• IMA sites
  • IMAJ services
  • IMA journals
  • Follow us
  • Alternate Text Alternate Text
עמוד בית
Tue, 28.05.24

Search results


May 2024
Oshrit Hoffer PhD, Moriya Cohen BS, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Shay Nathanson MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis in children. However, distinguishing GAS from viral pharyngitis is sometimes difficult. Unnecessary antibiotic use contributes to unwanted side effects, such as allergic reactions and diarrhea. It also may increase antibiotic resistance. 

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a machine learning algorithm on the clinical evaluation of bacterial pharyngitis in children.

Methods: We assessed 54 children aged 2–17 years who presented to a primary healthcare clinic with a sore throat and fever over 38°C from 1 November 2021 to 30 April 2022. All children were tested with a streptococcal rapid antigen detection test (RADT). If negative, a throat culture was performed. Children with a positive RADT or throat culture were considered GAS-positive and treated antibiotically for 10 days, as per guidelines. Children with negative RADT tests throat cultures were considered positive for viral pharyngitis. The children were allocated into two groups: Group A streptococcal pharyngitis (GAS-P) (n=36) and viral pharyngitis (n=18). All patients underwent a McIsaac score evaluation. A linear support vector machine algorithm was used for classification.

Results: The machine learning algorithm resulted in a positive predictive value of 80.6 % (27 of 36) for GAS-P infection. The false discovery rates for GAS-P infection were 19.4 % (7 of 36).

Conclusions: Applying the machine-learning strategy resulted in a high positive predictive value for the detection of streptococcal pharyngitis and can contribute as a medical decision aid in the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P.

July 2023
Ravit Bassal PhD, Varda Shalev MD, Vered H. Eisenberg MD, Orit Stein-Reisner MD, Eduardo Schejter MD

Background: Depression has been shown to be associated with cervical tumors (CTs), an association mostly demonstrated in studies in which temporality could not have been ascertained.

Objectives: To study the association between depression and CTs and the influence of co-morbidities of this association in a large cohort study.

Methods: A retrospective computer-based cohort study was conducted. The cohort included 357,450 female members of Maccabi Healthcare Services. The cohort was classified as depressed or non-depressed using the International Classification of Diseases 9/10 codes. For each subgroup, demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics, co-morbidities, and CTs diagnosis were obtained. The burden of co-morbidities was defined as the sum of major co-morbidities. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis due to over-dispersion to estimate the relative risk (RR) for CTs with 95% confidence interval (95%CI).

Results: Depression was diagnosed in 15,789 women. Among this group, CTs were diagnosed in 1585 (10.0%). Among the 341,661 non-depressed, CTs were diagnosed in 4185 (1.2%). After adjustment to age and socioeconomic status, the association between depression and CTs was RR=9.2 (95%CI 8.7–9.9, P-value < 0.0001). The association between depression and CTs increased as the burden of clinical conditions increased (P-value < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Women with depression are at a higher risk for CTs, especially among those who have several co-morbidities. Tighter gynecology surveillance is crucial among these women.

Maayan Diti Machnes MD, Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Yiska Loewenberg Weisband MD, Moriya Cohen MD, Moshe Hoshen PhD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD

Background: Group A Streptococcus (GAS), the predominant bacterial pathogen of pharyngitis, is sometimes difficult to distinguish clinically from viral pharyngitis. Despite the high prevalence of viral pharyngitis in children, antibiotic treatment is common.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) on antibiotic prescription in children with GAS pharyngitis (GAS-P) at a large pediatric community clinic.

Methods: Antibiotic prescription data were collected from October 2016 to March 2017 (pre-intervention period) and from October 2017 to March 2018 (post-intervention period). The intervention was a one-day seminar for primary care pediatricians on the diagnosis and treatment of GAS-P in children according to national guidelines.

Results: The overall prevalence of testing differed between the two time periods. There was a decrease in children who did not undergo any testing (from 68% to 63%), an increase in streptococcal rapid antigen detection testing (28% to 32%), and a slight increase in throat cultures (3% to 4%) (p = 0.02). There was no change in the types of antibiotics prescribed before and after the intervention (p = 0.152).

Conclusions: The ASP resulted in a slight reduction in the percentage of children who did not undergo laboratory testing for GAS-P and a slight reduction in the percentage of children who received antibiotic treatment. The ASP did not reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and macrolides.

June 2023
Genya Aharon-Hananel MD PhD, Galia Zacay MD, Noam Tau MD, Yael Levy-Shraga MD, Amit Tirosh MD, Iris Vered MD, Liana Tripto-Shkolnik MD

Background: Trabecular bone score (TBS) reflects vertebrae microarchitecture and assists in fracture risk assessment. The International Society of Clinical Densitometry postulates that the role of TBS in monitoring antiresorptive therapy is unclear. Whether changes in TBS correlate with bone resorption measured by bone turnover markers is not known.

Objectives: To determine whether longitudinal changes in TBS correlate with C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) of type I collagen.

