedures performed over a 13 year period, 67 were for rectal cancer. Of these, 29 were resections for tumors in the upper rectum (1115 cm from the anal verge) and 38 for tumors at 10 cm or below. Surgery was performed in 24 patients after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There were 54 sphincter-preserving operations and 13 abdominoperineal resections. The mean operative time was 283 minutes. Conversion to an open procedure was required in 22% of the cases. Anastomotic leaks occurred in 17% of cases. Postoperative mortality was 4.5%. Long-term follow-up was available for 77% of the group, for a mean period of 42 months. Local recurrence was diagnosed in 4.5% of the patients and overall 5 year survival was 68%.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic rectal resection is a demanding procedure. However, laparoscopy may become the preferred approach since it is a minimally invasive procedure and has an acceptable oncologic outcome that is comparable to the open approach. This conclusion, however, needs further validation.
 

April 2010
I. Besser, Z.H. Perry, O. Mesner, E. Zmora and A. Toker

Background: Hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn is common. Rarely is an underlying disease other than physiologic hyperbilirubinemia considered the cause of high bilirubin levels. Some of the laboratory tests recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics are expensive and do not always lead to diagnosis.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of standard laboratory tests performed on newborn infants requiring phototherapy for hyperbilirubinaemia.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review that included neonates born during a 6 month period with birth weight > 2500 g treated with phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia (n=282) according to published guidelines. The main outcome measures were primary and maximal bilirubin values (mg/dl), time to jaundice (in days), the number of bilirubin tests undertaken and whether the patient showed abnormal functioning, and the number of days in follow-up.

Results: Thirty-three neonates (11.7%) were positive in at least one laboratory test (defined as "Abnormal" in our study), 45.5% of whom met the criteria for phototherapy during the first 48 hours of life. Among the newborns who were negative for all laboratory tests (defined as "Normal"), only 6.8% met phototherapy criteria within their first 48 hours of life (P < 0.001). In the Normal group there was a consistent decrease in total serum bilirubin values shortly after phototherapy was begun, while the Abnormal group presented an increase in serum bilirubin values during the first 12 hours of phototherapy. None of the infants had conjugated (direct) hyperbilirubinemia during the study period.

Conclusions: Most neonates presenting with a laboratory identifiable etiology for hyperbilirubinemia (i.e., hemolysis) can be distinguished from those who test negative, mainly based on the timing of presentation and response to phototherapy. A more meticulous selection of patients and reduction in the magnitude of routine laboratory testing can safely reduce discomfort to infants with hyperbilirubinemia as well as costs.

March 2007
M. Khaikin, Y. Chowers and O. Zmora
Perianal Crohn's disease refers to the involvement of the anal region in this chronic inflammatory bowel disease. It most commonly presents with the formation of perianal abscesses and fistulas, although other forms of presentations such as fissures and skin tags may also be present. Perianal activity often parallels abdominal disease activity, but may occasionally be the primary site of active disease, and significantly compromises the quality of life in affected patients. The primary treatment of patients with perianal Crohn's disease combines medical and surgical management with the aim of improving quality of life and alleviating suffering. A multidisciplinary approach involving the patient, surgeon, gastroenterologist, radiologist, pathologist, nutritionist, and other specialists makes the successful treatment of PCD[1] possible. This paper reviews the management of patients with perianal Crohn's disease, focusing on contemporary medical and surgical treatments such as infliximab, endorectal advancement flap, instillation of fibrin glue, and the potential use of extracellular matrix plugs






[1] PCD = perianal Crohn's disease


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