Methods: Examinees with two bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were detected via the institutional database. Over 5.8% change in TBS was considered least significant and patients were grouped accordingly (increment, decrement, or unchanged). CTX, BMD, co-morbidities, incident fractures, and medication exposure were compared between the groups by Kruskal-Wallis. The correlation between TBS and BMD change and CTX in a continuous model was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient.

Results: In total, 110 patients had detailed medical records. In 74.5%, TBS change was below least significant change. Two other TBS categories, fracture incidence or medication exposure, did not differ by CTX. In the continuous model, BMD and TBS change was positively correlated (r = 0.225, P = 0.018). A negative correlation was observed between BMD change and CTX. The decrease in BMD level was associated with higher CTX (r = -0.335, P = 0.004). No correlation was observed between CTX and TBS.

Conclusions: No correlation between TBS dynamics and bone resorption marker was found. Clinical interpretation and implication of longitudinal TBS changes should be further explored.

January 2023
Alina Weissmann-Brenner MD, Vered Yulzari MD, Eran Kassif MD, Michal Zajicek MD

Background: Advances in examination techniques have improved routine assessment of non-gynecological structures in the pelvis.

Objectives: To describe the sonographic features of incidental urological abnormalities found during gynecological transvaginal ultrasound.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive analysis of patients who underwent gynecological ultrasound and were diagnosed with urologic findings was performed. The sonographic features of the findings including size, echogenicity, and vascularity were examined.

Results: Gynecological ultrasound diagnosed urological findings in nine women. Two had primary neoplasms of the urinary bladder, one had metastases to the urinary bladder, one had polyps in the distal ureters, four presented with calculus in the distal ureters (one of them was 19 weeks pregnant), and one showed diverticulum of the urethra. At presentation five women (56%) had urinary complaints. Two patients (22%) with abdominal pain with distal ureteral calculi had normal transabdominal ultrasound targeted to the urinary system prior to the gynecological sonography.

Conclusions: Transvaginal ultrasound is useful in the diagnosis of urological abnormalities, mainly in the urinary bladder and the distal ureters. We suggest adding transvaginal assessment for female patients with urinary complains in whom transabdominal ultrasound of urinary system was unremarkable.

Deema Arow Zahalka MD, Adi Klein MD, Vered Nir MD, Vered Schichter Konfino MD

Serum sickness is an immune-complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that classically presents with fever, rash, polyarthritis, or poly arthralgias. Damage is caused by formation or deposition of antigen-antibody complexes in vessels or tissues. Deposition of immune complexes causes complement activation and/or recruitment of neutrophils by interaction of immune complexes with Fc immunoglobulin G receptors. The condition was first recognized as an entity in the early 1900s in patients who had received heterologous antisera, which was historically used to treat infectious diseases. The symptoms typically occur one to two weeks after exposure to an offending agent and resolve within several weeks of discontinuation [1].

November 2022
Ela Giladi MD, Adi Rotkopf MD, Avishay Elis MD

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is frequently associated with clinical manifestations of autoimmune disorders (AD) and inflammatory responses of the immune system. The biological linkage between MDS clones and the occurrence of autoimmune manifestations is mirrored by the response of the latter to MDS modifying therapeutic approaches [1]. We encountered a rare case of MDS coexisting with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which was effectively treated with a hypomethylating agent followed by allogenic bone marrow transplantation.

August 2022
Anton Bermont MD, Daniel L Cohen MD, Vered Richter MD, Efrat Broide MD, and Haim Shirin MD

Background: One of the main causes of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is chronic gastrointestinal blood loss. The use of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) after negative bidirectional endoscopy in patients with IDA is controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of VCE in the management and long-term outcomes of IDA patients.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was performed on all patients with IDA undergoing VCE over a 5-year period. We compared those with positive findings on VCE to those with normal findings. All participants previously underwent a negative bidirectional endoscopy

Results: We performed 199 VCE examinations; median follow-up time was 4 years (IQR 2–5). Positive findings were identified in 66 patients (diagnostic yield 33.2%). Double balloon enteroscopy or push enteroscopy was performed in eight patients (18.6%); only one was therapeutic. The main therapy in both groups was iron supplementation. There were no significant differences in iron treatment before and after VCE in each group and between groups. Anemia improved in both groups. There was no difference in the level of hemoglobin change between the groups during each year of follow-up compared to the baseline level prior to VCE. Anemia resolved in 15 patients (35%) in the positive VCE group and in 19 (45%) in the negative VCE group (P = 0.33).

Conclusions: Positive findings on VCE led to subsequent endoscopic interventions only in a small percentage of patients with IDA. Anemia improved and resolved equally whether or not there were VCE findings. The main intervention that appears to help IDA is iron supplementation.

May 2022
Herman Avner Cohen MD, Maya Gerstein MD, Vered Shkalim Zemer MD, Sophia Heiman MD, Yael Richenberg MD, Eyal Jacobson MD, and Oren Berkowitz PhD PA-C

Background: On 18 March 2020, the Israeli Health Ministry issued lockdown orders to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Objectives: To assess the association of lockdown orders on telemedicine practice and the effect of social distancing on infectious diseases in a primary care community pediatric clinic as well as the rate of referrals to emergency departments (ED) and trends of hospitalization.

Methods: Investigators performed a retrospective secondary data analysis that screened for visits in a large pediatric center from 1 January to 31 May 2020. Total visits were compared from January to December 2020 during the same period in 2019. Visits were coded during the first lockdown as being via telemedicine or in-person, and whether they resulted in ED referral or hospitalization. Month-to-month comparisons were performed as well as percent change from the previous year.

Results: There was a sharp decline of in-person visits (24%) and an increase in telemedicine consultations (76%) during the first lockdown (p < 0.001). When the lockdown restrictions were eased, there was a rebound of 50% in-person visits (p < 0.05). There was a profound decrease of visits for common infectious diseases during the lockdown period. Substantial decreases were noted for overall visits, ED referrals, and hospitalizations in 2020 compared to 2019.

Conclusions: COVID-19 had a major impact on primary care clinics, resulting in fewer patient-doctor encounters, fewer overall visits, fewer ED referrals, and fewer hospitalizations

February 2022
Yoav Bichovsky MD, Amit Frenkel MD MHA, Evgeni Brotfain MD, Leonid Koyfman MD, Limor Besser MD, Natan Arotsker MD, Abraham Borer MD, and Moti Klein MD
August 2021
Omer Or MD, Tamar Fisher Negev PharmD, Vered Hadad MD, Ran Shabtai MD, Alona Katzir MD, Yoram Weil MD, and Meir Liebergall MD

Background: Osteoporosis is a common medical condition in older ages. A devastating result of osteoporosis may be a hip fracture with up to 30% mortality rate in one year. The compliance rate of osteoporotic medication following a hip fracture is 20% in the western world.

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the fracture liaison service (FLS) model in the orthopedic department on patient compliance following hip fracture

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with hip fracture who were involved with FLS. We collected data regarding kidney function, calcium levels, parathyroid hormone levels, and vitamin D levels at admission. We educated the patient and family, started vitamin D and calcium supplementation and recommended osteoporotic medical treatment. We phoned the patient 6–12 weeks following the fracture to ensure treatment initiation.

Results: From June 2018 to June 2019 we identified 166 patients with hip fracture who completed at least one year of follow-up. Over 75% of the patients had low vitamin D levels and 22% had low calcium levels at admission. Nine patients (5%) died at median of 109 days. Following our intervention, 161 patients (96%) were discharged with a specific osteoporotic treatment recommendation; 121 (73%) received medication for osteoporosis on average of < 3 months after surgery. We recommended on injectable medications; however, 51 (42%) were treated with oral biphsophonate.

Conclusions: FLS improved the compliance rate of osteoporotic medical treatment and should be a clinical routine in every medical center

January 2020
Gilad Yahalom MD, Ziv Yekutieli PhD, Simon Israeli-Korn MD PhD, Sandra Elincx-Benizri MD, Vered Livneh MD, Tsviya Fay-Karmon MD, Keren Tchelet BSc, Yarin Rubel BSc and Sharon Hassin-Baer MD

Background: There is a need for standardized and objective methods to measure postural instability (PI) and gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Recent technological advances in wearable devices, including standard smartphones, may provide such measurements.

Objectives: To test the feasibility of smartphones to detect PI during the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test.

Methods: Ambulatory PD patients, divided by item 30 (postural stability) of the motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) to those with a normal (score = 0, PD-NPT) and an abnormal (score ≥ 1, PD-APT) test and a group of healthy controls (HC) performed a 10-meter TUG while motion sensor data was recorded from a smartphone attached to their sternum using the EncephaLog application.

Results: In this observational study, 44 PD patients (21 PD-NPT and 23 PD-APT) and 22 HC similar in age and gender distribution were assessed. PD-APT differed significantly in all gait parameters when compared to PD-NPT and HC. Significant difference between PD-NPT and HC included only turning time (P < 0.006) and step-to-step correlation (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: While high correlations were found between EncephaLog gait parameters and axial UPDRS items, the pull test was least correlated with EncephaLog measures. Motion sensor data from a smartphone can detect differences in gait and balance measures between PD with and without PI and HC.

 

February 2019
Assaf Hoofien MD, Yael Mozer MD, Anat Guz-Mark MD, Vered Hoffer MD, Daniel Landau MD and Raanan Shamir MD
Legal Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is provided for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as legal or medical advice on any matter.
The IMA is not responsible for and expressly disclaims liability for damages of any kind arising from the use of or reliance on information contained within the site.
© All rights to information on this site are reserved and are the property of the Israeli Medical Association. Privacy policy

2 Twin Towers, 35 Jabotinsky, POB 4292, Ramat Gan 5251108 Israel